Psych 1101 Ch3&4 Study Guide
Psych 1101 Ch3&4 Study Guide Psyc 1101
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hanna Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psycology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Psychology 1101 Ch3 & Ch4 Study Guide Sensation >Stimuli is received by your sensory receptors and sensory organs Perception >How you recognize, organize, and interpret stimuli into something meaningful to you >This is a subjective process- it depends on you, personally, and how you perceive experiences >What you are experiencing + Your memories + Your thoughts + Your feelings = Perception >Perception is based on two things: your past experiences and your expectations >It is not an exact copy of “the world” >This process takes longer than sensation Transduction Stimuli from the environment Stimuli is translated into chemical and electrical signals (neurons) Sensation The Nervous system Transduction processes neural signals The sensations are assigned meaning Perception Data-Based Vs Knowledge-Based >Data-Based, or Bottom-Up, Processing is how the brain takes in and processes information received from stimuli >Knowledge-Based, or Top-Down, Processing is where you use your own knowledges and experiences to understand sensory information Measuring Human Sensation >Human sensation is measured through absolute threshold- the minimum amount of stimuli you can detect 50% of the time -Ex: Hearing Tests- The same decibel of sound is played multiple times to see whether or not you are able to hear the sound 50% of the time. Sensory Adaption >Sensory receptors stop responding to constant stimuli because they become less sensitive to the stimuli -Ex: Perfume/Cologne, Temperature of the room/pool, Ticking on a clock Difference Thresholds >You respond to change in constant stimuli. >The minimum difference between 2 stimuli is noticed 50% of the time. >Weber’s Law -Just Noticeable Difference (JND) -A ratio -There must be a 2% difference in order for weight, vision, hearing to be detected Signal Detection Theory >The sensitivity of criteria used to determine what is and isn’t there (what you felt, heard) Actual State Yes No Yes Hit False Alarm Think No Miss Correct Rejection Vision >Our eyes use light to see. >Light: electromagnetic energy waves >Wavelength: the distance between two waves >Humans are only able to see wavelengths in the visible light spectrum (between 400nm- 700nm) Features of Color >Hue: color depends on the wavelength >Brightness: depends on the amplitude >Saturation: depends on the purity of the wavelength -The amount of different wavelengths used to make up the color you see Perception of Color >Cornea: clear covering that shields eyes from damage; focuses incoming light waves >Pupil: dark coloring of your eye >Iris: your eye color; muscle -It relaxes in the dark, causing your pupil to widen so that more light can go in your eye -It constricts in the light, causing your pupil to get smaller so that less light goes into your eye >Lens: bends the light; focuses incoming light (like the cornea) -Accommodation: the lens can change shape to adjust to images that are near or far >Retina: contains two types of photoreceptors (specialized neurons): cones and rods -Cones: allow us to see in color and observe fine details -Rods: very sensitive- will respond to the smallest amount of light >Optic Nerve: a bundle of ganglion cell axons that lead to the visual cortex >Blind Spot: an area that lacks rods and cones >Fovea: has high concentrations of cones >When light reaches the photoreceptors, an action potential is created, which then synapses to the bipolar cells and then synapses again to the ganglion cells (bipolar and ganglion cells are specialized neurons). Visual Pathway >Objects in the left visual field goes to the right hemisphere, and objects in the right visual field go to the light hemisphere. >Optic Chiasm: where the two optic nerves intersect Dark and Light Adaptations >Dark Adaptations: Your eyes adjust to a bright environment after being in the dark for a period of time -Cones are more responsive for dark adaptations >Light Adaptations: Your eyes adjust to the dark after being in a bright environment for a period of time >Cones and rods go through chemical changes when adapting to the presence or absence of light Coding for Objects in Our Environment >Simple Stimuli (angles, lines, movements): uses feature detectors (neurons in the visual cortex that code for simple stimuli) >Complex Stimuli (faces): patterns of activation of different types