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Introduction to Biological Anthropology Anthropology 202-01, Fall 2016

by: Hawa Sheriff

Introduction to Biological Anthropology Anthropology 202-01, Fall 2016 Anth 202

Marketplace > University of Louisville > Science > Anth 202 > Introduction to Biological Anthropology Anthropology 202 01 Fall 2016
Hawa Sheriff
U of L
GPA 3.3467

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Introduction to Biological Anthropology Anthropology 202-01, Fall 2016 Detail notes from chapter 1-4
Biological Anthropology
Prof. Crespo
Study Guide
Evoloution, DNA replication. Heredity., Darwinism
50 ?




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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hawa Sheriff on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 202 at University of Louisville taught by Prof. Crespo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in Science at University of Louisville.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Chapter 1 What is Anthropology? 1. Anthropology is a study that examines human variation(differences) across the globe. Anthropology also study human evolution (how humans were created). 2. Anthropology uses a holistic approach to studying humans in society, it studies the entire history of humans. 3. Anthropology examines the location were people are, religion, language, political systems, and food systems. We also study the similarities and differences in human physical traits. 4. A key concept in the holistic field of anthropology is the biocultural approach, or the idea that humans are affected and shaped by both their genetic makeup and the cultural environment that surrounds them. 5. Anthropology is a scientific discipline. Scientists formulate and investigate research questions according to the scientific method. They use observation, documentation, and testing to generate hypotheses and to construct theories based on those hypotheses 6. What does it mean to be human? This key concept frames anthropology and drives its investigative questions. ➢ What are the fields of Anthropology? Anthropology is the scientific study of humankind. There are four subfields of anthropology: cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistic anthropology, and physical (biological) anthropology. i. Cultural anthropology (1) Studies present-day people (2) Culture defined as transmitted, learned behavior ii. Archaeology (1) Studies past human societies (2) Focuses on material remains and the processes behind them iii. Linguistic anthropology (1) Studies the construction and use of language by human Societies (2) Language defined as a set of written or spoken symbols that refer to things iv. Physical or biological anthropology (1) Studies all aspects of present and past human biology (2) Deals with the evolution of and variation among human beings and their relatives. v. No anthropologist is an expert in all four branches of anthropology. (1) All anthropology acknowledges the diversity of humans in all contexts. (2) Within the field there is a commitment to the notion that humans are both cultural and biological beings. vi. Biocultural approach (1) Humans are a result of a combination of inherited (biological) traits and cultural (learned) traits. vii. Anthropology focuses on a broad, comparative (holistic) approach. 2. What Is Physical Anthropology? a. The study of human biological evolution and human biocultural variation b. Two key concepts: i. Each person is a product of evolutionary history. (1) Includes all biological changes that have brought humans to present form ii. Each person is a product of an individual life history. (1) Combination of genetics and environment (including social and cultural factors) 3. What Do Physical Anthropologists Do? a. Physical anthropologists have different research foci. i. Study of living people ii. Study of other primates iii. Study of past people and past societies iv. Attempts to answer questions surrounding central tenet: What does it mean to be human? v. Application of anthropology to societal issues or concerns (1) Forensic anthropology vi. Study of all aspects of human biology vii. A biological science as well as a cultural science (1) Biology is studied within the context of culture and biology. viii. Interdisciplinary science (1) Utilizes theories and methods from a wide variety of other fields 4. What Is So Different about Humans from Other Animals? The Six Steps to Humanness a. Humans differ from other animals in several important ways. i. Bipedalism (1) Defined as walking on two feet ii. Nonhoning chewing (1) Loss of a large canine (as the other apes have) iii. Complex material culture and tool use (1) Humans depend completely on culture for day-to-day living and species survival. (2) Other apes exhibit some forms of cultural behavior. iv. Hunting (1) Group pursuit of animals for food v. Speech (1) The only animal that communicates by talking vi. Dependence