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Biology 354, Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Danielle Garrison

Biology 354, Exam 1 Study Guide Biology 354

Marketplace > Iowa State University > Biology > Biology 354 > Biology 354 Exam 1 Study Guide
Danielle Garrison

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About this Document

This study guide includes the main topics along with definitions for the 1st exam.
Animal behavior
Toth, A.
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Garrison on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 354 at Iowa State University taught by Toth, A. in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 163 views. For similar materials see Animal behavior in Biology at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Exam 1 – Study Guide Topic 1 - Principles of Animal Behavior:  Ethology – scientific study of behavior of organisms in natural conditions  What’s behavior – externally visible activity of animal, IN WHICH COORDINATED PATTERN OF SENSORY, MOTOR, AND ASSOCIATED NEURAL ACTIVITY RESPONDS TO changing internal and external conditions  Scientific method – scientific observation, measurement, experiment, and formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses  Proximate vs ultimate o Proximate – immediate cause of behavior - how o Ultimate – evolutionary basis for behavior - why  2 types of proximate and 2 types of ultimate questions o Proximate – mechanism and development o Ultimate – survival rate and evolutionary history  3 foundations of animal behavior o Evolution/natural selection – evolution alters frequency of behavior in population over generations o Learning – individuals alters frequency of behavior in single animal over hours, days, lifetime  Animal can modify behavior as result of past experience  Can be highly adaptive o Cultural transmission – newly acquired traits transferred w/n populations rapidly by social learning  Rat example – smell my breathe  Approaches to Animal Behavior o Empirical – gathering data and drawing conclusions, then generating new, testable predictions  Relationship b/w foraging behavior and predation pressure o Conceptual – integrates ideas in new way to understand behavior; doesn’t always involve math o Theoretical – generates mathematical model of world  Optimal foraging theory – determines which prey items should be taken by predator Topic 2 - Evolution:  Artificial selection –breeding; selection by humans to propagate most desirable traits of organism  Phenotype – observable traits  Genotype –genetic makeup, collection of alleles  Allele – gene variant, 1 of 2 or more alternative forms of a gene  Heritability - measure of proportion of variance in trait that’s due to genetic influence, rather than environmental  Adaptation – trait that results in its bearer having highest fitness among specified set of behaviors in specified environment  Eusociality – reproductive division of labor with reproducing and permanently non-reproducing “castes”; overlapping generations alive at same time; cooperative care of young o Naked Mole Rats – conceptual approach  Phylogeny o Root – common lineage from which all species on tree derived o Nodes – common ancestors to species after branching point  Homology – trait shared by 2+ species because of common ancestry o Nursing in animals of young  Homoplasy – trait shared by 2+ species but not result of common ancestry o wings  Parsimony – assumption that simplest route is most likely to be the correct one o Guppy example – courtship  Evolution and adaptation o Evolution – animals changing over time o Adaptation – traits that natural selection molds  Artificial and natural selection o Artificial – breeding; selecting for a specific trait (looks or behavior) o Natural – nature doing its own thing  Phylogenetic method – how to read tree, map traits on tree o Root (common lineage) and nodes (common ancestors after branching) o Traits used to build phylogeny  Morphological traits, behavioral traits, and DNA sequences  Difference between homologous and analogous traits o Homologous – same among all species; nursing of young o Analogous – different among species; wings – result of convergent evolution  Sources of genetic variation o Mutation, genetic recombination, migration of new individuals  3 main ingredients needed for natural selection o Variation – phenotypic variation can be caused by genetic or environmental factors  From – mutation, genetic recombination, and migration of new individuals o Differential fitness – effect of trait on individual’s reproductive success  Difference in success comparing lone and group hunting o Heredity – mode of inheritance; measure of proportion of variance in trait that’s due to genetic influence, rather than environmental  Experimental methods to estimate heredity o Parent – offspring regression – behavior passed on from parents to offspring o Cross – fostering experiment – taking young animals from 2 different groups and switch where they grow up; can address variation due to rearing environment Topic 3 - Hormones and Neurobiology:  Endocrine system – system of glands that secrete hormones into blood or surrounding tissue  Endocrine cells – special cells within gland that synthesize hormones then excrete them  Hormones – chemical messengers that travel from endocrine cells to target cells  Glandular tissue – special tissues in body that pump out hormones (adrenal gland, pancreas)  Neurosecretory