Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide ADPR3850
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This 45 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kacie Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ADPR3850 at University of Georgia taught by Cacciatore in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Relations in Public Relations at University of Georgia.
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Public Relations - August 16 The Heineken Payphone ad~ is it an ad? ▯ Commercials are ads ▯ ▯ Defining Public Relations “Strategic management of competition and conflict…for the mutual benefit of the organization and its various stakeholders and publics” “The management function that identifies, establishes, and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between organization and various publics on whom its success or failure depends” “The management of communication between an organization and its publics” Who are the publics? Internal and external o Based on organizational boundaries Primary, secondary, and marginal o Based on influence/ need Traditional and future o Based on time Proponents, opponents, and uncommitted o Based on relationship o Proponents- support you ▯ ▯ Deliberate and Planned PR is data informed Based on empirical evidence Performance Improve an organization’s standing Relationships with employees ▯ Public interest ▯ Two-way communication Expectation that you have a dialogue with people Components of PR Research, media relations, publicity, financial relations, community relations, etc. ▯ A PR professional must have skills in: Written and interpersonal communication Research Negotiation Creativity Logistics/management skills Facilitation Problem solving ▯ PR Process- August 18 ▯ Public Relations as a process: R.A.C.E Research defining PR problems Action program planning Communication execution Evaluation evaluating the program ▯ ▯ Research- define the problem Some form of qualitative or quantitative research is often conducted to define the problem, analyze the data o EX: a survey of company morale o survey of consumers, o analysis of sales data Sometimes conduct a situation analysis to summarize the problem and broader situation Situation Analysis o Client background—know your customers o Product/ Service/ Brand info o Market/ Competition o Consumer Profile- who is buying your product, how long have they been buying, understand their thinking o Brand and Marketing Analysis-- o SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) Analysis- where is there room for improvement o Strategic implications and recommendations—what can we do moving forward ▯ ▯ Action- state the program objectives Differentiate between goals (long term) and objectives (specific outcomes) Objectives may be informational, attitudinal/motivational, and/or behavioral Brainstorm for campaign—what should we do? o Brainstorming from research stage Communication- develop campaign to meet objectives Base the campaign on pre-existing research Base the campaign on theory Base the campaign on the research you conducted earlier in the process Evaluation Should be done continuously Did the campaign work? Clients want to see numbers, how things have changed Alternative depictions of the process Formative (before) research and analysis Use research to establish objectives/strategies Develop campaign Execute Evaluative (after) research Use research to adjust future campaigns ▯ ▯ Differences between PR and Journalism Scope o Journalism is about producing content Ex: news articles, magazine features, TV segments o PR has a much broader scope May organize a specific event one day and write press release the next, they have various jobs instead of focusing on one Objectives o Journalism strives for objectivity in reporting Point/counter point news writing, giving equal time to both sides of debate o PR has a goal of advocacy Designed to change how you think about something, wants to persuade you Audiences and Channels o Journalism produce content for the medium for which they work, but must also write for mass audiences Write at the level every one can read o PR specialists will tailor their materials much more to different segments of the public and will often do so through a variety of channels Work across different spaces Brand Journalism- produced by the brand ▯ ▯ Differences between PR and Advertising Tools o Advertisers use paid placements as their primary tool for work EX: print media ads, commercials o PR works in the area of “earned” or “owned” media o Professionals might submit news info to journalists for consideration (ex: organizing an event) but also rely heavily on the events themselves to build relationships with publics and different organizations Audience o Advertisers are connected only with an external audience o PR professionals are concerned with both internal and external audiences They might target external groups like shareholders, vendors, or opinion leaders, including environmental groups Or they might focus efforts on employees within the organization Scope/ Function o Advertising is much smaller and is viewed as a specialized communication function (market the product) o PR is broader in scope dealing with the performance of the organization as a whole Deal with how consumers view their