on domesticated foods (1) Development of ability to raise domesticated plants and animals 5. How We Know What We Know: The Scientific Method a. Systematic observation of the world b. Observations form the basis for the rest of the process. i. Identifying problems, developing questions, and gathering evidence (data) ii. Data are used to test hypotheses. (1) Hypotheses explain, predict, and can be refuted. c. This process is called the scientific method. i. A way of knowing the world around us through observation ii. Results in an ever-expanding knowledge base iii. Empirical, or based on observation d. Theory is developed through the process of the scientific method. i. Theories are explanations of the way things work. ii. Theories can be modified by new evidence. e. If a theory proves absolutely true, it becomes scientific law. i. Examples: gravity, thermodynamics, and motion Applied Anthropology- anthropologist may only conduct research on human variation and human culture. Practicing Anthropology- may conduct research and use their finds to help some part of society. Chapter 2 ➢ Evolution Theory Marcobois was a philosopher who coined the term the Great Chain of Being and arranged society in hierarchical position. -GOD -People -Animals -Plants He believed that we all were interconnected in needed one another, but our evolution was separated from one another and fixed. 1. Lineanus classified human society different. He believed that animals and humans were in the same category and share a common ancestor. 2. Lamarck- believed that animals were not fixed and could evolve over time, he believed that certain characteristics were inherited and passed on to other generation for survival purposes. 3. Lyell argues that animals and humans evolved over time and he examined fossils and argued that geological and paleontological changes impacted species 3. Charles Darwin developed the term natural selection to describe his hypothesis that biological traits that enhanced an organism’s survival in an environment would increase in frequency over time. 4. Darwin was influenced by ideas and concepts from different fields, including uniformitarianism, the idea that the natural processes affecting the earth are the same as in the past. 5. Uniformitarianism: theory that the earth's features are the result of long- term processes that continue to operate in the present just as they did in the past. Elaborated on by Lyell, this theory opposed catastrophism and contributed strongly to the concept of immense geological time 6. Evolution by natural selection stands in contrast to Lamarck’s idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics, which stated that traits gained by organisms during their lives are passed on to their offspring at reproduction. 7. Reproductive Success: the number of offspring an individual produces and rears to reproductive age; an individual's genetic contribution to the next generation 8. Selective Pressures: forces in the environment that influence reproductive success in individuals 9. Biological Continuity: a biological continuum. When expressions of a phenomenon continuously grade into one another so that there are no discrete categories, they exist on a continuum. (Color is one such phenomenon, and lifeforms are another) 1. The Theory of Evolution: The Context for Darwin 1. Darwin relied heavily on five scientific disciplines of his time. 2. Geology: Reconstructing Earth’s Dynamic History 1. The earth is 4.6 billion years old. 2. The surface of the earth has changed significantly over time. 3. The great age of the earth was a radical theory in Darwin’s time. 4. James Hutton was among the first to study natural forces (wind, rain) and calculated Earth’s age at millions of years. 1. Uniformitarianism is Hutton’s idea that natural forces operating today are the same as natural processes that happened in the past. 2. The idea was rediscovered by Lyell. 3. Paleontology: Reconstructing the History of Life on Earth 1. Robert Hooke tested the idea that fossils were the remains of ancient life by studying the microscopic structure of wood. 1. Since fossil wood had a structure identical to that of living trees, Hooke concluded that fossil wood came from once living trees. 2. Georges Cuvier studied fossil anatomy, pioneering the fields of paleontology and comparative anatomy. 1. His observations led to catastrophism, or the idea that earthquakes or volcanic eruptions can lead to mass extinctions. 2. Cuvier formulated important descriptions of geologic strata, showing that early strata contained dinosaur fossils and more recent strata contained mostly mammals. 4. Taxonomy and Systematics: Classifying Living Organisms and Identifying Their Biological Relationships 1. Before Darwin, most scientists realized the need for a classification of life- forms, or taxonomy. 2. Early taxonomy was based on the idea that species did not change and reflected what the taxonomists thought was God’s purpose. 