Study Guide for 1st Midterm
Study Guide for 1st Midterm Hist 2300
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Henley Davis on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 2300 at Texas Tech University taught by Dr. Daniel Mcdaniel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see History of the United States in History at Texas Tech University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Study guide for the first midterm exam HIST2300 Fall 2016 Basic essay guidelines and advice [Bring a Blue Book to the exam]: On the midterm exam, you will be presented with three or four of the following essay topics. You will select two of them for your essays. You need to read each of the questions carefully so that you know exactly what should be explained. I expect you to write a coherent essay on each reflecting your knowledge of the assigned readings and your analytical thought. Tell me everything you know about it in a well-written essay. Include as many pertinent facts or details from the readings or class discussions as you can. Include your own interpretation of the issues involved. You may present your informed opinion about the relatively likelihood of various causes and effects as applicable. Please note that when I say “informed opinion,” I am saying an educated opinion based on the readings and material presented in class, not a “gut feeling” or “gut reaction” to the topic. Since I know you are under time pressure and writing by hand, I don’t expect perfection. I do expect a college-level effort that reflects your preparation for the exam. A well-written essay should contain about five paragraphs (minimum). It should begin with some sort of introductory paragraph in which you will lay out your central argument. It will follow with a body of three paragraphs or more that will support your introductory argument and which will contain pertinent references to specific examples from the readings – particularly the primary sources. It will finish with a concluding paragraph in which you re-state your argument and the main points you have made to support that argument. Both I and my TAs will give significantly more weight to content than appearance. As long as your handwriting is legible, we will grade it with no mark-down. Significant problems with grammatical construction and misspelling will be noted, but the mark- down will be much less than for significant errors of fact or analysis. Exam preparation tips [Bring a Blue Book to the exam]: A good way to go about studying for the exam would be to make an outline of each of the following essay topics. That way you will have already formulated your arguments and supporting facts. You will know which primary source readings fit which essay. Remember that I have already tested your knowledge on the HIST4 textbook with the daily quizzes you take on Blackboard. The essays are designed to test your knowledge of the material in Taylor’s American Colonies. The material you have read in the HIST4 textbook is useful, but primarily as a structured baseline that can serve as a foundation for the events and timelines you may cover in your essays. Any essay that seems based only on the HIST4 text and not based on Taylor’s American Colonies will be downgraded. Exam-taking tips [Bring a Blue Book to the exam]: You will be under time pressure to finish both essays in 80 minutes. Some students find it useful – and a good investment of time – to quickly sketch out a preliminary outline for their chosen essay topics. If you have already done this while preparing for the exam, it will go very quickly. Then your thoughts are already organized for the essay you have decided to write. Don’t re-state the essay topic. Just write the number of the essay topic and get started. 1 Study guide for the first midterm exam HIST2300 Fall 2016 If you realize you’ve forgotten something and need to insert a sentence or paragraph into the body of your essay, draw a box or circle around the material to be inserted and an arrow to where in the essay it goes. We’ll figure it out. Don’t spend time erasing material – just cross it out and keep going. What to do when time is running out and you are not finished? You can still earn a significant amount of partial credit when running out of time by completing your un- finished essay with an outline – expanded as much as time permits – of what you would have written had you had sufficient time to complete your essay. This outline can be in the form of bullet points, with sub-bullets as appropriate. 2 Study guide for the first midterm exam HIST2300 Fall 2016 Possible essay topics: 1 What was the reaction of Europeans to the discovery of millions of human beings who had never been taught about Christianity? Is it possible to generalize how the European viewed the Native Americans and, if not, why not. The reaction of the Europeans to the discovery of millions of human beings who had never been taught about Christianity was very differing. Some thought that native were by nature admirably ingenious while other Europeans thought natives had to intelligence of the devil. Most generally regarded to the Indians beliefs as dictated by the devil and considered their shamans to be witches, possessed of an evil power to inflict harm on other Indians bit on European Christians. Yes it is possible to generalize how the Europeans viewed the Native Americans in regards of their religion. The Europeans took note as to how the Native Americans worshipped and there typed of Gods and etc. and the Europeans became fond of the idea that their religion was based off of but didn’t want to take it to the degree that the Indians did. The Europeans still wanted to worship their one God but liked the idea of segregating the natural and the spiritual so most 16 th& 17 thcentury Europeans continued to believe in supernatural intervention, as coming from without, rather than from within particular plants, animals and places. This change in the European faith, in a way, enabled western Europeans to develop a degree of capitalism, which in term would later create some discrepancies clouding peoples mind from the ultimate goal of salvation. 