Exam 1 Study Guide PY 358
Exam 1 Study Guide PY 358 PY 358
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katelynn Jones on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 358 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Theodore Tomeny in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 541 views.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Chapter 1 Key Terms: Abnormal Behavior- inconsistent with societal norms, cultural norms, and developmental norms. Interferes with daily functioning and causes emotional stress. Behavioral Genetics- describes approaches to the study of behavior that do not examine genes directly, but infer the action of genes and environment. Behaviorism- the theory that the only appropriate objects of scientific study are behaviors that can be observed and measured directly. Biopsychosocial Perspective- the idea that biological, psychological, and social factors probably contribute to the development of abnormal behavior and that different factors are important for different individuals. Classical Conditioning- a form of learning in which a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned response. Culture- the shared behavioral patterns and lifestyles that differentiate one group of people from another. Diathesis Stress Model- idea that people who have a biological disposition experience a trigger or stressor that then leads to a psychological disorder. Dimensional Approach- an approach to understanding behavior that considers it from a quantitative perspective, not a qualitative perspective. Mass Hysteria- a situation in which a group of people share and sometimes even act upon a belief that is not based in fact. Neuron- nerve cells found throughout the body and brain that send and receive messages. Neuroscience- the study of the structure and function of the nervous system and the interaction of that system and behavior. Neurotransmitter- chemicals that transmit information to and from neurons. Operant Conditioning- a form of learning in which behavior is acquired or changed by the events that happen afterward. Psychoanalysis- founded by Sigmund Freud. Consists of the three regions of the mind: id, ego, and superego. Treatment options are centered around dream analysis, interpretation, free association, insight, and catharsis. Contemporary models consist of ego psychology, and object relations theory. Reinforcement/Punishment- a contingent event that strengthens the response that precedes it/ the application of something painful or the removal of something positive. Scientist Practitioner Approach- an approach to psychological disorders based on the concept that when providing treatment to people with psychological disorders, the psychologist relies on the findings of research and in turn, when conducting research, the psychologist investigates topics that help to guide and improve psychological care. Sociocultural Model- the idea that abnormal behavior must be understood within the context of social and cultural forces. Synapse- space between neurons Trephination- a method used to create a hole in the skull to release the evil spirits. Viral Infection Theory- the theory that during the prenatal period or shortly after birth, viral infections could cause some psychological disorders. Application of Terms/Concepts: 1. How is abnormal behavior defined? What are the different criteria for abnormal behavior? What are some of the challenges and limitations of defining abnormal behavior? What factors should be considered when defining and treating abnormal behavior? - Abnormal behavior is inconsistent with societal/developmental/cultural norms, causes emotional stress and interferes with daily functioning. The four D’s of abnormality include dysfunction, distress, difference, and dangerous. Factors to consider include personal characteristics, age, socioeconomic status, education level, and biological changes. 2. Identify differences between categorical and dimensional approaches. - Categorical: do you meet diagnostic criteria? Things to consider- just as people are different and unique so are symptoms and where is the line drawn? Dimensional: abnormal behavior is constantly changing. Things to consider- can be placed on a continuum and incorporates quantitative criteria. 3. How was abnormal behavior explained across history? What did the ancient Egyptians believe? The Greeks and Romans? During the Middle Ages and Renaissance? The Nineteenth Century? How did treatment of mental illness/abnormal behavior differ according the beliefs of each of these time periods? - The ancient Egyptians believed in spirits who controlled much of the environment, including aspects of a person’s behavior. Their treatment included trephination which is a method used to create a hole in the skull to release the evil spirits. The Greeks and Romans believed that Hippocrates was the father of medicine who was the first to identify the following psychological symptoms: hallucinations, delusions, melancholia, hysteria, and mania. They believed in environmental factors, physical factors, and four humors. The Middle Ages/ Renaissance believed that abnormal behavior was work of the devil and that witchcraft evolved as a popular theory to explain abnormal behavior with 100,000 women slain in Europe as a result of these accusations (mass hysteria). Johann Weyer and Paracelsus said think about the science. In the nineteenth century moral treatment characterized by: the removal of patients from “warehouse” asylums, advocacy for a more humane method of treatment, the use of respect kindness religion and vocation. The key founders during this time included Philippe Pinel, William Tuke, Benjamin Rush, Dorothea Dix, and Emil Kraepelin. 