3. Carl von Linné (Carolus Linnaeus) developed the system of binomial nomenclature used today. 1. Each plant and animal had its own genus and species names. 2. Linnaeus’s book on taxonomy went through many revisions, and with each he added more levels to the system. 3. Linnaeus thought that life-forms were static, however. 4. Today, the focus on taxonomic relationships over time is called systematics. 5. Demography: Influences on Population Size and Competition for Limited Resources 1. Darwin read many works by important authors, such as Thomas Malthus, after he returned to England. 2. Malthus’s Essay on the Principle of Population made the case that populations are limited by their food supply. 3. In the ensuing struggle for food, individuals that successfully compete for food survive and reproduce. 4. Darwin added Malthus’s idea, of individual characteristics facilitating survival, to his own ideas. 6. Evolutionary Biology: Explaining the Transformation of Earlier Life- forms into Later Life-forms 1. By the late 1700s, scientists began to argue that biological organisms frequently changed form. 2. His idea is called the Lamarckian inheritance of acquired characteristics. 3. We now know Lamarck’s hypothesis about the mechanism of change is incorrect. 2. The Theory of Evolution: Darwin’s Contribution 1. Darwin’s main contribution was the synthesis of ideas with personal observations of the natural world. 1. Darwin observed fossils in South America that resembled living creatures. 2. Darwin drew on Malthus’s ideas of reproduction, variation, and population to form his theory of speciation. 3. Darwin hypothesized that offspring that survive in an environment would possess advantages for acquiring food and that the frequency of the advantage would increase. As environmental conditions changed, offspring without advantages to adapt to the change would die off. Over time, a common ancestor would give rise to related species. 4. Darwin’s idea displaced the idea of static species and defined the order of life in favor of the idea of variation as a prominent characteristic of populations. 5. Darwin collected his data in the 1830s and 1840s but did not write up his results until 1856. 6. Alfred Russell Wallace contacted Darwin in 1858 with a set of ideas very similar to those Darwin had arrived at; both men independently talked about evolution by natural selection. 7. Concerned that Wallace would gain sole credit for the idea, Darwin quickly finished writing On the Origin of Species, which was published in 1859. 2. Since Darwin: Mechanisms of Inheritance, the Evolutionary Synthesis, and the Discovery of DNA 1. Mechanisms of Inheritance 1. After articulation of his theory of natural selection, Darwin turned to the question of how traits are passed from parent to offspring. 2. Darwin was unaware of the research being conducted by Gregor Mendel in a monastery in the Czech Republic. 3. Mendel’s experiments with pea plants led to the fundamentals of modern genetics. 1. In his observation of the plants, Mendel concluded that a discrete physical unit was responsible for transmission of traits (now called a gene). 2. Mendel also discovered that the traits in the pea plants did not blend. (Plants were either tall or short.) Alternate forms of a gene are now called alleles. 3. Alleles are either dominant or recessive. 4. The combination of the genes from each parent determines the trait expressed in the offspring. Punnett square 4. In 1908, Thomas Hunt Morgan repeated Mendel’s work with fruit flies. 1. His team discovered that all genes are on chromosomes and that both genes and chromosomes are transmitted during reproductive cell division. 2. The Evolutionary Synthesis, the Study of Populations, and the Causes of Evolution 1. The combination of Darwin’s theory of evolution and Mendel’s theory of heredity is known as the modern synthesis and includes four causes of evolution. 1. Population genetics tries to answer questions about why and how changes in the gene pool occur. 2. Natural selection acts only on already existing genes. 3. Mutation introduces new genetic material into the gene pool. 4. Gene flow refers to the spread of genetic material from one population to another. 5. Genetic drift is random chance in the frequency of alleles. 6. The modern synthesis has unified all of biology and its affiliated fields. 3. DNA: Discovery of the Molecular Basis of Evolution 1. James Watson and Francis Crick published their discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953. 1. Rosalind Franklin used a special technique to image the DNA double helix. 2. DNA analysis has provided new insight into biological relationships between organisms and a molecular  “clock” to study evolutionary change. 3. DNA has also allowed science to study illnesses such as cancer, heart disease, and stroke. Chapter 3 1. DNA is found in all life on Earth, in both prokaryotic (single­celled) and eukaryotic (multicellular)  organisms. DNA makes up each chromosome and is the body’s genetic code. The number of  chromosomes varies by species (humans have twenty­three pairs). 