of neurons Color Vision >Trichromatic Theory: 3 types of cones (red, green, blue) are excited by different wavelengths of light -Any other color is a combination of the three cones >Color Blindness/Deficiency: loss or damage of cone(s) >Afterimage: an image that remains in your vision field after the stimulus is gone >Opponent-Process Theory: A special group of neurons respond to opposite colors -Ex: Red-Green, Black-White, Blue-Yellow How We Hear >We hear through sound waves- vibrations in the air >Features of Sound: -Pitch: Frequency (high, medium, low tones) -Timbre: Purity of wavelengths (long wavelength=low frequency, short wavelength= high frequency) -Loudness: Amplitude Theories of Pitch >Pitch is directly proportional to frequency- high pitch, high frequency; low pitch, low frequency >Place Theory: pitch is determined by the location of the stimulation on the basilar membrane -Near the oval window (entrance of the cochlea) = higher pitch -Opposite end = lower pitch >Frequency Theory: pitch is the rate of vibration- faster vibrations = higher pitches >Volley Principle: frequencies between 400Hz-4000Hz cause hair cells (auditory neurons) to fire in a volley pattern -Since each individual cell cannot fire at fast rates, they take turns firing. Constancies >Size Constancy: Size is perceived the same regardless of distance -If someone is in front of you and then move farther away, the size of the person remains the same to you. >Shape Constancy: An object is perceived to have the same shape regardless of movement -A closed and open door is perceived as a rectangle >Color Constancy: An object is perceived to have the same color regardless of change in environment/sensory data -When seeing a person outside and inside, you are able to recognize the color of their shirt remains the same even though you see the shirt in different lightings. Gestalt Principles >This is how we group stimuli and identify objects. >Law of Proximity: grouping things that are near each other -Ex: >Law of Similarity: similarities in color and texture indicates objects are part of the same group -Ex: >Law of Connectedness: grouping objects by connecting them in someway -Ex: >Law of Continuity: grouping objects that are going the same direction -Ex: You perceive that this ‘x’ was drawn like this: >Law of Closure: filling in missing parts of a line or figure -Ex: >Law of Common Fate: grouping objects that move together Depth Perception >This is your ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. >There are two cues for perceiving depth: -Monocular Cues: -Linear Perspective: parallel lines converge when they are farther away http://guidetodrawing.com/linear-perspective/ -Relative Size: Two objects of the same size located at different locations causes us to think that the objects have different sizes http://www.arts.ok.gov/Art_at_the_Capitol/Capitol_Collection/Cooper/Tallgrass_Prairie_VA_Details.html -Texture Gradient: the closer the object is, the easier to see its texture https://www.flickr.com/photos/29590525@N02/galleries/72157632026471475/ -Interposition: an object blocking another object is perceived to be in the front https://www.flickr.com/photos/29590525@N02/galleries/72157632026471475/ -Atmospheric Perspective: objects are hazier when farther away http://news.direct2artist.com/perspective-in-art-what-is-atmospheric-perspective/ -Binocular Cues: -Convergence: the angle of rotation is greater for closer objects compared to objects that are farther away -Retinal Disparity: the location of where an image falls on the retina is different for each eye -Close object=big difference -Far object=slight difference Consciousness >The state of being aware of oneself, one’s thought, or the environment The Nature of Consciousness >Automatic Processing: there is little or no conscious effort -Most cognitive processing is done unconsciously >Selective Attention: you consciously decide what you want to focus on, ignoring other information Inattentional Blindness >If you are not paying attention to something, you are blind to it- you do not notice it. Levels of Consciousness >Wakefulness, Sleepiness, Drug-Induced, Dreaming, Hypnotic State (voluntary), Meditative State Sleep >REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep: occurs when you dream >Sleep Paralysis: muscles are paralyzed when in REM sleep Sleep Deprivation >Deterioration of physical and mental health -Cognitive Abilities: Memory, Attention, Reaction Time, Decision Making -Irritability -Microsleep: uncontrollable sleep lasting several seconds