Social Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide
Social Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide PSY 270-001
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Anderson on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 270-001 at Indiana State University taught by Dr. Sheets in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see psy orientation soc psy in Psychology at Indiana State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Social Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: Social psychology: is the study of how we think about, influence and relate to each other We are social creatures by nature and we need each other Social pain is remembered more than physical pain Milgram’s "small world” study: A letter was mailed from person to person to see how long it would take to get to the receiver that was states away. People could only send it to individuals they knew. Demonstrated that we are way more connected to people than we think Triplett: studied bike races and found that people go faster when they are racing with other people He observed that people perform better when around other people His study is a “model” of social psychology because it applied to a real world problem, social facilitation, and it developed a variety of theories to explain. Ross & McDougall Ross sociologist with a social focus McDougall psychologist with an individual focus The father of modern social psychology: Kurt Lewin Formula: B=f(P,E) which means behavior is a function of personal characteristics and the environment. Action research: you make changes based on research Functions of theories: to organize, predict, and link/generalize Three categories of research: Descriptive: shows an overall pattern on one variable (Milgram’s small world study) Correlational: assesses relationships between variables Correlations (r) : range from (1,0,+1) the sign tells direction and the number tells the strength (negative= opposite direction and positive = same direction) Limitation: you can’t draw causal conclusions, no cause and effect Experimental: mainstay of social psychology, in lab or field Independent variable (IV): controlled by experimenter Dependent variable (DV): “outcome”/”effect” of IV Random assignment: makes groups equal at outset Confederate: someone who’s behaving like another subject to control interactions. Chapter 2: Selfconcept: everything we know and believe about ourselves Selfschemas: beliefs we have that we use to organize all of the information about the self (key personality traits) Spotlight effect: the belief that others are paying more attention to our appearance and behavior than they really are. Where does our self come from? Knowledge of behavior Social roles Culture Individualistic: people define themselves as individuals first Collectivistic: define people in terms of social connections and in terms of individual people Social comparison with others Absent objective evidence of performance, compared with others “upward” : comparing with people “better off”. Usually happens in a novel situation, life transition Other people judgements Miller’s study of littering in children: Study (2 or 5 ) Group1:“You are neat and clean”, or Group 2: “You should be neat and clean” Teachers told their students one of these phrases or said nothing (group 3). Candy was given to students and researchers saw how many wrappers actually got into the trash. Group 1 and 2 both went up in cleanliness. After the teachers stopped saying those phrases, group 1 kept going up but group 2 went down. This is because it changed their sense of self making them believe that they were neat and clean people. Selfreferent effect: we process information about the self more efficiently and remember it better. Selfesteem: sense of selfworth or value Overconfidence phenomenon: the tendency to be more confident than correct to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs False uniqueness effect: the tendency to underestimate the commonality of one’s abilities and one’s desirable or successful behavior False consensus effect: the tendency to overestimate the commonality of one’s abilities and one’s desirable or successful behavior Kiesler’s study showing that men with high selfesteem made overtures toward attractive women and men with low selfesteem made overtures toward unattractive women men made to feel good or bad (IQ test) grade a test and give positive feedback and say “we should give you a break!” vs grade a test and make a lot of marks on page and say “maybe we should take a break…” during break went down to lounge and a woman came in either looking above average or average. Research assistant introduces them and then leaves. Measure romantic behavior from male to female. Guy w/ high selfesteem more romantic behavior when woman was above average and less behavior when unattractive. Guy with low selfesteem had the opposite behavior Selfserving bias: the tendency to perceive oneself favorably Selective (downward) social comparison: choosing our comparisons BIRGing: basking in reflected glory we identify with winners even when not responsible CORFing: cutting off reflected failure removing self from losers who you are connected to ( we won vs they lost) Boosting: Students would come into lab and read an article about Rasputin (devious, negative monk) and rating him on personality qualities. Two groups of students: 1 biography read would be accurate, 2 biography read would have same birthday as the students did. Group 2 rated him higher than students in group 1. Selfmonitoring: monitor others to adjust behavior Hi=use cues from others to modify presentation different in different situations (what do I need to be?)tend to have diff friends for diff activities influence able or adaptive Lo= use cues from self to behave consistent across situations (how can I be me?) tend to have same friendsrigid or honest How accurate is our selfknowledge? Turns out, not very, don’t know why we do the things we do; factors that influence us explanations often wrong (e.g., “righthand bias”) Not very good predictors of behavioroften, close others do better Impact bias= overestimate duration/intensity of emotions Planning fallacy=underestimate time for tasks How to fight?: Break it down into sub pieces; more realistic estimates Chapter 3: Kelly’s “warm vs cold” study: (based on earlier work by S Asch) invited a guest speaker to class: before half class “warm”, half class “cold” speaker presented a lecture and answered questions. Impressions of presentation changed due to being told he was “warm” or “cold”. Also less participation in Q&A session when told speaker was “cold” Primacy effect: first information has a greater impact Confirmation bias: the tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions. What’s the result of the primacy effect & confirmation bias? overconfidence in believing the wrong thing is true Selffulfilling prophecy: a belief that leads to its own fulfillment How can we overcome “false” first impressions? Tell people of their bias doesn’t always work (often deny) Motivate/reward accuracy might work text says “telling” to be “objective” doesn’t at least one interview study offered interviewers “reward” for “best/most accurate” assessment Make target aware of perceiver’s expectationsmay lead target to change behavior we know selffulfilling prophecy doesn’t happen if contradicts target’s selfconcept Confidence diminishes with prompt (negative) feedback Belief perseverance (once you believe something you can take away the evidence but you stick with it) fails if imagine/reason opposite Knowledge about others is biased by 1 impressions Illusory correlation: perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists Embodied cognition: the mutual influence of bodily sensations on cognitive preferences and social judgments. Attribution: how people explain others’ behavior Internal (dispositional) due to person External (situational) due to some external cause Fundamental attribution error: when we see someone’s behavior, we attribute behavior to internal explanations more than external. We do this automatically Actorobserver difference: we see situations as explanations for our behavior When “we” act, we see environment and external forces pushing us When “other” act, they are focus of attention, we don’t see psych environment causing their behavior Availability heuristic: a cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory. If instances of something come readily to mind, we presume it to be commonplace. How do attributions differ by culture? Western (individualistic) culture focus on individuals “we are masters of our own fate”= internal attributions. Eastern culture focuses on environment= external attributions. Behavior vs emotion Behavior is caused by “actions” Romeo serenaded Juliet because he loved her. Emotion is causes by “stimulus” Romeo loved Juliet because she was beautiful. Why are attributions important? Influence impressions and treatment of others Social policy (text): lazy vs laid off Indicate “relationship” success (partner attrib) Mental/physical health: “sadder, but wiser” vs “ selfserving” Note: internal vs external= simplistic Chapter 4: What is an attitude? Common language: refer for global disposition happy/sad, positive/negative Social scientists: an evaluative disposition toward something that is, a positive/negative (approach/avoidance) reaction A,B,Cs of attitude: Affect (feeling/emotion), Behavior/intention, Cognition (thoughts/beliefs) Why do we care? expressed attitudes should predict behavior (politics) When do expressed attitudes predict behavior? When other influences are minimized Aggregation effect (measure behavior over time) When attitude is salient (in consciousness) Dispositional strong/potent: strong attitudes Situational mirror (71% vs 7%) : 71% of people cheat in room alone. Only 7% cheat when in room alone with a mirror When specific to behavior Being republican predicts voting republican (over time=agg) But not this year, attitudes towards trump Space doctor video When expressed attitudes are “real” People don’t always express honesty Social desirabilityinfluenced by “looking good” Dallas cable: will you buy “adult” channelsmost said no but 60% did it Hard to fake =reaction times Implicit assoc. test (IAT) uses “sorting” task to assess positive/negative connections Festinger’s study: Imagine subjects come into the lab, sit down and they are given a peg board with little wooden spools (48). They are told to turn each spool a quarter of a turn, do all and then go back and turn each another quarter of a turn. They do this for 30 minutes. After the RA says “we are doing a study on how expectations lead to feelings about something and you were part of the control group. The next RA didn’t show up so will you play the RA for the next subject? The next subject isn’t in the control group so we need the next subject to expect this to be fun. Can you stay and relay this to the next subject?” Half were told they would be paid $20, the other half were told they would be paid $1. They tell the next subject how exciting the task is and then leave. On the way out, they see someone who says they’re interested in experience in research. They asked how interesting and exciting the study was. Insufficient justification: reduction of dissonance by internally justifying one’s behavior when external justification is “insufficient” Cognitive dissonance: tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions. Example: dissonance may occur when we realize that we have, with little justification, acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favoring one alternative despite reasons favoring another. Requirements for experiencing dissonance: must be aware of discrepancy (especially in public), contr action must have been our choice Modes of dissonance reduction If behavior is unchangeable, change attitude Change behavior to be consistent (if possible) Aronson water reduction study: talk to people before they go to rec and ask them about water reduction, second research assistant gives survey to make them see hypocrisy in their behaviors (said they care about water reduction but don’t always do everything), third RA saw how long of showers each person took. They ended up taking shorter showers if they felt like hypocrites. Add consonant elements/beliefs: when prophecy failsthe seekers Alcoholic drugs Selfperception theory: the theory that when we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone observing us by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs. (an unanticipated reward does not diminish intrinsic interest, because people still attribute their actions to their own motivation) How does it relate to the overjustificaiton effect?it occurs when someone offers an unnecessary reward beforehand in an obvious effort to control behavior What are the differences between dissonance and selfperception theory? the self perception theory explains why our actions might only seem to affect our attitudes while dissonance assumes that we justify our behavior to reduce our internal discomfort.
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