2 What was the primary difference in the ways major European powers - Spain, England, France and the Netherlands – approached colonization of the New World? The primary difference in the ways major European powers approached colonization was the dependent on what the country was seeking. Spain for example was not intending to simply expand and colonize, their ambition was treasure, seeking gold and silver as well as other things to take back home to be sold for profit. Spain was also the first European power to start exploration; they had about a 100 year head start on everyone else, but they weren’t really interested in settling down at the time when they started, they wanted to make fast money, but eventually started to colonize. Spain was very technologically advanced than everyone, example the printing press, which made it easier for people to reproduce written work at a faster rate. France was interested in discovering wealth as well but not just gold and silver, but also furs and copper. The common things to the Natives is what France took an interest in, thus trading their common items for theirs. England was one of the last European powers to get into colonization because at the time we were really close with Spain and did not want to step in anyone’s toes in the process. England also wasn’t as advanced as Spain so it took them years to catch up and get to same degree of knowledge about the new world and expand their land. The Dutch were the latest to start colonizing due to an unsuccessful effort to start in India, but they weren’t concerned about spreading their population out, they were more into trade than expansion, so they set up many trade posts up north for furs and ship ports. 3 In terms of the concept of “agency,” as described in class, how did Native American resistance to European encroachment on their lands evolve and what might the Native Americans have done (if anything) to more successfully resist the Europeans? The Native American resistance to European encroachment on their lands evolved from no problems at first to full out wars, like the Pequot war and Metacoms for example. The Native Americans at first were not really sure 3 Study guide for the first midterm exam HIST2300 Fall 2016 about the Europeans, they actually believed that they were Gods. For awhile they trade with Europeans and taught them how to properly cultivate crops, but when the Europeans decided it was time to expand, like when an indentured servants time was up and he was to get his promised land in the New World, the Europeans would then expand into Native territories. This resulted in many fights usually not bloody until the Indians were tired of the Europeans and then began to use their own weapons on the Europeans like Metacoms war. This particular battle started off with the Indians severely wounding the Europeans, the Natives took charge and were ahead in the beginning of the war, but as time passed the Europeans learned the ways of Natives, fighting in stealth mode and hiding out and seeking campgrounds to bombard later. The Europeans came back in the end due to the fact that during the War the Indians did not have access to trade to get more gun powder and bullets and thus ending up running from the Europeans. The Native Americans could have made a bigger effort from the beginning declaring what land was specifically theirs to harvest on and to not be intruded on. They also could’ve teamed up with the Europeans with trade and resolved the littler issues in nonviolent ways instead of an eye for an eye. 4 How did the demand for labor in each of the major British colonial regions (New England, Middle Colonies, Chesapeake, and the Carolinas) of the eastern seaboard of the North American continent and the supply of that demand for labor affect development in each region? Yes, the institution of slavery in the American colonies differed from slavery over the millennia of human history. At first America was not really centered on African slave trade while many slaves went to Caribbean to work sugar plantations because the crop was so demanding. The American colonies used slaves because there was starting to be a decrease in the amount of indentured servants coming the New World because so many heard about how dangerous the living circumstances were and how most did not even make it out of the seasoning period. Due to this set back of indentured servants, American Colonies started to trade people for work, and treated them like property instead of people. When indentured servants were used, they were treated horribly because they only had to serve for so long before they would be granted their own land. When slaves were used, the were treated somewhat better than the indentured servants because they were deemed personal property and no owner would purposefully break their property. Slaves had to serve for life and that saved the property owners from having to worry about losing a servant in a given time period. These salves were still treated poorly in the fact that they were instructed to work six days a week and worship on the seventh. They were to accommodate their owners at all times. What started out as just a way to pay off one’s debt ended up starting a business that would last for thousands of years and result in treating people based on their color. 5 Did the Spanish model of slave-based plantation agriculture affect the development of slavery in the southern Atlantic seaboard of North America? If not, why not and if so, in what ways did slavery in the American southern colonies reflect the Spanish model? Yes, the Spanish model of slave-based planation agriculture would affect the development of slavery in the southern Atlantic seaboard of North America because this would thus starting turning from indentured servants into African Americans, and then making slavery about race. The American Southern 4 Study guide for the first midterm exam HIST2300 Fall 2016 colonies used slaves because there was starting to be a decrease in the amount of indentured servants coming the New World because so many heard about how dangerous the living circumstances were and how most did not even make it out of the seasoning period. Due to this set back of indentured servants, American Southern Colonies started to trade people for work, and treated them like property instead of people. When indentured servants were used, they were treated horribly because they only had to serve for so long before they would be granted their own land. When slaves were used, the were treated somewhat better than the indentured servants because they were deemed personal property and no owner would purposefully break their property. Slaves had to serve for life and that saved the property owners from having to worry about losing a servant in a given time period. These salves were still treated poorly in the fact that they were instructed to work six days a week and worship on the seventh. They were to accommodate their owners at all times. What started out as just a way to pay off one’s debt ended up starting a business that would last for thousands of years and result in treating people based on their color. 