organization and how employees within the organization feel, how customer service is operating Cost o Advertising- expensive o Effective PR is often viewed as a cost effective alternative Product publicity is news coverage of a product or service Why might this be more effective than advertising to promote a product or service? Marketing defined 1. the act or process of selling or purchasing in a market; process of promoting, selling, and distributing a product or service ▯ Differences between PR and Marketing Audience Focus o Marketing is consumer focused, w a goal of selling products or services through packaging and promotions o PR is focused on many different publics, and while sales are important and supported by PR, they are not its sole purpose Concerned with relationships and trust with publics Concerned w an org’s values Language o Marketing utilizes sales oriented language The speak “target markets” o PR is less concerned with the “hard sell” and is more conversational in tone Interested in two way communication Objective o Method of marketing is to satisfy economic objectives o PR might be doing its job if it raises awareness, educates, or informs the public, and/or builds trust in the organization PR’s currency is not necessarily economic but could be awareness or trust ▯ ▯ How to meet your objectives Public Relations is more effective than marketing or advertising at o Premarket conditioning o Long term strategy development o Generating work of mouth o Building a brand’s reputation o Building corporate reputation o Overcoming a crisis Marketing is more effective than PR or advertising when it comes to o Launching a new product o Promoting a new product o Acquiring customers o Retaining customers o Targeting niche audiences Advertising is more effective than PR or marketing at o Building awareness for a specific product or service ▯ Strategic communication: Concept of integration o To use a variety of strategies and tactics to convey a consistent message in a variety of forms ▯ ▯ Why the shift to integrated/ strategic communication? Downsizing leads to consolidation o Fewer employees expected to do same amount of work Tighter budgets o Advertising can be costly so alternative means of building publicity being turned to Lets not just do advertising, lets find ways to do other things Advertising clutter and credibility o Maybe not the cure all it was believed to be Increasing attention to how social policy can influence the marketing of products invites PR participation o What groups should the organization give to, if any? How PR contributes to the bottom line Building awareness- increase sales and stock prices through publicity, promotion, and targeted communications to segmented audiences Organizational motivation- increase company morale through internal relations and communication Issue scanning- understanding public opinion early in the process through systematic and comprehensive research Opportunity identification- discover new markets and opportunities by maintain dialogues with a variety of audiences Crisis management – protect your position and rep by having a concrete plan for handling crisis o Ex: Ryan Lochte fabricating the robbery Counseling executives- help make informed decisions by counseling those in charge Serving as an agent of change- outline benefits and plans for change through dialogue with a variety of audiences Powell Moore Guest Speaker- August 23 UGA and Grady graduate ▯ Nixon, Ford, Reagan, W Bush ▯ Department of Defense ▯ ▯ Senate office ▯ Office in white house ▯ Office across from assistant general of the army ▯ Office in pentagon ▯ Worked on republican conventions ▯ Two oversees assignments ▯ Served in army in Germany ▯ Bush administration ▯ Representative of secretary of defense ▯ ▯ Trying to influence public policy in DC ▯ Lobbying ▯ Went to Ft. Benning ▯ ▯ While you were in college, what were the most beneficial things you did for your career? “Business manager for red and black” ▯ ▯ What would you consider your greatest achievements? “Working for Richard Russell” Berlin wall went up while in Germany In Pentagon while plane flew into it ▯ Reagan “Wrote a radio strip everyday, makes you think how you want to face the issues of that day” ▯ Experiences with different cultures doing your job Russian federation has drug problem fueled out of Afghanistan, thought it was bad if we thought it was good, they don’t understand win win scenarios ▯ How has PR changed over the years? “Technology” The Growth of a profession- August 25 ▯ (3) A BRIEF HISTORY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS: ANCIENT BEGINNINGS PR has always been around People have always been trying to stand out from the masses and distinguish themselves using PR The Rosetta Stone (196 BC) o Amounts to a press release of pharaoh o List of achievements written in 4 languages so that it reaches 4 different corners of the globes Designed to reach the widest possible audience o Earliest tangible example of public relations you can actually hold in your hand o (Ptolemy V) accomplishments Julius Caesar (~60 BC) o Understood you need the public on your side to fulfill goals o Threw parades as part of a campaign to fulfill political ambitions To celebrate Good sentiment towards the party thrower Instilled feelings of pride within citizens