Developmental Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide
Developmental Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide PSY 266
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Anderson on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 266 at Indiana State University taught by Dr. Caitlin C. Brez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see Development Psy in Psychology at Indiana State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Developmental Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide The periods of human development Prenatal period: Conception to birth Infancy/toddlerhood: 03 years Preschool (early childhood): 35 years Childhood: 513 or 13 years of age (onset of puberty) Adolescence: 1213 (puberty) until early 20s or attainment of social status Early adulthood: early 20s to middle 30s Middle adulthood: middle 30s to middle 60s Later adulthood: middle 60s until death Article about Indiana’s infant mortality rate Infant mortality rates are higher in Indiana than almost any other state in the nation Out of every 1000 births, 7.7 infants will die within the first year in Indiana Indiana also has high rates of obesity and smoking, which both contribute to infant deaths In 2010, 17.1% of pregnant Indiana women smoked during pregnancy compares to 9.2% nationally Education is very important to prevent this Sticky mittens video Putting Velcro mitten on infants that enables them to “pick up” objects that they were previously not able to. Infants that wore the mittens previously were paying more attention to objects as well as faces around. Infants that didn’t wear mittens previously focused on faces around them. Also helps infants with motor development issues AE activity #1 Three different personalities: shy and slow to warm up, mostly feisty and intense, or easy going. Physical loving: physical loving is very important for children to have. When we meet their dependency needs, they become more independent Create intimate emotional connections: look at children with admiration, speak lovingly with a soft tone Harmonizing tempos: being leisurely and calm gives children the sense that we have time for them. Let them finish up their activity before interrupting them. Being hurried may make them frustrated. Enhance courage and cooperation: let them know you are there for them. Provide emotional support to regain courage. Create loving rituals during daily routines. Address stress: watch for any anxiety the child might have Learn developmental milestones: toilet learning can be completed from 18 months to 5 years which is a wide time window for development. Fine pincer grasp that is used to pick up a piece of cereal has a narrow time window well before 13 months. By 11 months, most are experts at using two fingers to grab. Hone to your detective skills: learn their signs and signals as well as outside factors to find out what they need or what is wrong. Notice stress signs: scan for stress signs. Dull eyes, tense shoulders, grave look, and compulsive rocking. Also eye contact avoidance, teeth grinding, fingernail chewing, clenched fists. Play learning games: if games become too familiar and easy, spice it up a bit. In contrast, if it is too difficult, simplify it some. Mirrors are great ways to help them learn about their own bodies. Peekaboo is another great game to play Provide physical play experiences: patacake Introduce sensory experiences: bubbles, playdough, or finger paints Play sociable games: the bouncing game to encourage them to ask “more” or ask child for toy and thank them and return it. This will teach them turn taking skills Enhance language and literacy in everyday routines Encourage mastery experiences Promote socioemotional skills: empathy Prenatal Development: Where are chromosomes located? cell nucleus How many pairs do we have? 23 What are genes? segments of DNA that provide instructions for development (located on chromosomes) Genotype: genetic traits Phenotype: genotype + environment “Bright” and “dull” maze running rat study (Tryon’s in 1940 and Cooper& Zubek in 1958) Conception terms: Zygote Blastocyst Embryo Fetus Timeline for an embryo: Day 1617: heart & major blood vessels begin to form Day 20: heart begins to pump fluid Day 21: first red blood cells appear 3 weeks after fert.: organ formation begins 8 weeks after fert.: almost all organs are completely formed 12 weeks: fetus fills entire uterus 14 weeks: sex of the baby is developed 16nd0 weeks: movement can be felt by mother 2 trimester: further refined development 3 trimester: gaining weight and fat + development Week count is off: example week 10 is really week 8 because counting starts at the last day of period Causes of preterm delivery: More common in multiple births Age of parent Two children less than 18 months apart Poor parental nutrition Labor: Oxytocin released by mothers pituitary gland start labor 3 stages of labor: 1 contractions 2 baby moves into birth canal and is birthed 3 placenta and umbilical cord come out What does the placenta do? supplies blood, oxygen and nutrients to baby Cesarean reasons: general fetus distress, breech or transverse position, size, elected Risks for mother: infection, blood loss, scarring, longer hospital stay, longer recovery, mortality, emotional Risks for baby: premature/low birth weight, physical injury, breathing difficulty, low APGAR APGAR 5 qualities: Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration Infancy survival reflexes: breathing, swallowing, blinking At birth reflexes: palmar, moro, Babinski, stepping, sucking Gross motor skills timeline: Newborn: flailing 24m: raise head 4m: start to roll stomach to back 46m: roll back to stomach, sit with support 6m: sit unsupported 79m: starting to be mobile, stand with support, walk with support 912m: stand unsupported 12m: walk unsupported Newborn: immature or competent? –both How do we assess infant perception? habituation, dishabituation, preferential looking Language Development 68m: can discriminate sounds from other languages 1012m: can discriminate only familiar sounds Word comprehension begins before production Babbling vs cooing 18m: vocab spurts By age 2: 10002000 words By age 6: 14,000 words How many do we have?: 20,00060,000 words 3 challenges of language Segment the speech stream Assign meaning Figure out a grammar Narrowing field Whole object constraint Taxonomic constraint Mutual exclusivity constraint
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