6 Did the institution of slavery in the American colonies differ from slavery over millennia human history? If it was not different, then describe how the institution of slavery in American was similar to the rest of human experience. If it was different, in what ways was slavery, as an institution, different in the American Colonies and why did it become that way? Yes, the institution of slavery in the American colonies differed from slavery over the millennia of human history. At first America was not really centered on African slave trade while many slaves went to Caribbean to work sugar plantations because the crop was so demanding. The American colonies used white people at first for slaves then later on began to use African Americans. American Colonies at first weren’t all about slavery, they were about the profit and the more hands they had meant the faster the crops could be cultivated and the faster the money comes in. They didn’t care what color your skin was, they just wanted someone to get the job done. Racial mixing was common in the colonies but in the West Indies and on the sugar plantations, one would mostly find the slaves to be made of African Americans. Slaves in the American Colonies were usually working with other white people and were judged a lot more for their work and looked down upon simply because of their color. On smaller plantations, like tobacco these slaves were hired to work all day while on the bigger plantations, like sugar plantations, slaves could do whatever they pleased, to a certain degree, without the master hovering over you all day. Just because the American colonies did not have many African American slaves, it did not mean that most people did already have prejudice thoughts about colored people and what their purpose on a plantation was. The sugar plantations set the tone for how African American Slaves were to be treated and used. The American colonies 7 Were the British colonies of New England different than the colonies of the Chesapeake? Explain why they were or they were not and the consequences of their similarities or differences. Yes the British colonies of New England were different than the colonies of the Chesapeake. One reason was the motives for each settlement, while the Chesapeake was commercial and profit the motives for New England were mostly religious and a had little to do with commercial. The economic system was very different in both. Since the Chesapeake colonies were dependent on 5 Study guide for the first midterm exam HIST2300 Fall 2016 profit, they did lots of commercial farming and growing of tobacco. Since the growing of tobacco was a laborious job that meant lots of help was needed to cultivate the fields which meant the use of indentured servants but also free labor, and later mostly slaves. The economic system in New England was self- sufficient and focused mainly on using free labor and indentured servants as well just like the Chesapeake. One big difference between the two British colonies was religion, while New England believed in a more puritan version of life the people in the Chesapeake lived a more Anglican lifestyle. Both colonies got along good with Indians at first then in time both wanted to eliminate Indians. 8 How and why were the British colonies able to dominate the other European powers on the North American continent? What would the other European kingdoms and colonies have had to do to prevent British domination? The British Colonies were able to dominate the other European powers on the North American Continent by having a strong navy, that cumulated growth and resulted in more warships and more intense forms of guns. The British were becoming more technologically advanced than the other colonies by developing gun powder, the printing press and equipment to help you navigate, for example a light house to help guide ships. Britain was stronger than majority of the other colonies just because of how far ahead they had come in creating more precise guns and having a strong Navy to help defend your borers from intruding colonies. They were constantly taking advantage of their placement in the New World as well taking advantage of these new natural abundant resources to make profit back home. The other European kingdoms and colonies could have tried to mimic the steps Britain took and compose a strong navy or army to defend against other European powers. Also, they could’ve become more advanced in weaponry such as guns. Every colony needs a good defense system as well as becoming more advanced to other technologies. Falling behind and becoming unaware of any technological advances can you get your colony in a lot of trouble and make for a loss of land. 9 Using specific examples, describe how did warfare between European kingdoms affected the development of colonies in America? If these wars had long-lasting consequences that would create tensions between the colony and the mother country, be sure to describe what these were. 10 Did the British government impose taxes on the British colonists that were different than taxes imposed on British subjects in Britain? If so, which taxes or trade practices uniquely affected the British colonists in America? If there were any similarities between taxes paid by British subjects in Britain and British subjects in the American Colonies, how did the British subjects in England feel about those same taxes. 11 Did religion affect the development of the European colonies in America in different ways? If not explain why it didn’t. If so, explain and/or contrast the role of religion in different European colonies (Spanish, French, British) and how those roles changed over time. Yes, religion did affect the development of the European colonies in America in different ways. Religion was one of the main reasons England started to colonize other lands, that way people could have religious freedom and worship the way they wanted too whether they were puritan, Anglican, protestant, Quakers or Methodists; everyone wanted to be able to decide how they can worship. The Spanish sent conquistadors to spread Christianity. Spain 6 Study guide for the first midterm exam HIST2300 Fall 2016 was known to be Catholic so when they went to start colonizing the New World, they conquistadors doubled as explorers and spreading the word and faith of God to the Indians ultimately trying to get to convert to what the Spaniards deemed the right religion and not whatever multiple Gods the Indians believed. The French were also believers in Catholicism and viewed it as their mission as well to convert Native Americans into Catholics. The New England colonies were largely puritans and lived strict lives. They felt that their purpose was to purify the world and bring God back into everyday life. These roles changed throughout time in each of the colonies because somewhere down the road another classification of a belief would arise, thus creating a new movement. Religion never really stopped changing, people were always taking different views on different beliefs and intertwining them with other beliefs of another group. Most of these religions in the colonies had different beliefs but all started from the same denomination, Catholicism. Although many people drifted away from the true catholic belief, it is still the basis of majority other denomination groups in each of the colonies. 7
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