The Church (~11th Century) o Enlisting followers in the name of penance or forgiveness Very powerful tactic on getting people to follow you ▯ ▯ ▯ (4) A BRIEF HISTORY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS: COLONIAL AMERICA (16th – 18 th CENTURIES) Public relations as a means to promote settlement People arrived from overseas in the US o Used PR to get more people to come Claimed it was fertile, thriving life etc. Promotion of the new world Struggle for independence revolutionary war e.g., Boston Tea Party (“the greatest and best-known publicity stunt of all time”) o Propaganda used to galvanize support for the Revolutionary movement ▯ ▯ ▯ (5-6) SAM ADAMS: PR SPECIALIST Recognized power of the pen o And the power of PR Used writing as a means of communicating about the importance of independence, and unity, and about the injustice of the colonies o Reached a wider audience than oral stories o Control your message because oral stories change Get people tied in with the emotional side Recognized the power of special events and symbols He was behind the Boston Tea Party and understood the emotions such an event might arouse Used slogans o easy to remember o “No taxation without representation” Used press releases and news leaks o Wrote an account of the Boston Tea Party before the event had even occurred Important because he describes it as the greatest revolt, greatest display etc. Controlled the narrative Was “first to the scene” Even more important during the age of the limited press because it took so long to get information out o Paul Revere delivered the account to newspapers as soon as the event occurred o Got news of battles through press leaks ▯ ▯ (7) SAM ADAMS’ OBJECTIVES ▯ 1. Justify the cause ▯ 2. Promote advantages ▯ 3. Arouse the masses ▯ 4. Neutralize opponents Attack people through the press If someone says something about you be the first to attack ▯ 5. Phrase issues clearly Important then, important now ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ (8-9) A BRIEF HISTORY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS: THE AGE OF THE PRESS AGENT (1800s) Entertainment then was traveling shows, freak shows, people shooting, strong man competition The age of hype: o Davy Crockett o Buffalo Bill o Annie Oakley Press agent tactics The master of the pseudoevent: P. T. Barnum o Understood the key aspect of successful traveling circus successful PR o Was incredible at what he did Used ticket giveaways and opinion leaders to ensure event success Basically burned the1st night, gave away tickets to ensure it was packed Brought in journalists, invited wealthiest families After, ticket sales poured in o Joice Heth Slave Looked incredibly old, so they built a narrative that she was the nanny to George Washington Created political narrative o Tom Thumb Little person Made people pay to see him o Jenny Lind Exotic singer o “Jumbo” circus elephants coined the term jumbo made his elephants seem bigger and better than everyone else’s ▯ ▯ ▯ (10) A BRIEF HISTORY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS: PR GROWS AS AMERICA GROWS Public relations was pivotal in the early growth of America Settling the American West o Railroad companies had to not only build railroads, but also sell the need to use the railroad o Railroad promotion techniques: Free tickets to journalists Encouraged good press on the west Published brochures about fertility of land, etc. ▯ ▯ A BRIEF HISTORY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS: THE RISE OF POLITICS Political beginnings John Beckley & Thomas Jefferson Amos Kendall & Andrew Jackson Teddy Roosevelt etc. ▯ ▯ (11) ALL THE PRESIDENT’S MEN: Thomas Jefferson & John Beckley Beckley: Jefferson’s “eyes and ears” for public opinion o Listened to the problems of the people then built messages appropriately based on what people were worried about Jefferson o Jefferson rarely wrote himself, but urged others, including John Beckley to publicly counter the federalists in the press o Urged 3 party endorsement ** o Understood “pen is mightier than the sword” o Attack the people who want to take us down Use the press to counter the claims of the federalists Jefferson urged Madison to attack the ideas of Alexander Hamilton, writing: “for god's sake, my dear sir, take up your pen, select the most striking heresies, and cut him to pieces [sic] in the face of the public.” ▯ ▯ (13) THOMAS JEFFERSON IN POLITICAL CARTOONS “The Philosopher Cock” historical cartoon of Jefferson and his mistress slave: sally hemming Jefferson is a rooster because it is not an animal that mates for life o Promiscuity o Matters to the public a great deal Roosters and hens were symbols of revolutionary France at the time o Negative image ▯ ▯ ▯ (14) AMOS KENDALL: PRESIDENT JACKSON’S “THINKING MACHINE” Jackson o Kitchen cabinet was his inner circle discussed political plans discussed public opinion Image of Jackson o Rugged, people’s man part of his PR o Also had to be presidential Kendall o A member of Andrew Jackson’s “kitchen cabinet” o Jackson was portrayed as a rugged frontiersman who worked for the people He spoke ruggedly as well, so he dictated his ideas to Kendall, who made them more palatable o Kendall was “the President’s thinking machine, and his writing machine – ay, and his lying machine....He was chief