cells – special cells in brain that pump out hormone  Peptide hormones – hormones consisting of short sequence AAs; coded by DNA (insulin) o Stored by endocrine cells, ready to be released on moment’s notice; faster acting  Steroid hormones – small molecules that are NOT made of AAs; NOT coded for directly by DNA; made of lipids (testosterone, estrogen) o Synthesized in response to stimulus and then released; slower acting  Neurons - basic cellular units of nervous system; send and receive electrical impulses  Glia - cells found in NS; provide physical support to neurons but do NOT send electrical impulses  Axons – long extensions of neurons that send electrical impulse to other neurons  Dendrites – receive input from axons to other neurons  Circuit – interconnected set of neurons with effector (simple or complex)  Neurotransmitters – chemical messengers that communicate signals between neurons  Effector – behavioral response; muscle responding to reflex to being touched in certain spot  Neural plasticity – ability of brains and neural pathways to change in reponse to experience  Hormones vs pheromones o Hormones – don’t smell; on inside of body; communicate messages b/w cells o Pheromones – smell; released into air/environment and produce “smell” that communicates information to receivers  How hormones work – from endocrine vs neurosecretory release to binding to receptor to effects on target tissues o Endocrine – in gland, synthesize hormones and release them o Neurosecretory – in brain that release hormones  Types of hormones – peptide vs steroid and differences in how they act and how fast they act o Peptide – consists of AAs; coded by DNA; stored by endocrine cells; fast o Steroid – no AAs; made of lipids; synthesized in response to stimulus; slow  Neurobiology: o PNS vs CNS  PNS – nerves connect to effectors (muscles)  CNS – brain and nerve cord o Neurons vs glia  Neurons – basic cellular units of nervous system; send and receive electrical impulses  Glia – cells found in NS; provide physical support to neurons but do NOT send electrical impulses o Axons vs dendrites  Axons – long extensions of neurons that send electrical impulse to other neurons  Dendrites – receive input from axons to other neurons  How a neural signal is transmitted between cells o Synapses – junction between 2 nerve cells o Neurotransmitters – chemical messengers, communicate signals b/w neurons  Neural plasticity and learning o Ability of brains and neural pathways to change in response to experience o Challenge rats to learns mazes  How bigger is better in neurobiology o Larger axons – transmit signal faster o More connections – faster/stronger response o Brain region larger – superior function Topic 4 - Genes and Development:  Phenotype – physical appearance  Genotype – genetic makeup  Heritability – measure of proportion of variance in trait that’s due to genetic variance, rather than environmental  Mendelian traits – simple inheritance patterns; 1 gene with 2 alternative alleles  Polygenic – many genes underlying certain traits; eye color  Expression – what they look like  Quantitative – traits vary along continuous scale  Loci – general location on chromosomes of alleles affecting a trait  Gene expression – level of activity of gene (reflected in amount of mRNA & protein products made)  Heritable genetic effect – different DNA sequences (alleles of gene) can produce different proteins o Different DNA, different proteins, different behaviors  Gene expression effect – same gene “expressed” different ways o Same DNA, different levels of RNA/protein, different behaviors  Epigenetics – environmentally induced, stable long-term change in phenotype MAY be inherited across generations o Different from mutation, NO DNA SEQUENCE CHANGE o Adds chemical “tags” which affect whether a gene is expressed or not  Mendelian vs continuous/quantitative/polygenic traits o Mendelian – 2 possible versions of a gene; simple inheritance patterns o Polygenic – many genes underlying a certain trait; eye color  Central dogma of biology o DNA codes for RNA, which codes for protein  Gene expression vs hereditary to influence behavior o Gene expression – level of activity of gene; same gene “expressed” in different ways o Hereditary - different DNA sequences can produce different proteins  Individual and species differences in behavior can be explained by different types of genetic variation o Gene expression – same gene “expressed” in different ways o Allelic differences – gene variant, 1 of 2 or more alternative forms of a gene  Epigenetics and how development influences can have long lasting effects on behavior o Environmentally induced o Experience can have long-lasting impacts on how genome functions for rest of lifetime o Environment leaves “stamp” on genome – genomic memory  Genome learns from experience  Maternal/paternal behavioral effects on developing offspring o Vole example  Biparental families – mothers nurse, lick, and groom pups and also get the same amount of care from the father  Single mother families – mother nurse, lick, and groom pups; but mothers tend to leave the pups to find food and survive  Behavior as developmental process o Some behaviors pre-programmed and fully “formed,” but others developed over animal’s lifetime – honey bee foraging o Environment during development, could have profound impact on how brain, endocrine glands, muscles, etc. are formed


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