2. Nuclear DNA is found within the nucleus of a cell; mitochondrial DNA is found within the cell’s cytoplasm. 3. The double­sided helix of DNA is made up of four bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and  cytosine (C). Each string of DNA is made of pairs of these bases: A pairs with T, and C with G. These  pairs form the genetic code that is replicated. 4. Some chromosomes carry the blueprints for nonsex traits (somatic chromosomes), whereas others carry  the traits for male and female (sex chromosomes). Meiosis is the process by which DNA, carried on the  chromosomes, replicates itself into haploid gametes that contain half the genetic information of the  organism. 5. Errors in chromosome sorting can be a source of variation; translocations, or the exchange of  chromosomal segments, are one example. Genes perform many functions that can be divided into  structural and regulatory categories. Structural genes provide the code for body tissues and organs,  whereas regulatory genes turn other genes on and off and are responsible for the body’s growth and  maintenance. 6. As the field of modern genetics has developed, it has become clear that the idea of "one trait, one gene"  is not completely applicable. Many traits are influenced by more than one gene (polygenic). Some single  genes can have multiple effects (pleiotropy). Chapter Study Outline 1. The Cell: Its Role in Reproducing Life and Producing Variation 1. Two Types of Organisms 1. Prokaryote (one cell) 2. Eukaryote (many cells) 2. Two Types of Cells 1. Somatic (body) cells 2. Gamete (reproductive) cells 2. The DNA Molecule: The Genetic Code 1. Nuclear DNA 1. Contained within the nucleus of a cell 2. Makes up chromosomes 3. Complete set called genome 2. Mitochondrial DNA 1. Contained in organelles in cell’s cytoplasm 2. Inherited from the mother 3. DNA: The Blueprint of Life 1. Chemical template for every aspect of organisms 2. Double helix, ladder­like structure 1. Each unit of ladder (rung and uprights) is called a nucleotide 2. Ladder rung (paired nitrogen bases) made up of 4 types 1. Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine 2. Complementary pairs (A&T, C&G) form rung 3. The DNA Molecule: Replicating the Code 1. One function of the DNA molecule is replication. 1. Part of cell division—meiosis or mitosis 2. DNA makes identical copies of itself. 2. Chromosome Types 1. Occur in homologous (matching) pairs 1. One in each pair from each parent 2. Autosomes (non­sex chromosomes) 3. Sex chromosomes 1. X, Y 2. Females carry two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. 3. The sperm determines the sex of the offspring. 4. Mitosis: Production of Identical Somatic Cells 1. DNA replication followed by one cell division 2. Diploid cell (contains full set of chromosomes) 5. Meiosis: Production of Gametes (Sex Cells) 1. One DNA replication followed by two cell divisions 2. Gametes are haploid (half the number of chromosomes). 3. Does not result in identical cell copies 4. Errors can occur during meiosis. 1. Nondisjunction, translocation 6. Producing Proteins: The Other Function of DNA 1. Proteins are chemicals that make up tissues. 2. Also regulate functions, repair, and growth of tissues 3. Proteins are made up of amino acids. 4. Structural proteins responsible for physical characteristics 5. Regulatory proteins responsible for functions: enzymes, hormones, antibodies 6. Protein synthesis involves two steps: 1. Transcription (unzipping, template for RNA) 2. Translation (template attaches to ribosomes) 7. DNA in protein synthesis is coding DNA. 8. Most of human DNA is noncoding. 7. Genes: Structural and Regulatory 1. Structural genes are responsible for body structures. 2. Regulatory genes turn other genes on and off. 1. Homeotic (Hox) genes 2. Master genes 8. Polymorphisms: Variations in Specific Genes 1. Each gene has a specific physical location (locus). 2. Loci are valuable for understanding genetic variation. 3. Alleles on different loci are chemically alternative versions of the same gene. 4. Some genes have one allele while others have more. 1. Mendel’s Law of Segregation: a parent passes one allele to offspring. 5. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) 1. Make up variation between and within human populations 6. Genotypes and Phenotypes: Genes and Their Physical Expression 1. Chemically identical alleles are termed homozygous. 2. Chemically different alleles are heterozygous. 1. Dominant allele is expressed in the pair. 2. For a recessive allele to be expressed, there must be two copies. 9. The Complexity of Genetics: Polygenic Variation and Pleiotropy 1. Much of genetics is based on the “one gene, one protein” model. 2. However, many traits are polygenic and are determined by genes at more than one locus. 3. For some traits, only some of the genetic variation can be calculated (heritability). 