overseer, chief reporter [...] scribe, accountant general, man of all work – nothing was well done without the aid of his diabolical genius.” ▯ ▯ ▯ (15-16) TEDDY ROOSEVELT Teddy Roosevelt o Very in tune with public relations o Knew relationship with the press needed to be open and positive Press can be your biggest ally because they have control of what info is out there o Changed government through PR o Often used informal chats with reporters to anonymously get his ideas into the press o Understood timing Always issues press releases on Sunday in order to capture Monday morning headlines o Understanding the importance of press and positive relationships with the press, he created first White House press office**** test question Bear Story: o As president, image is important want to be intelligent but also one with the people o Plan a hunting trip for PR, to show his rugged side, want to show his rugged side by him killing a bear o Days pass and he hasn’t killed one, so people on his team find an old bear and tie him to a tree to be killed o Teddy chooses to have the bear killed by someone else to avoid bad press Someone releases a press about him being too weak to shoot the bear, but an ally in the press releases a different narrative about his humane side This is the story that takes off Becomes positive press teddy bear 2 main points o understood relation with the press o saves him later on ▯ ▯ ▯ (17-19) WOODROW WILSON & GEORGE CREEL Woodrow Wilson o established the “Committee on Public Information” in 1917, on which George Creel served Committee was charged with changing anti-war attitudes as U.S. was entering WW1 Committee quickly became known as the “Creel Committee” Went through massive effort to do so Powerful attempt (don’t need to know numbers) ▯ The Creel Committee: o mailed out 6000 news releases o generated 20,000 columns of newsprint each week o published an official daily with a circulation of 118,000 o sponsored 75,000 speakers in small towns of America o established a foreign language division that monitored foreign language newspapers and translated foreign documents o developed exhibits, films, and posters that traveled the country Creel and his committee regulated the press to control war coverage o He asked that newspapers seek approval before printing news that he categorized as “dangerous” o e.g., information about military maneuvers, threats to the president, questionable news that involved technical inventions and rumors, etc. Wilson also hired Creel to sell war bonds, enlist soldiers, and to raise millions of dollars for welfare through the Red Cross, resulting in fundraising becoming a successful element of public relations o After the war, an optimistic belief in the power of mass communication emerged ▯ Changed the way people viewed media o Before: people believed you were powerless against the media, that you blindly followed it and that’s all you could do o After: change to being able to make your own opinion about media stories ▯ ▯ (21) FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT & LOUIS M. HOWE FDR o Used radio speeches to convey warmth, personality and nonpartisanship o Introduced and continued “fireside chats” on advice of pollsters Direct communication from president to masses Louis M. Howe, his PR advisor o Controlled FDR’s image ▯ ▯ (22) FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT & CARL BYOIR Byoir o Important figure in the campaign to fight infantile paralysis put forth by Roosevelt o Byoir designed fundraising events to make news (FDR Birthday Ball) and raise money Byoir personally called every newspaper publisher in the U.S. and asked him to nominate a local FDR Birthday Ball chairman (a tactic United Way has continued) “Dance so that a child may walk” became the slogan Major American families all attended (Vanderbilts, etc.) and event raised $1 million dollars Knew top social being shown would create a desire for everyone to show at his parties ▯ ▯ ▯ (23) HARRY TRUMAN & ARTHUR PAGE ▯ Arthur Page VP of Marketing at AT&T wrote President Truman's announcement to the world of the dropping of the atomic bomb on Japan he was a marketing person o interesting because it wasn’t a journalist, it was someone more tied to public sentiment The announcement was originally tasked to William Laurence of the NY Times, but he struggled at properly capturing a Presidential voice o Turned down story ▯ Harry Truman and Arthur Page – August 30 Arthur Page principles of PR Management ▯ ▯ Tell The Truth Be forthright with info by letting the public know what’s happening Provide an accurate picture of the company’s character, ideals, and practices Page wanted to change how people viewed Public Relations ▯ Prove it with action Public perception is determined more so by what a person or organization does and less so by what they say Back up what you’re saying We cant clean up your mess ▯ Listen to the customer Must stay on top of what public wants and needs Always keep top decision makers (and employees) informed about public reaction to company, products, policies, practices Public and customers are the most valuable resource You need to know how the public thinks ▯ Manage for tomorrow Anticipate public reaction and eliminate practices that create difficulty Generate goodwill Think long-term ▯ Conduct PR