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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Wescoe on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KINS 1223 at Temple University taught by Mr. Harris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Anatomy Chapter 2 Notes Element- the simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties 6 elements that account for 98.5% of one’s body weight: o Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Calcium, Phosphorus Minerals- inorganic elements that are extracted from the soil by plants and passed up the food chain to humans and other organisms Atom- indivisible, particles o Electrically neutral because equal number of protons and electrons Nucleus- center of an atom, composed of protons and neutrons Protons- positive charge, weighs about 1 amu Neutron- no charge, weighs about 1 amu Atomic Mass Number- the total number of protons and neutrons Electron- negatively charged tiny particles with very small mass o Electrons swarm in electron shells (energy levels) around the nucleus o The more energy an electron has, the farther away from the nucleus its orbit lies o Valence electrons- electrons in the outermost shells that determine the chemical bonding properties of an atom Isotopes- elements that differ from another only in number of neutrons (and atomic mass) o Exhibit identical chemical behavior, but differ in physical behavior Radioisotopes- unstable isotopes Radioactivity- the process of decay (breaking down of) the unstable isotopes undergo to become more stable isotopes by giving off radiation Ionizing radiation- high energy radiation that ejects electrons from atoms, converting the atoms to ions o Destroys molecules and produces dangerous free radicals and ions in human tissues o In lower doses it can be mutagenic (causing mutations in DNA) and carcinogenic (triggering cancer as a result of mutation) Biological half-life- the time required for half of a radioisotope to disappear from the body o Some lost by radioactive decay and more lost by excretion from the body Ions- charged particles with unequal numbers of protons and electrons o Form because elements with 1-3 valence electrons tend to give them up and those with 4-7 tend to gain more Ionization- the transfer of electrons from one atom to another and turn both into ions Anion- particle that gains electrons acquires a negative charge (Cl , HCO )3 Cation- particle that loses electrons acquires a positive charge (Na , Ca )+2 2 Electrolytes- substances that ionize in water (acids, bases, or salts) and form solutions capable of conducting electricity Free radicals- chemical particles with an odd number of electrons Antioxidant- a chemical that neutralizes free radicals Molecules- chemical particles composed of 2 or more atoms united by a chemical bond (N 2 C6H12 6 Compounds- molecules composed of 2 or more elements (CO2) Isomers- molecules with identical molecular formula but different arrangements of their atoms Molecular weight- sum of the atomic weights of its atoms o 6 C atoms x 12 amu each = 72 amu o 12 H atoms x 1 amu each = 12 amu o 6 O atoms x 16 amu each = 96 amu o Molecular weight (MW) = 180 amu Chemical Bonds- forces that attract molecules to each other and hold them together o Ionic bond-relatively weak attraction between anion and cation Easily disputed in water (like when salt dissolves) because the ions are more attracted to water molecules than they are to each other Ex: NaCl o Covalent bond- sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between nuclei Ex: H 2 o Single covalent- sharing of one electron pair 3 Ex: H—H o Double covalent- sharing of 2 electron pairs Often occurs between carbon atoms (carbon- oxygen and carbon-nitrogen) Ex: O=C=O o Nonpolar covalent- covalent bond in which electrons are equally attracted to both nuclei Can be single or double STRONGEST type of chemical bond o Polar covalent- covalent bond in which electrons are more attracted to one nucleus than to the other, resulting in slightly positive and negative regions in one molecule Water molecules are polar covalent o Hydrogen bond- weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly negative oxygen or nitrogen atom in another Easily disrupted by temperature change and pH changes The polar covalent bond of water molecules enable each oxygen to form a hydrogen bond with a hydrogen of a neighboring molecule o Van der Waals force- weak, brief attractions between neutral atoms due to random disturbances in the electron clouds of adjacent atoms WEAKEST of all bonds Mixture- substances that are physically blended but not chemically combined o Each substance retains its on chemical properties 4 Aspects of the structure of water: o Its atoms are joined by polar covalent bonds o The molecule is V-shaped with and 105° bond angle (slightly negative charge on oxygen and slightly positive on each hydrogen) o Water molecules are attracted to each other by hydrogen bonds These properties give water the ability to support life: Solvency, cohesion, adhesion, chemical reactivity, and thermal stability Solvency- the ability to dissolve other chemicals o Water is sometimes called the universal solvent because it dissolves a broader range of substances than any other liquid Hydrophilic-substances that dissolve in water Ex: sugar Hydrophobic- substances that do NOT dissolve in water Ex: fats Adhesion- tendency of one substance to cling to another cohesion- tendency of molecules of the same substance to cling to each other calorie- 1 calorie