4. What are the major differences between each of the models/theories listed in the textbook? How does each theory explain abnormal behavior? Who are the major persons associated with these theories? - Psychoanalysis: founder is Sigmund Freud, includes the three regions of the mind (id, ego, superego), defensive mechanisms can prevent or cause abnormal behavior, psychosexual stages of development, treatment options are centered around dream analysis, interpretation, free association, insight, and catharsis. Modern Psychoanalytic: Carl Jung and the development of analytic therapy, Alfred Adler and the development of individual psychology, contemporary models of psychoanalysis (ego psychology, object relations theory). Behavioral: B.F. Skinner, we are “Products and Producers” of our environment meaning we learn our behaviors, vicarious conditioning is learning by observing a person’s behavior, behavior is learned in a variety of fashions. Cognitive: founder Aaron Beck, “Perception is our Reality” meaning how we perceive the occurrence of an event or situation impacts how we act, think, and feel, according to Beck depression is negative view of self, the world, and the future (cognitive triad of depression), treatment is focused on changing these distorted cognitions or thoughts. Humanistic: founder Carl Rogers, incongruence between self-image and actual self means mental illness, client centered therapy which includes genuineness, empathic understanding, and unconditional positive regard. 5. What is the Biopsychosocial model? - Since each individual case is unique, no single model can fully explain the presence of abnormal behavior. Many different factors contribute to the illness as a “whole”. Examines biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors related to abnormal behavior. Includes the diathesis stress model. 6. What is the diathesis-stress model? Be able to define each part of this model and to identify examples of each of the parts of this model. - Idea that people who have a biological disposition experience a trigger or stressor that then leads to a psychological disorder. Chapter 2 Key Terms: Brain Stem- controls fundamental biological function such as breathing. Case Study- a comprehensive description of an individual or group of individuals that focuses on assessment or description of abnormal behavior or its treatment. Central Nervous System- brain and spinal cord. Cerebral Cortex- contains structures that contribute to higher cognitive functioning, including reasoning, abstract thought, perception of time, and creativity divided into two sides each containing four lobes. Comorbidity- the presence of more than one disorder. Control Group- comparison group for an experimental study in this group the variable to be studied is absent. Correlation- the relationship between variables that ranges from -1.0 to 1.0. Dependent Variable- assessed to determine the effect of the independent variable. Endocrine System- a system in the body that sends messages to the bodily organs via hormones. Regulates metabolism, body temperatures, and weight. Forebrain- includes the limbic system, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex. Hippocampus- plays a role in memory formation and has been linked with memory deficits. Hormones- chemical messengers that are released in the bloodstream and at on target organs. Independent Variable- controlled by the experimenter. Left Hemisphere- processes language and cognitive functioning in a more linear and logical manner, processes information in parts sequentially, and uses both language and symbols including numbers. Limbic System- a complex system of nerves and networks in the brain that controls the basic emotions and drives. Consists of the amygdala, cingulate gyrus, and the hippocampus, as well as the basal ganglia. Longitudinal Design- a research design in which participants are assessed at least two times and often more over a certain time interval. Midbrain- coordinates sensory information and movement. Neuroanatomy- the brain structure. Neurotransmitters- chemical substances that relay signals between one neuron and the next. Peripheral Nervous System- somatic nervous system which controls sensations and muscle movements, and the autonomic nervous system which controls involuntary movements and returns the body to resting levels. Prevalence- number of cases of a disorder in a given population at a designated time. Right Hemisphere- processes the world in a holistic manner, spatial context, creativity, imagery, and intuition. Single Case Design- experimental studies conducted with a single individual, most common ABAB. Application of Terms/Concepts: 1. Be able to describe the two parts (central and peripheral) of the nervous system. What does each part do? - The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is made of two parts: the somatic nervous system, which controls sensations and muscle movements, and the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary movements and returns the body to resting levels. 