as if the whole company depends on it Corporate relations is a management function not just communication No corporate strategy should be implemented without first considering public impact ▯ Realize a company’s true character is expressed by its people Every employee—active or retired—is involved with public relations People don’t differentiate when they are at work vs. what they do during their free time ▯ Remain calm, patient, and good humored Lay the groundwork for PR miracles with consistent and reasoned attention to info and contracts Cool heads communicate best during a crisis situation ▯ ▯ Jim Haggerty served as Press Secretary for the Eisenhower’s entire presidency First group to lavage political TV ads Instrumental in Eisenhower’s television ads (1 televised political ads) that depicted Eisenhower in a Q & A session with normal citizens o His responses were actually taped separately, as were the citizen’s questions Eisenhower won over Stevenson, partly because he had approx. $5 million to Stevenson’s 100K to spend on advertising and public relations activities ▯ Muckrakers Ida Tarbell Lincoln Steffens Upton Sinclair ▯ Activists Abolitionists Women’s right act The Age of Muckraking Journalists Muckrakers- named by Teddy Roosevelt after the character in the novel “Pilgrim’s Progress” This type of journalism became popular as it: o Generated public response o Created follow up work as subjects of investigation often responded to the journalist claims Ida Tarbell (The History of the Standard Oil Company) o This piece kicked off the era of muckraking journalism and using the press to expose wrongdoings o Revealed the unfair business practices of John D Rockefeller to squeeze out competitors o Articles put Rockefeller on the defensive and he called in the help of Ivy Lee Lincoln Steffens wrote “The Shame of the Cities” (documented corrupt government practices in US cities Ray Stannard Baker wrote about labor problems, including child labor and the economic status of African Americans Upton Sinclair wrote “The Jungle”- conveyed plight of immigrants in Chicago ▯ ▯ Activism ▯ Abolitionists used: Public lectures and heavy reliance on moral arguments Political lobbying- talking and trying to influence politicians Fundraising activities to fun newspapers and other anti-slave publications Publication of slave narratives to build moral arguments against slavery ▯ Women’s suffrage Used traditional lobbying tactics like petitions and organized face to face meetings where they targeted their messages to politicians Held parades and public speaking events that challenged notions of how women should behave in public Picketed the White House and garnered media attention through arrests ▯ Prohibition Less critical Political and religious groups used lobbying and messaging tactics to bring about prohibition in 1920 Prohibitionists appealed to nativists ideas about America, arguing saloons were immigrants corrupted politics Activism in the 21 Century Where do you see public relations in politics and activism today? Social media Celebrities becoming apart of political parties Black Lives Matter History of PR: Modern PR comes of age Henry Ford o Positioning: publicity always goes to those who do something first o Accessibility: organizations must always be accessible to the press; no subject was off limits with ford First PR Counselor- Ivy Lee o From GA o Founded Parker and Lee o “Declaration of Modern Principles” birth of modern PR largely responsible for the popularity of the press releases o Contributions: 1. Promoting the idea that business and industry should align with public interests 2. Ensuring the support of top management 3. Maintaining open communication with journalists 4. Humanizing business and making it relevant to workers, community, and consumers social media ▯ The Father of Modern Public Relations ▯ Edward L Bernay’s A Broadway press agent before WWI Joined Creel Commission Opened agency with wife in 1919 Nephew of Sigmund Freud and great believer in use of psychology in forming public opinion Waldorf Astoria Hotel- used news leak of a contract to dispel rumors that the hotel was in financial trouble ▯ The First In-House Public Relations: Westinghouse ▯ The First Public Relations Firm: The Publicity Bureau Established by George Michaelis First client: Harvard Work for nation’s railroads to oppose government regulation PR Expands in Post-War America Rapid growth in all areas of public relations Growth followed the development of mass media Growth was aided by evolving research methodologies and techniques Four models of Public Relations Press agentry/publicity o One way communication o Through mass media o Oftentimes exaggerated and distorted information o Not research based o P.T. Barnum then o Sports, theater, music, and film today Public information o One way communication o Through mass media o Not necessarily advocacy based, but part of journalistic ideal of accuracy o Some fact finding research o Ivy Lee then o Government and non profits now Two Way Symmetric o Two way communication through scientific persuasion o Help the communicator better understand the audience for persuasive purposes o Research used to plan strategies and evaluate o Bernay’s then o Marketing and advertising firms today Two way Symmetric o Two way communication for mutual understanding o Formative research used to understand public perceptions of the organizations o Evaluate research to understand PR tactics o Bernay’s then o Educators today ▯ Opportunities in PR- September 1 ▯ Careers in PR Growing Almost $10 billion spent in US PR offers 184% return on investment Many CEOs now want communication that is strategic, research based, and two way- research based, dialogue ▯ PR Contributions can be constrained Organizational factors determine the role of public relations o Large firms more likely to include PR in decision making o Small firms more likely to view PR as fulfilling only a technician role Management determines if PR is to provide a decision making function What function will PR serve? 