REM Deprivation >REM Rebound Effect: When you are able to get more sleep, you spend more time in REM sleep Circadian Rhythm >Daily patterns that affect behavior, alertness, and activity levels; follows a 34hr cycle of daylight and darkness Stage of Sleep >Beta Waves: brain waves that indicate you are alert >Alpha Waves: brain waves indicate that you are relaxed or drowsy >Theta Waves: brain waves indicated light sleep (stage 1)- lower frequencies that beta and alpha waves >Delta Waves: brain waves indicate deep sleep >Stage 1: Light sleep -Hallucinations can occur >Stage 2: Deeper non-REM sleep -Theta waves continue -Sleep Spindles: small bursts of electrical energy -K-complexes: large waves >Stage 3 and 4: Deep Sleep >Stage 5: REM Sleep >Most restorative sleep occurs in the beginning, dreaming occurs at the end (most time is spent in stage 2) Narcolepsy >A neurological disorder that consists of excessive sleepiness during the day (REM occurs at the wrong time) >Cataplexy: A symptom of narcolepsy that causes sudden loss in strength while awake >Sleep Paralysis: A common symptom of narcolepsy that causes temporary paralysis before sleeping and after waking up >Hypnagogic Hallucinations: (can be experienced in stage 1) visions that can seem realistic Sleep Disorders >REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: the body is not paralyzed while in REM sleep, causing people to act out their dreams >Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea: lack of air flow (apnea) or reduced air flow (hypopnea) during non-REM sleep >Insomnia: the inability to sleep Sleep Disturbances >Sleepwalking: occurs during non-REM sleep (stages 3 and 4) >Sleep Terrors: a non-REM sleeping disturbance that usually occurs in children >Nightmares: frightening dreams that occur in REM sleep Mini Quiz 1. Perception is where… A. Stimuli is translated into chemical and electrical signals B. The sensations are assigned meaning C. The Nervous system processes neural signals 2. Selective attention is where … A. You observe your surroundings B. There is little or no conscious effort C. The state of being aware of oneself, one’s thoughts, and the environment D. You consciously decide what you want to focus on, ignoring other information 3. Human sensation is measured through what? A. Data-Based Processing B. Knowledge-Based Processing C. Difference Threshold D. Absolute Threshold 4. A symptom of narcolepsy could cause … A. The sudden loss of strength while awake B. The prevention of being able to sleep C. The inability to perform simple tasks due to sleepiness D. None of the above 5. Which sleeping disorder or disturbance correctly matches their definition? A. Insomnia: the body is not paralyzed during REM sleep B. Sleep Terrors: the inability to sleep C. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea: the lack of air flow or reduced air flow D. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: a disorder the causes children to have extremely active dreams during REM sleep 6. Which is/are part of the gestalt principles? A. Law of Continuity B. Law of Convergence C. Law of Common Fate D. Law of Introspection E. Both A and C F. Both B and D 7. Knowledge-Based Processing is where you use your own knowledges and experiences to understand sensory information. A. True B. False 8. In what stage does REM sleep occur in? A. Stage 1 B. Stage 2 C. Stage 3 D. Stage 4 E. Stage 5 9. What is the REM rebound effect? A. Where you can catch up on sleep B. Where you spend more time in REM sleep C. Where you spend more time in non-REM sleep D. None of the above 10. What are all the constancies? A. Linear Constancy, Size Constancy, Shape Constancy B. Parallel Constancy, Size Constancy, Shape Constancy C. Angle Constancy, Size Constancy, Shape Constancy D. Color Constancy, Size Constancy, Shape Constancy 11. ______ is the sensitivity of criteria used to determine what is and isn’t there (what you felt, heard). A. Gestalt Principles B. Depth Perception C. Signal Detection Theory D. Trichromatic Theory 12. What prevents us from acting out our dreams? A. Circadian Rhythm B. Microsleep C. Sleep paralysis D. Cataplexy 13. Which answer choice correctly matches a feature of color to its definition? A. Hue = Purity of Wavelength B. Loudness = Wavelength C. Saturation = Amplitude D. All of the above E. None of the above Answers 1. B (Ch3) 2. D (Ch4) 3. D (Ch3) 4. A (Ch4) 5. C (Ch4) 6. E (Ch3) 7. A (Ch3) 8. E (Ch4) 9. B(Ch4) 10. D (Ch3) 11. C (Ch3) 12. C (Ch4) 13. E (Ch3)
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