is the amount of heat that raises the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 °C solution- consists of particles of matter(solute) mixed with more abundant substance, usually water (solvent) o solute can be gas, solid, or liquid colloids- mixtures of protein and water in the body 5 o many colloids can change from liquid to gel states suspension- the blood cells in our blood plasma exemplify a suspension emulsion- suspension of one liquid in another o ex: oil-and-vinegar salad dressing concentration- how much solute is present in a given volume of solution Molarity (M)- the number of moles of solute per liter of solution Acid- any proton donor (releases a proton H in water) Base- proton acceptor (OH ) - pH- how acidity I expressed, a measure derived from the molarity of H+ o neutral- pH of 7.0 o acidic- pH below 7.0 o basic- pH of 7.0 the lower the pH value, the more hydrogen ions a solution has and the more acidic it is buffers- chemical solutions that resist changes in pH energy- the capacity to do work work- to move something o examples of physiological work are breaking chemical bonds, building molecules, pumping blood, and contracting skeletal muscles potential energy- energy contained in an object because of its position or internal state but that is not doing work at the time 6 o chemical energy- potential energy stored in the bonds of molecules chemical reactions release this type of energy and make it available for physiological work kinetic energy- the energy of motion, energy that is doing work o ex: musculoskeletal movements, the flow of ions into a cell, vibration of the eardrum o heat is kinetic energy of molecular motion free energy- potential energy available in a system to do useful work o more relevant free energy is the energy stored in the chemical bonds of organic molecules chemical reaction- process in which a covalent or ionic bond is formed or broken chemical equation- the course a chemical reaction is symbolized by o reactants on the left, products on the right, and an arrow pointing from the reactants to the products decomposition reaction- when a large molecule breaks down into 2 or more smaller ones o AB A + B Synthesis reactions- 2 or more smaller molecules combine to form a larger one o A + B AB Exchange reaction- 2 molecules exchange atoms or groups of atoms o AB + CD AC + BD 7 Reversible reactions- reaction that can go in either direction under different circumstances Equilibrium- Reaction Rates: o Concentration- reaction rates increases when the reactants are more concentrated o Temperature- reaction rates increase as the temperature rises o Catalyst- speeds up a reaction, not consumed or changed by the reaction Metabolism- all chemical reactions in the body o Two divisions: Catabolism- consists of energy-releasing decomposition reactions Break covalent bonds, produce smaller molecules from larger ones, release energy that can be used for other physiological work Anabolism- consists of energy-storing synthesis reactions, such as the production of protein or fat Driven by the energy that catabolism releases Oxidation- any chemical reaction in which a molecule gives up electrons and releases energy o a molecule is oxidized by this process o electrons are removed from a reactant Reduction- chemical reaction in which a molecule gains electrons and energy 8 o When a molecule accepts electrons it is said to be reduced o Electrons are donated to the reactant Organic Chemistry- the study of compounds of carbon o Four categories of Organic molecules: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Amino Acids Functional groups- small clusters of atoms that determine many of the properties of atoms that determine many of the properties of an organic molecule o Organic acids carry a carboxyl group and ATP is named for its 3 phosphate groups o Others include hydroxyl, methyl, and amino groups Macromolecules- molecules with large molecular weights that range from the thousands (starch and proteins) to millions (DNA) o polymers- (most macromolecules are polymers) molecules made of a repetitive series of identical or similar subunits called monomers Dehydration synthesis (condensation)- how living cells achieve polymerization (the joining of monomers to form a polymer) o water is produced as a by-product hydrolysis- water molecules ionize into OH and H + o all digestion consists of hydrolysis reactions 9 carbohydrate- hydrophilic (water loving) organic molecule with the general formula (CH2H)n(where n represents the number of carbon atoms) o monosaccharides- simple sugars, monomers obtained mainly by the digestion of more complex carbohydrates 3 primary monosaccharides: glucose- “blood-sugar” that provides energy to most of our cells fructose galactose Others: ribose and deoxyribose (important in DNA and RNA) o Disaccharides- sugars composed of 2 monosaccharides sucrose- made of glucose and fructose produced by sugarcane and sugar beets and used as table sugar lactose- made glucose and galactose milk sugar maltose- made of glucose and glucose product of starch digestion present in foods such as germinating wheat and malt beverages o oligosaccharides- short chains of 3 or more monosaccharides o polysaccharides- long chains up to thousands of monosaccharides long 10 glycogen: energy-storage polysaccharide made by cells of the liver, muscles, brain, uterus, and vagina long branched glucose polymer starch: energy-storage polysaccharide of plants store it when sunlight and nutrients are available and draw from it when photosynthesis