64% of all corporate senior level practitioners report to either the Chief executive officer, chief operating officer, or chief information officer view themselves as well received by the C-Suite and welcome to voice opinions ▯ PR is a staff function Staff function little direct authority, must influence through recommendations and advice, need to give empirical evidence Line Manager delegates, sets goals, hires, influences others’ work, has the authority Levels of Influence PR influence is linked to their access to top management 1. Advisory role: Management has no obligation to request or act on recommendations 2. Compulsory advisory role: Management is required to listen to public relations’ perspective before acting, don’t have to agree with it but must listen to you 3. Concurring authority role: PR and others must agree on an action ▯ ▯ Sources of Friction Human Resources disagreements over who should control employee communications Advertising competition for resources and philosophical differences o Will it increase sales? vs. Will it strengthen relationships? Marketing Focusing on only one public: current or prospective customers vs. many publics (focuses on consumers) Legal differences on public statements PR by the numbers CNN.com o One of the top 50 professions for job opportunity and salary potential o Most PR people work in PR/Advertising/Marketing/ Communication firms Six Essential Qualities For Success Writing Skills o Ability to frame and convey info and ideas o The ability to do so in small amounts of text o MOST IMPORTANT Research Skills o Ability to back arguments with facts Planning Expertise o Being organized enough to understand the big picture o Fitting a campaign within a realistic budget o Ability to look beyond short term Problem solving ability o Important when different departments become integrated o Managing personalities, getting advertising people on the same page as the PR people Business/ economics competence o Focus on the managerial side of business and economics o Understanding basic business ideas- how they look at sales, time management, budgeting Expertise in social media o Constantly evolving, keep on top of developments in social media Ten qualities that employers want in their Public Relations practitioner Good Writing Intelligence Cultural literacy—understanding of different cultures and diversity in the workplace Ability to recognize a good story when you see it Media savvy Contacts Good business sense Broad communications expertise Specialized experience Fresh perspective Public Relations Positions Entry level technician Supervisor Manager Director Executive ▯ Organizational PR Positions Communication technician roles o Taking photos, writing brochures, preparing news releases, organizing events Supervisor roles o Oversee technicians, oversee specific projects, prepare and work with budgets, scheduling, manage day to day activities Communication manager roles o Making communication policy decisions, overseeing multiple communication strategies, supervising employees responsible for tactics Director roles o Looks at long range planning based on trends in research o Serves as a liaison between executives and other workers Executive roles o Shape organization mission, strategy, and policy Entry level salaries in PR Average median yearly salaries is slightly higher in PR ($33K) Value of Internships Win win situation for student and organization Edelman Worldwide, Weber Shandwick, Ketchum Trends and Outsourcing- September 6 ▯ Trends in Today’s Practice of Public Relations Feminization of the field Importance of diversity Transparency An expanded role for PR Increased emphasis on evaluation Investments in corporate social responsibility New directions in mass media The importance of lifelong learning Outsourcing to public relations firms ▯ Feminization of the field 70% of PR practitioners are women Why are women drawn to the field? More welcoming environment o Gives the perception it’s a more welcoming environment More money than corporate jobs Can be your own boss Perceived to be more facilitative communicators o Females more open to two way communication Yet, women earn less money than men o Number of years in the field o Size of organization- women tend to work at smaller firms, which pay less o Women’s attempts to balance work and family The Importance of Diversity Hispanics are the fastest growing group- 36% of US population Minority practitioners lag behind population trends Idea that audience is changing, so practitioners should change also Scholarship funds to encourage