NTR 213 Exam 1 Study Guide
NTR 213 Exam 1 Study Guide NTR 213
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by bjwall on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTR 213 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Dr. Seth Armah in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Nutrition in Nutrition at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Important Definitions to Remember from Chapter 1: o Nutrients – a substance in food that provides energy and structure to the body and regulates body processes To stay healthy, humans need more than 40 essential nutrients. o Essential Nutrient – a nutrient that must be consumed in the diet because it cannot be made by the body or cannot be made in sufficient quantities to maintain body functions o Calorie – a unit of measure used to express the amount of energy provided by food o Nutrient Density – measure of the nutrients provided by a food relative to its calorie content o Fortification – the addition of nutrients to foods o Dietary Supplements – product sold to supplement the diet; may include nutrients (vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids), enzymes, herbs, or other substances o Phytochemical – substance found in plant foods that is not an essential nutrient but may have health-promoting properties o Zoochemicals - health promoting property substances found in animal foods o Functional Foods – food that has health-promoting properties beyond basic nutritional functions o Organic Compounds – a substance that contains C bonded to H Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins Provides energy for the body o Carbohydrates – class of nutrients that includes sugars, starches, and fibers. Chemically, they all contain C, along with H and O, in the same proportions as in water o Fiber – type of carbohydrate that cannot be broken down by human digestive enzymes o Lipids – class of nutrients, commonly called fats, that include saturated and unsaturated fats and cholesterol; most do not dissolve in water o Cholesterol – type of lipid that is found in the diet and in the body. High blood levels increase the risk of heart disease o Saturated Fat – lipid that is most abundant in solid animal fats and is associated with an increased risk of heart disease o Unsaturated Fat – lipid that is most abundant in plant oils and is associated with a reduced risk of heart disease o Protein – class of nutrients that includes molecules made up of one or more intertwining chains of amino acids o Malnutrition – condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake either above or below that which is optimal o Energy-Yielding Nutrients – carbohydrates, lipids, proteins o Genes – units of a larger molecule called DNA that are responsible for inherited traits o Nutritional Genomics – study of how our genes affect the impact of nutrients or other food components on health (nutrigenetics) and how nutrients affect the activity of our genes (nutrigenomics) o Hypothesis – proposed explanation for an observation or a scientific problem that can be tested through experimentation o Theory – a formal explanation of an observed phenomenon made after a hypothesis has been tested and supported through extensive experimentation o Epidemiology – branch of science that studies health and disease trends and patterns in populations o Control Group – group of participants used as a basis for comparison. Similar to participants in the experimental group but do not receive the treatment being tested o Experimental Group – group of participants who undergo treatment being tested Important Definitions to Remember from Chapter 2: o Nutritional Status – an individual’s health, as it is influenced by the intake and utilization of nutrients o Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are recommendations for the amounts of energy, nutrients, and other food components that healthy people should consume in order to stay healthy, reduce the risk of chronic disease, and prevent deficiencies. o Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) – nutrient intakes estimated to meet the needs of 50% of the healthy individuals in a given gender and life stage group o Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) – nutrient intakes that are sufficient to meet the needs of almost all healthy people in a specific gender and life-stage group o Adequate Intakes (AIs) – nutrient intakes that should be used as a goal when no RDA exists. AI values are an approximation of the nutrient intake that sustains health o Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) - maximum daily intake levels that are unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a given gender and life-stage group o Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs) – energy intakes that are predicted to maintain body weight in healthy individuals o Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) – healthy ranges of intake for CHOs, fat, and protein, expressed as percentages of total energy intake o Empty Calories – calories from solid fats and/or added sugars, which add calories to the food but few nutrients o Daily Value – a reference value for the intake of nutrients used on food labels to help consumers see how a given food fits into their overall diet o Dietary Supplement – a product sold to supplement the diet; may include nutrients, enzymes, herbs, or other substances Important Definitions to Remember from Chapter 3: o Atoms – smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of the element o Molecules – group of 2 or more atoms of the same or different elements bonded together o Cells – basic structural and functional unit of living things o Organs – discrete structure composed of more than one tissue that performs a specialized function o Hormones – chemical messenger that is produced in one location in the body, is released into the blood and travels to other locations, where it elicits responses o Digestion – process by which food is broken down into components small enough to be absorbed into the body o Absorption – process of taking substances from the gastrointestinal tract into the interior of the body o Feces – body waste, including unabsorbed food residue, bacteria, mucus, and dead cells, which is eliminated from the gastrointestinal tract by way of the anus o Mucus – viscous fluid secreted by glands in the digestive tract and other parts of the body. It lubricates, moistens, and protects cells from harsh environments. o Enzymes – protein molecule that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed o Saliva – watery fluid that is produced and secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands. It contains lubricants, enzymes, and other substances o Epiglottis – piece of elastic connective tissue that covers the opening to the lungs during swallowing o Simple Diffusion – unassisted diffusion of a substance across a cell membrane o Osmosis – unassisted diffusion of water across a cell membrane o Facilitated Diffusion – assisted diffusion of a substance across a cell membrane o Active Transport – transport of substances across cell membrane with the aid of a carrier molecule and the expenditure of energy Important Info to Know: ATOMS > MOLCULES > CELLS > TISSUES > ORGANS > ORGAN SYSTEMS Main component of the digestive system – gastrointestinal tract The digestive system has 2 major functions: absorption and digestion The organ systems work together; for example, the passage of food through the digestive system and the secretion of digestive substances are regulated by the nervous and endocrine systems. Small intestine – 20 feet long Large intestine – 5 feet long 6 CLASSES OF NUTRIENTS – Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Water, Vitamins, Minerals CHO provides 4 C/g – most immediate source of energy for the body Lipids are major form of stored energy in the body Fat = 9 C/g Protein = 4 C/g Alcohol = 7 C/g Assessing Nutritional Status 1. Determine typical food intake 2. Analyze nutrient intake 3. Evaluate physical health 4. Consider medical history and lifestyle 5. Assess with laboratory tests Fruits, veggies, grain, protein foods, and dairy a. ½ should be fruits and veggies b. ¼ grains c. ¼ protein foods d. Dairy should accompany meal
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