is not possible only significant digestible polysaccharide in the human diet cellulose: structural polysaccharide that gives strength to the cell walls of plants principal component of wood, cotton, and paper consists of a few thousand glucose monomers joined together, with every other monomer “upside down” relative to the next All digest carbohydrates are ultimately converted to glucose, and glucose is oxidized to make ATP (energy) Carbohydrates are often conjugated (covalently bonded to) proteins and lipids o many of the lipid and protein molecules at the external surface of the cell membrane have chains of up to 12 sugars attached to them glycolipids- carbohydrate covalently bonded to a lipid component of the cell surface coat glycoproteins- carbohydrate covalently bonded to a protein 11 component of the cell surface coat and mucus proteoglycans- macromolecules in which the carbohydrate component is dominant and a peptide or protein forms a smaller component forms gels that help hold cells and tissues together, form a gelatinous filler in the umbilical cord and eye, lubricates the joints of the skeletal system, and accounts for the tough rubbery texture of cartilage Lipids- hydrophobic organic molecule (usually composed of only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; with a high ratio of hydrogen to oxygen) o the primary function of fat is energy storage o Primary Lipids in humans: Fatty acids- source of energy, precursor of triglycerides Saturated: Unsaturated: Polyunsaturated: Essential fatty acids: Triglycerides- molecule consisting of a 3-carbon alcohol called glycerol linked to 3 fatty acids Each bond between a fatty acid and glycerol is formed by dehydration synthesis Also called neutral fats When liquid at room temperature triglycerides are called oils 12 Phospholipids- major component in cell membranes, aid in fat digestion dual nature 2 fatty acid “tails” of the molecule are hydrophobic phosphate “head” is hydrophilic Eicosanoids- chemical messengers between cells Play a variety of signaling roles in inflammation, blood clotting, hormone action, labor contractions, control of blood vessel diameter, and other processes Steroids- chemical messengers between cells Cholesterol is the “parent” steroid from which the other steroids are synthesized Proteins- a polymer of amino acids o the 20 amino acids used to make proteins are identical except for a third functional group called the radical (R group) attached to the central carbon o peptide: any molecule composed of 2 or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds formed by dehydration synthesis peptide bonds join the amino acid group of one amino acid to the carboxyl group of the next Protein Structure: o Primary Structure- the protein’s sequence of amino acids, which is encoded in the genes o Secondary Structure- a coiled or folded shape held together by hydrogen bonds between the slightly 13 negative C=O group of one peptide bond and the slightly positive N—H group of another one some distance away Most common are alpha helix, beta sheet o Tertiary Structure- formed by the future bending and folding of proteins into various globular and fibrous shapes o Quaternary structure- association of 2 or more polypeptide chains by noncovalent forces such as ionic bonds and hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions Denaturation- more drastic conformational change in response to conditions such as extreme heat of pH o Makes a protein unable to perform its normal function o Ex: when you cook and egg and the egg white turns from clear and runny or opaque and stiff Protein Functions: o Structure: o Communication: o Membrane transport: o Catalysis: o Recognition and protection: o Movement: o Cell adhesion: o Enzymes- proteins that function as biological catalysts o enable biochemical reactions to occur rapidly at normal body temperature 14 o substrate: the substance the enzyme acts upon activation energy- the energy needed to get the reaction started Enzyme structure and action: o 3 principal steps: a substrate molecule approaches a pocket on the enzyme surface called the active site …. the substrate binds to the enzyme, forming an enzyme-substrate complex enzyme and reaction products o factors that change the shape of an enzyme temperature and pH tend to alter or destroy the ability of the enzyme to bind to its substrate Nucleotides- organic compounds with 3 principal components o a single or double carbon-nitrogen ring called a nitrogenous base, a monosaccharide, and one or more phosphate groups o one of best known nucleotides is ATP ATP (adenosine triphosphate) – body’s most important energy-transfer molecule o briefly stores energy gained from exergonic reactions ***ADIPOSE TISSUE*** o responsible for energy storage, cushioning, insulation 15 The addition of an inorganic phosphate (Pi) group to an organic molecule is known as the process of phosphorylation. Any enzyme that adds an inorganic phosphate group to another is known as a kinase. A hormone binds reversibly to a protein on the surface of a cell, eliciting a response within the cell. In this example, the hormone is acting as a ligand. Glycolysis produces pyruvic acid in the aerobic and anaerobic… o more efficient in aerobic LIGAND: a chemical that binds reversibly to a receptor site on a protein, such as a neurotransmitter that binds to a membrane receptor, or a substrate that binds to an enzyme. Prosthetic groups consist of non-amino acid moieties 16
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