minority participation in PR Transparency Public demanding transparency in light of recent scandals Organizations need to be open and honest with what they are doing Driven by past scandals Started a push that you must share your company with the public ▯ ▯ An expanded role for PR Movement beyond publicity and media relations Be more than communication and publicity Attempts to get seat at decision making table Increased emphasis on evaluation Research techniques and technological developments mean more accurate understanding of impacts on bottom line When you move into an era of big data, which we are in, we are given data at a rate we can’t process Info is all around you Harness the power of data, put a focus on the numbers and develop statistical tests to show the manager of the company your reasons why Investments in corporate social responsibility (CSR) Goes back to transparency Supporting companies that share your values New directions in mass media A 24/7 news cycle Adapting to changing media environment and lack of one true source for info Preparation of materials for these new media sources We’ve gone to a very niche media outlet system watch politics 24/7 and even channels that cater to your interests Media is fragmented easier and harder to stay informed because we get different info from different channels The importance of lifelong learning Both easier and more difficult to stay current Increase need for specialization So easy to stay informed But its almost impossible there’s so many channels you can’t pay attention to all of them o Example: people may pay attention to the election, but not know anything about politics Outsourcing to public relations firms Specific aspects of PR being outsourced Even at organizations that have in house PR The Trend toward outsourcing Almost 90% of Fortune 500 companies use outside PR counsel in varying degrees o The need for additional “arms and legs” Doesn’t make sense to over hire full time, so if you outsource you just use extra people when you need them o To obtain a unique perspective and market insight What’s outsourced? Writing and communications Media relations Publicity Strategy and planning Event planning Specific tactics Photography Anything if another place does it better The pros and cons of outsourcing to public relation firms Advantages Objectivity- different aspects on things o Bringing in someone who doesn’t have to worry about offending the other people on the team Skills and expertise- specialists a company will not have o Ex: food and health safety go to Edelman Extensive resources- media contacts, data, etc. Offices throughout the country/world- global perspective Problem solving skills- expertise in crisis or CSR Credibility- makes others pay attention to your organization Disadvantages Superficial knowledge- the PR firm doesn’t make widgets o Only surface level knowledge of what you’re good at or why you do it well Part time commitment- you are not their only client o Can’t assure top effort Need for long briefing- moving beyond a superficial knowledge takes time o Must bring them up to speed and you are also billed for this time Internet resentment- who are these people Need for confidence- must trust the firm and provide access to information o Must be trusted High costs How PR gets paid Determine the type of work: Project work- defined task with clear beginning and end Retainer work- long term relationship that will cover numerous projects o Keep on retainer lawyer retainer means they’ll answer your calls for a certain number of hours each month that they are already paid for Then, determine the specific pricing model Pricing Models Time and Materials- usually used for project work where client pays for hours spent on projects and the materials used o Requires close tracking of hours o You must do this if you’re billing based on time and materials, a client wont accept just a number Flat fee- Used for both project and retainer work where fee is charged for the scope of work based on expected hours and resources o Clients love this, but is often a risk for the agency and usually reserved for clients you have worked with before You would trust them and know they wouldn’t demand things on an impossible budget Agile fee- used for project work where client purchases a block of time from a block of talent o While it guarantees a profit margin for the firm, the talents sometimes feels outsourced and may lead to negotiated extensions Pay for placement- client pays for each story the firm places in media o Least used billing method o Subject to whims of editors o Reduces PR to publicity function o Formula based on how many articles were sent over how many news outlets o Uncommon because its based on an editor running or not Ethics and Values- September 8 ▯ Values include honesty, loyalty, integrity We apply values to determine the ethics (what is right vs. wrong) of a given situation ▯ Approaches to ethics Absolutism- things are completely right or completely wrong E.g. you cannot exaggerate the qualities of a product if your client asked you to Existentialism- there is a continuum of “rightness” and “wrongness” i.e. framing- how you present information with goal in mind Utilitarianism- the ends justify the means Goal: Harm the fewest number of people, bring joy to the most ▯ ▯ Can one