2. Be able to describe the two parts of the peripheral nervous system. What does each part do? - Somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system controls sensations and muscle movements. The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary movements and returns the body to resting levels. 3. Be familiar with the basic structure of the neuron and how neurons communicate with one another. Why is an understanding of neurotransmitters and their function so important with regard to mental illness? - The parts of a neuron include the dendrite, the soma, the axon, and the synapse. Dendrites are tree like branches that receive messages from the neurons. The soma keeps the cell alive. The axon is a tube like structure that carry messages to the cells. The synapse is space between neurons. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that transmit information to and from neurons. 4. How is the brain structured? What do we know about the two hemispheres and the types of information they process? What type of information does each lobe process? - The brain is split in two different hemispheres, each of which have four lobes. The left side is responsible for processing language and cognitive functioning in a more linear and logical manner; processes information in parts sequentially and uses both language and symbols including numbers. The right side processes the world in a holistic manner, spatial context, creativity, imagery, and intuition. The four lobes are the temporal, parietal, occipital, and frontal. The temporal lobe is responsible for understanding auditory and verbal information. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information from various sources. The occipital lobe is the center of visual processing. The frontal lobe is responsible for reasoning, impulse control, judgment, language, memory, motor functioning, problem solving, and sexual and social behavior. 5. How is the endocrine system involved with behavior and mental illness? - The endocrine system is responsible for sending messages to the bodily organs via hormones. It regulates metabolism, body temperatures, and weight. Release epinephrine in response to external and internal stressors. 6. Be able to define the following and describe the information they can provide and their limitations: case study, single case design, group level research, population studies. - Case study: a comprehensive description of an individual or groups of individuals that focuses on assessment or description of abnormal behavior or its treatment. Benefits of case study: can focus on the assessment and description of abnormal behavior or its treatment, examination of rare phenomena, generate hypothesis for group studies, allow practitioners to be involved in research, and illustrates important clinical issues. Limitations of case study: amount and type of data vary, impossible to replicate, limited in ability to understand abnormal behavior, inability to make any firm conclusions, and do not include control groups. Sing case design: experimental studies conducted with a single individual, most common ABAB. Benefits of single case designs: controlled study, and individual serves as his/her own control group. Limitations of single case designs: do not allow researchers to generalize the results to heterogeneous groups of people, and they do not address the impact of individual differences. Group level research: most common types of research, allows researchers to draw conclusions, allows researchers to evaluate the impact of different treatments, correlational methods, relationship between variables. Population studies: goal to understand abnormal psychology at the broadest possible level, epidemiology focuses on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders. 7. What are controlled group designs and why are they helpful/important? - Experiments in which groups of participants are exposed to different conditions at least one of which is experimental and one of which is a control. 8. What are some common problems (both current and past) in research with regard to poor diversity of research samples? - Women and older adults are excluded. Women are often excluded because of menstrual cycles and the effect that medication trials can have on a fetus and it is difficult to ensure that women will not become pregnant. Older adults are often excluded because an abundance of research is conducted with white samples on college campuses. 9. What are differences between cross-sectional and longitudinal designs? - A cross-sectional design is a research design in which participants are assessed only once for the specific variable under investigation. A longitudinal design is a research design in which participants are assessed at least two times and often more over a certain time interval. Chapter 3 Key Terms: Behavioral Observation- measurement of behavior by a trained observer. Clinical Assessment- process of gathering information about a person and his/her environment to make decisions about the nature, status, and treatment of psychological problems. Clinical Interviews- conversation between an interviewer and a patient to gather information. Comorbidity- the presence of more than one disorder. Diagnosis- identification of illness. