Exam 1 Study Guide
Below is an outline of important sections of each chapter. Read each section carefully and focus on the class notes for each section. The exam is Thursday, September 15. You will need a pencil and a scantron.
Chapter 1: Understanding Earth - Why geology should matter to you - Definition of geology-me Study of Earth eine w une - Relationships between people and the natural environment of surrounding planets - Earth's 4 spheres Bosphere, lithosphere; Atmosphere, Hydrosphere - Structure of Earth's System - The nature of scientific inquiry - The Big Bang and the formation of the solar system
We also discuss several other topics like What are the 3 functions of law?
3 tyresor Rocless, sneals, meter Chapter 2: Plate Tectonics - 2 types of lithosphere - Who is Alfred Wegener?-Meteorologist that came up w/ theory of continental ans Don't forget about the age old question of What is electronegativity and how does it affect interactions between water molecules?
which later evolved into
- Evidence for Continental Drift - Criticisms of Continental Drift
the theory of plate
- How does paleomagnetism relate to Seafloor Spreading?
- Seafloor spreading - 3 types of plate boundaries and characteristics of each - Pangea
- Hot spots
Chapter 3: Minerals - Definition of a mineral - 3 types of bonds
- Classification of minerals - The Silicates - Other mineral groups - Gems and gemstones We also discuss several other topics like What are financial statements?
physical properties of minerals Luister-appearence in Light (metallie non metallic)
color-cunreliable) Stredk-color of mineralin per Hardness-Resistance to abrasion/scratching If you want to learn more check out What are the branches under science?
mons sceale of Perature Hardness
(continsed on other page) mineral natural occurny, inorganic, solid, crystalline
structure with a definite chemical composistion...
Building blodes of rocks. Divided into clesses based on chem.composition 3 types of bonds We also discuss several other topics like Who is marshall mcluhan?
industrial minerals raw matendis
jonic rearranging electrons Don't forget about the age old question of What is studied in sociology?
One minerals sources of valuable
or bem minerals renler
covalent- sharing of elections
Metallic also sharing, elections
move from atom to atom = weakbond Type of bonding governs Mineral properties.
ny Gedogy should matter to you:
effects our everyday life w/ natural disasters: volcanos, earthquakes, and hurricanes.
Relationships between people and thenatural environments
The nature of scientific inguiry: -Science assumes the natural world is consistent/predictable.
Goal of scence to discover patterns in nature and use the knowledge to make predictions -Screntists collect facts through observation measurements explanation subject to testing explanation backed by scientific evidence.
I must be testables raw.description of observed phenomenon, doesn't explain why
Just says something will happen. Structure of Earth's systems:
The Big Bang formation of the solar system solar Nebula Theory- theory of how solar system formed Big Bang-approx. 14 billion years ago.
Adene, not state was followed by rapid expanson/cooling Metter overruled anti-matter and the Universe was
created GA. a huge rotecting cloud of gels contracts Plate
A Plattens a material gathers in bits to form planets a that notate around center
the Sore-tron Nielele
VB forms a dok of gas/dust w
sun at center
at ang pagigi mantle-iron-rich Silicate
Chapter 2 study Guide atypes of lithoupheres
Alfred Wegener White The Onsins of Oceans and Cntments 1915
- Idea of Pangala / continental anft Evidence for continental Drift!
Continental seafloor Plate
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malla ty nuo mou mou oft hellbysn't apa
PulbaufH'HO staroque urastas -Burmares Taman
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continents Gedosizal matching- matching of contrents based
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diferent continents. The ahmals caven't have just migrated overseas on their own
• Gloss optens-plaint fossi I found on all souther continent
Pangal-continents were once all connected
Chapter 3 hysical Doperties of Mineral continued. rearase-tendency to break dlong planes of weak neoneling. Onduces feat shiny surfaces, desenbed by
sulting geometric shapes, no
not all Binerals have cleavage - Pacture-absence of clearase when mineral is broken specific Granty-ratio of weight of a mineral to the weight of an equal volume of water Average 2796cm3 Others: megnétism, Reaction to Het acid malleability
ouble refraction, taste, smell, Elasticity Classification of minerals I Minerals can be separated by the principle anon
or anionic grup 1 Earthis mainty Oxygen/Silicon
The Silicates x. most common/important class of mnerals.
Fealled the rock forming minerals a ar As almost entire crust/mantle of earth Sio
Silit anionic unit- the silicon oggen tetrahedron
x Quartz Sios
Nature elements Cu, Antal
Classified by cations hund pure
Halides (crorty Carbonates (602)
Criticisms of continental Drift. -He couldn't explain how why centment moved -New endence from accans revived his idees. How does paleone netism releute to seartwr Spreading? Paleomagnetism-old innleposits and in inkomentan on where Paleomagnetic noch was. - You can judge the rate of spreading w/ the study of magnetism in the sea flour
Seafloor spreading Endence lies in magnetom insearthoor rocks varies from the mid- ocean riage. The sides of ridse are symmetrio
3 types of Plateboundares/charactenstue of each greates • Divergent - rmoung away from each other neust & Oceanic Ridges/contrented Rift Valley Coleanie achty * Basalt continued spreeding eventually creates oceanic crest
o Convergent coming together subduction occurs mit Trenen (deepest part of ocean)/oleanos form
Oceanic-oceanic v Ocean continent volanic islands/ocean trench volcanic mountans ocean trench
Continental contrental-mountain belt
• Transform a slide past each other
creates Fault Valley, earthquakes are common
Hat Spots-mantle plung that occurs within a plate
(Hawaii Convection - Drives plate motion. Cimulation due to cheinge
in temp when heated. How plate teentonics works
carbonates Tan have carbonate (03)2
"Rocks/limestone , dow stones I Derived from shells and hard parts of manne organisms or are precipitated throm seawater
Gems Gemstones Gemstone a mineral w/ special value A Ibem-a cut/polished stone for jewelry Precious-rare expensive stones Specias lessrare
ex Diamond, Ruby Sapphire ex Topaz, Garnet