be an ethical advocate? Point: “Traditional ethics prohibits a person from taking an advocacy role because that person is biased and trying to manipulate people” o Biased thinking and you can not be an ethical advocate Counterpoint: People expect PR practitioners to be advocates o As long as efforts are truthful, there is not problem Ethics and Pro Organizations Pro orgs strive to educate and preserve the name of PR Provide guiding standards for the industry The Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) largest PR organization ▯ Problem with code of conduct is honesty and integrity are different for everyone No way to enforce, no sanctions ▯ ▯ Codes for specific situations Internet Transparency- o Concerned with disclosure of sources for internet content o Don’t know what’s true or not o Unpolicied o No money exchanges o Issues with copyright laws Video News Release o Attempts to capitalize on 3 party credibility to sell a product or service o Older demographics believe what they see on news, television, internet o Designed to fool people o If its on the news, you trust it Financial info o Response to recent corporate scandals o Must exercise independent professional judgment- you make the decisions not your boss, how you communicate o Keep track of financial laws and regulations- o Ensure full and fair disclosures What’s more important? Problematic Corporate Practice Codes o Accurate and truth in communicating o Confidentiality rules safeguarding clients o Gift giving- bribery o Abuse of insider info- upcoming mergers Professionalism Pro practitioners should have: o Sense of independence o Sense of responsibility to society and public interests o Concern for the competence and honor of the profession o Higher loyalty to profession than to an employer Ethical issues can arise ▯ Licensing- not part of PR Advocates o Defines PR, unifies curricula (same at UGA as Bama), unifies standards (must past exam or you cannot do it) , protects clients, protects practitioners, raises practitioners credibility Opponents o Violates 1 amendment (we all get free speech), malpractice laws already exist, states license but PR works nationally (you cant confine it just to a state), ensures minimum ethics/competence, increased credibility not ensured, expensive (who pays for the testing/grading) ▯ Accreditation- voluntary process of certification by professional organizations Mix between the two above Present portfolio of work Demonstrate knowledge through exam Ethics Stringent standards for behavior – we know what the la Purpose to transform society into ideal- if everyone behaves ethically then society should function smoothly Not always enforced Prescriptive- based on “oughts” suggestions for being an ethical person Laws Minimum standards for behavior Purpose is to maintain stable society- designed to keep chaos in order o Resolve disputes o Protect property o Preserve government Always enforceable Prohibitory or mandatory- based on “musts”- if you don’t follow, you’ll go to jail Friction between Law and PR Legal Responses Say nothing- my client has nothing to say Cite legal sensitivity Deny guilt Shift or share blame ▯ PR Responses Be candid State company policy Announce investigation- more talkative Admit problem and implement remedy Defamation- false statements about a person or organization that have negative impacts on public perception In order for defamation o A false statement was communicated to others o The person was identified o Three is injury in terms of financial loss, reputation damage, mental suffering- if no injury what is the point o Person making statement was malicious or negligent- person who said it, attempting to hurt business Public figures lose a huge amount of their protection from libel and slander Fair comment defense protects people like critics from defamation suits o When you become a celebrity or public figure, you lose this Copyrights and Patents Copyright Infringement- unauthorized use of works protected by copyright One cannot copyright an idea, but can copyright the expression of that idea Example of Obama- profiting off an image someone else took But “Fair Use” exceptions when… Quoting small amounts of text from copyrighted texts mean you can use it Quoting info in a news story- allowed Parody and artwork- paradise are legal o Dumb Starbucks – Education and Teaching purposes Regulating PR and Communications Federal Trade Commission- ensure ads are not deceptive monitors news releases, brochures, social media posts Different regulatory bodies that look at this- impossible to regulate it all- problematic o Companies push the limits ▯ Securities and Exchange Commission- monitors financial affairs of publicly traded companies Focuses on insider trading, releasing misleading financial info Most relevant for those in Investor Relations ▯ Federal Communications Commission- ensure public airways are used for public interest Concerns about source attribution for VNRs are purview of FCC Involved in regulating the internet, issues of net neutrality- police video news releases Legal side of things Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Communication on health topics o Provide benefit and risk info for drug treatments o Disclose limitations of treatment o Provide full prescribing info Full disclosure of information