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual- a classification of mental disorders originally developed in 1952; has been revised over subsequent years and is a standard of care in psychiatry and psychology. Differential Diagnosis- a process in which a clinician weighs how likely it is that a person has one diagnosis instead of another. Intelligence Test- used to measure intelligence quotient(IQ). Interrater Agreement- the amount of agreement between two clinicians who are using the same measure to rate the same symptoms on a single patient. Normative- a comparison group that is representative of the entire population against which a person’s score on a psychological test is compared. Personality Test- psychological test that measures personality characteristics. Projective Tests- tests derived from psychoanalytic theory in which people are asked to respond to ambiguous stimuli. Reliability- the extent to which a psychological assessment instrument produces consistent results each time it is given. Test Retest Reliability- the extent to which a test produces similar scores over time when given to the same individual. Self-Monitoring- a patient records and observes his or her own behavior. Structured Interview- a clinical interview in which the clinician asks a standard set of questions, usually with the goal of establishing a diagnosis. Unstructured Interview- a clinical interview in which the clinician decides what questions to ask and how to ask them. Validity- the degree to which a test measures what it is intended to assess. Application of Terms/Concepts: 1. What is the purpose of a clinical assessment? What type of information is gathered during one of these assessments? Why are these assessments important? - A clinical assessment is the process of gathering information about a person and his/her environment to make decisions about the nature, status, and treatment of psychological problems. It begins with a set of referral questions that are used to determine goals of assessment. These assessments are important for screening, diagnosis, treatment plan, and outcome evaluation. 2. What are some characteristics of a good assessment instrument? How do these characteristics improve the quality of the instruments? What are the different types of assessment measures? - The types of assessments are clinical interviews, psychological tests, behavioral assessments, and psychophysiological assessments. Validity and reliability (test-retest reliability and interrater agreement) are characteristics of a good assessment instrument. 3. What are clinical interviews? What purpose do interviews serve and how are they different from other assessment instruments? How are they similar? - Clinical interviews are conversations between an interviewer and a patient to gather information. The purpose of these interviews is for screening, diagnosis, treatment planning, or outcome evaluation. There are unstructured and structured interviews. They serve a similar purpose as assessment instruments however are different because they are in an interview set up. 4. Know what the different psychological tests purport to measure and their purposes. - Psychological tests measure memory, attention and concentration, personality, motor skills, perception, abstraction, and learning abilities. 5. How do the behavioral assessment techniques differ? - The goal of behavioral assessments is to understand behavior within the context of learning. Functional analysis is where a clinician identifies causal links between behavior and environment. Self-monitoring is when a patient records and observes his or her own behavior. A behavioral observation is a measurement of behavior by a trained observer. 6. What is the DSM? How is it used? What are some factors that should be considered when making a mental illness diagnosis? In what ways can diagnostic systems be harmful? - The DSM is a classification of mental disorders originally developed in 1952; has been revised over subsequent years and is a standard of care in psychiatry and psychology. Diagnostic criteria may need to vary across the life span, differences in men vs. women, differences in symptoms and disorders, and culture bound syndrome. A diagnostic system is harmful: stereotypes and labels, premature or inaccurate assumptions by clinicians, self-fulfilling prophecies, prevention of a thorough evaluation or comprehensive treatment plan, stigma, and over medicalization. Chapter 4 Key Terms: Agoraphobia- fear of the marketplace, fear of embarrassment. Anxiety- a common emotion characterized by 1. Physical symptoms, 2. Future oriented thoughts, and 3. Escape or avoidance behaviors. Anxiety Disorders- group of disorders characterized by heightened physical arousal, cognitive distress, and behavioral avoidance of feared objects/situations/events. Exposure- a client faces fears to get over them. Fight or Flight- activation of the sympathetic nervous system triggered by fear or stress. Generalized Anxiety Disorder- excessive worry about future events, past transgressions, financial status, and the health of oneself and loved ones that lasts at least six months. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder- a condition involving obsessions, often combined with compulsion that can be extensive, time consuming, and distressful. Panic Attack- discrete period of intense fear and physical arousal, which develops abruptly. Panic Disorder- recurrent panic attacks and fear of future attacks. Parasympathetic Nervous System- slows down the heart rate and respiration, thus returning the body to a resting state. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder- after an event that involves actual or threatened death, serious injury, or a threat to physical integrity, emotional distress leads to avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma. Persistent symptoms of increased SNS arousal. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors- causes depletion of serotonin in the neural synapses, includes medications such as Prozac, Luvox, and Zoloft. Separation Anxiety Disorder- severe and unreasonable fear of separation form a parent or caregiver. Social Anxiety Disorder- a pervasive pattern of social timidity characterized by fear that the person will behave in a way that will be humiliating or embarrassing. Specific Phobia- severe and persistent fears of circumscribed events, objects, or situations that lead to significant disruption in areas of functioning. Sympathetic Nervous System- increases heart rate and respiration allowing body to perform at peak efficiency. Allows you to use all available resources to escape. Trait Anxiety- a personality trait that exists along a dimension; those individuals high on this dimension are more “reactive” to stressful events and therefore more likely, given the right circumstances, to develop a disorder. Worry- the apprehensive expectations or outcomes about the future or the past that are considered to be unreasonable in light of the actual situation. Application of Terms/Concepts: 1. What parts of the nervous system are involved in the anxiety response? What does each part do? - The sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate and respiration allowing body to perform at peak efficiency and allows you to use all available resources to escape. The parasympathetic nervous system slows down the heart rate and respiration, returning the body to a resting state. 2. How is typical anxiety differentiated from anxiety disorders? What are some factors to consider when trying to identify/determine those experiencing an anxiety disorder? - Feeling anxious occasionally is normal, but when it starts to cause functional impairment is when it can become an issue. Gender and SES are some factors that are often considered when trying to determine anxiety. Men and women seek treatment at equal rates if fear is severe. 3. You won’t be asked to list every symptom of the anxiety disorders, but be able to recognize which major symptoms are associated with which disorders and know how these disorders are differentiated from one another. - Symptoms of panic attacks: peak in about ten minutes, somatic and cognitive symptoms. Symptoms of panic disorders: recurrent panic attacks and fear of future attacks. Symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder: excessive worry about future events, past transgressions, financial status, and the health of oneself and loved ones that lasts at least six months. Symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder: social situations that create distress with an intense fear that others will detect anxiety. Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: having obsessions and compulsions that can be extensive. Symptoms of PTSD: being jumpy, sleep disturbance, alcohol and drug abuse, feelings of guilt, and irritability. Symptoms of Separation Anxiety Disorder: fear of separation, throwing fits, making oneself sick. 4. What is a panic attack and how is it different from panic disorder? - A panic attack is a discrete period of intense fear and physical arousal, which develops abruptly. A panic disorder is recurrent panic attacks and a fear of future attacks. Someone can have a panic attack without having a panic disorder. 5. What are the differences between obsessions and compulsions? - Obsessions are intrusive thoughts, while compulsions are repetitive behaviors. 6. Apply the major theories (e.g. psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral, biological) to the anxiety disorders. How does each theory explain the anxiety disorders (i.e. what causes the disorders based on the different theories)? What are common anxiety treatments based on these theories? - Behavioral theories say that anxiety is learned behavior and that one becomes classically conditioned. Exposure therapy is often used as a treatment for anxiety. Psychodynamic: Freud says that a conflict exists between the id and the ego, sexual and aggressive impulses, and defense mechanisms especially repression and displacement result in phobias. Cognitive: information is processed differently leading to the development of anxiety. Biological: medication such as SSRI’s like Prozac, Luvox and Zoloft can be used or Benzodiazepines to allow GABA to transmit nerve signals effectively to reduce anxiety. Psychosurgery is only considered if a patient has failed to benefit from medication and therapy and can include a cingulotomy or a capsulotomy. CBT can also be used to relieve anxiety. 7. How are exposure and avoidance involved with anxiety disorders? - Exposure can be used to help a person overcome their anxiety. Individuals with anxiety disorders often use avoidance to avoid situations that give them anxiety.
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