1. Make up variation between and within human populations 2. Heritability ranges from 0 (none of the variation is genetic) to 1 (all of the variation is genetic). 3. Only heritable traits respond to natural selection. 4. Measurement of heritability is complicated by pleiotropy, or a single allele having multiple effects. 1. Most complex traits are both pleiotropic and polygenic . Chapter 4 1. Demes, Reproductive Isolation, and Species 2. Evolution is about groups of potentially reproducing organisms. 3. Deme refers to members of a species that produce offspring. 4. All the genetic material within a breeding population is referred to as the gene pool. 5. The term species refers to the populations and their members that are capable of  breeding with each other and producing viable, fertile offspring. 1. Species are defined on the basis of reproductive isolation. 6. Population genetics studies change over time (or the lack of it) in gene pools. 7. Hardy­Weinberg Law: Testing the Conditions of Genetic Equilibrium 8. This mathematical model is used to study genetic change in populations. 9. If no change is occurring within the population, gene frequencies at a locus remain the  same. 10.If change is occurring, evolution is happening within the population. 11.Mutation: The Only Source of New Alleles 12.Mutation is the only source of new genetic information. 13.Mutation can be any heritable change in the structure or amount of genetic material. 14.Different types 1. Point, frameshift, transposable elements 15.Spontaneous mutations have no known cause. 16.Induced mutations are caused by environmental agents (mutagens). 17.Most mutations are harmless. 18.Natural Selection: Advantageous Characteristics, Survival, and Reproduction 19.Principle based on Darwin’s conclusion that individuals with advantageous  characteristics will survive and reproduce in higher numbers (reproductive success) 20.Patterns of Natural Selection 1. Directional selection favors an extreme form of a trait. 2. Stabilizing selection favors the average form of a trait. 3. Disruptive selection favors individuals at both extremes. 21.Natural Selection in Animals: The Case of the Peppered Moth and Industrial Melanism 1. Numerous examples exist for natural selection in animals, such as the sea dragon. 2. The peppered moth is the best evidence of natural selection that has been documented. 3. The light and dark peppered moths are found in England. 4. As pollution covered trees in the moths’ habitat, the lighter peppered moths were more  easily preyed upon by birds and the darker form became more prevalent. 5. In the 1970s, stricter pollution laws again changed the moths’ habitat, and the darker  form became the easier prey; the lighter form became more common. 22.Natural Selection in Humans: Abnormal Hemoglobins and Resistance to Malaria 1. The Hemoglobin S gene causes sickle­cell anemia in humans. 2. Individuals with the SS genotype suffer from sickle­cell anemia, an illness fatal without  medical intervention. 3. The Geography of Sickle­Cell Anemia and the Association with Malaria 1. 20%–30% of people living in equatorial Africa have the S gene. 2. High frequencies of the S gene overlap areas where malaria is endemic (constantly  present). 3. A relationship has been documented between possession of one S gene and higher  survival when exposed to malaria. 4. The Biology of Sickle­Cell Anemia and Malarial Infection 1. Heterozygous individuals (those with the AS genotype) do not suffer from sickling crises that the SS genotype causes. 2. They do possess somewhat lower oxygen levels in their hemoglobin, which is where the malaria parasite finishes its life cycle. 3. The parasite generally cannot survive and reproduce. 5. History of Sickle­Cell Anemia and Malaria 1. Sickle­cell tied to spread of Bantu people, who carried the S mutation into equatorial  Africa. 2. The Bantu introduced agriculture into the region; large, cleared areas were ideal  environments for mosquitoes carrying malaria. 6. Other Hemoglobin and Enzyme Abnormalities 1. Thalassemia and G6PD show similar distributions and relationships to malaria as does  the sickle­cell gene. 23.Genetic Drift: Genetic Change Due to Chance 24.Random change in allele frequency over time 25.Can lead to one allele being lost and the other fixed in a population 26.May occur in a group that is endogamous (reproducing only within the group) 27.Founder Effect: A Special Kind of Genetic Drift 1. Occurs when a small segment of a population becomes reproductively isolated from the larger population 2. Causes the smaller population to diverge genetically from the parent population 28.Gene Flow: Spread of Genes across Population Boundaries 29.Gene flow often refers to migration, though it is influenced by culture and social  structure. 30.Effects of gene flow (exchange of genes between populations) have increased over  time.


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