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AGRI 116 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Erin Wade

AGRI 116 Exam 1 Study Guide AGRI 116 001

Erin Wade
GPA 3.9

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Study guide for exam on 9/16/16 Prof Camper Plants and Civilizations
Plants and Civilizations
Andrew P. Norton
Study Guide
AGRI116, plants, PlantsandCivilizations, Camper, exam1
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Wade on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AGRI 116 001 at Colorado State University taught by Andrew P. Norton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see Plants and Civilizations in Agricultural and Environmental Plant Sciences at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
Exam 1 Study Guide    Some Basics  ­ Photosynthesis ­ chlorophyll in plant cells captures energy from sunlight (what makes  plants green)  ● Splits water (H2O) into oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H2)  ­ Primary Metabolites ­ directly involved in growth, development, or reproduction  ● Cellulose/lignin ­ fiber in stems, leaves and roots  ● Chlorophyll ­ light harvesting compound in leaves    Plant Evolution  ­ Algae  ● No roots or leaves  ­ Moss  ● Bryophytes ­ non­vascular plants  ­ Ferns  ● Seedless vascular plants  ­ Conifers  ● Cycads ­ seeded plants  ­ Fruiting or Flowering plants  ● Angiosperms  ○ Monocots  ○ Dicots    Terminology  ­ Gymnosperm ­ naked seeded  ● Ex: Cycads such as conifers  ­ Angiosperm ­ seeds enclosed in fruit  ● Ex: flowering plants like an apple tree  ­ Monocot ­ one nutrient storage are (cotyledon)  ● Ex: arrowhead, lily, orchid  ­ Dicot ­ two nutrient storage areas (cotyledons)  ● Buttercup, rose, aster    Coevolution  ­ Reciprocal encouragement by different species for each other to evolve   ● Plant develops defences against being eaten, animal becomes immune to  defenses to eat plants, and so on  ­ Plants can’t move, so they have other methods to get pollinated, to disperse offspring,  and to defend against herbivores  ● When bees go out to visit flowers, they only go to one type  ● Wind blows pollen and seeds, but animals are better helpers  ● Nectar and fruit attracts insects, birds, and bats that help disperse  ● Seeds with barbs that attach to animals   ● Neurotoxins, tons of other chemicals that plants developed as defenses and we  now use for medicines and drugs    What we think we know  ­ Humans have been on Earth for about 2.5 million years, modern humans for about  100,000 years  ­ Agricultural societies started independently about 9­11,000 years ago in 5­7 different  locations around the Earth and they all started within 7,000 years of each other    Origins of Agriculture: Crops  ­ Different species of grasses (cereals) and legumes (beans) are domesticated by  separate isolated cultures around the world  ­ Grains and beans have a nearly complete amino acid content (protein building blocks)  ­ Miss­conceptions of hunter­gatherer societies as being brutish cavemen always  scrambling to survive  ­ Evidence shows that hunter­gatherer societies were/are actually very well fed and don’t  have to work that hard to get the food they need, they have enough extra time to  develop better tools, social structures, etc.     Archaeological Evidence  ­ Scientists can get an idea of the diet and health of ancient civilizations through:  ● Carbon chemistry (approximate age)  ● Skeletal Morphology (disease, diet)  ­ In general, pre­agricultural humans were healthier than those that developed agriculture  ● Taller  ● Better teeth (because agricultural societies eat a lot of corn which has sugars)  ● Lower incidence of disease (animal domestication ­ living closer with animals and  getting diseases from them, over time we have developed more immunities to  this)  ­ Phytolith (siliceous plant remains) ­ findings are becoming more important in determining  the diet of pre­agricultural/early agricultural societies  ­ Hunter­gatherers maintain populations at or below the carrying capacity of their  environment    Origin and Spread of Agriculture  8 Theories of Agricultural Origins:  1. Agriculture is a discovery  ­ Darwin (1896) Sauer (1952) ­ some “wise old savage” discovered useful plants  on a dump heap or in nature and discovered that you could plant, cultivate and  harvest it.  ­ Assumes that agriculture is superior and the only reason people didn’t do it  before that is because they didn’t know about it yet  2. Agriculture from crowding  ­ Childe (1952) ­ His “propinquity” theory that through proximity to each other, and  food stress (hunger), humans domesticated plants and animals  ­ Propinquity ­ closeness, either physical or through ideas and shared opinions  ­ Assumes that agriculture is superior/more efficient than gathering (at least in  crowded areas)  3. Evolution (Coevolution)  ­ David Rindos ­ Hunter­gatherers gradually changed plants through selecting and  tending the most desirable ones  ­ Agriculture is not a discovery, but a gradual change from hunter­gather to  sedentism to agriculture  4. Agriculture as an extension of gathering  ­ Binford­Flannery (1968) ­ Agriculture developed at the edges of permanent  settlements (fishing villages)  ­ Agriculture becomes profitable when gathering ability/reward is diminished for  certain populations within a system  5. Need for Alcohol  ­ McGovern (2010, 2013) ­ Motivation for population sedentism and domestication  of crops was to make an alcoholic beverage of some sort  ­ Agriculture arose from interest in alcohol/need for social lubricant  6. Domestication for religious reasons  ­ Hahn (1896) ­ Cattle, chickens, or plants were domesticated for religious purpose  (ritual sacrifice, etc.)   ­ Assumes that agriculture is more efficient than gathering  7. “No one theory” theory  ­ Harlan (1972) ­ Agriculture developed for different reasons and by different  mechanisms in different parts of the world  ­ Problem is this doesn’t give us a definitive answer  8. Chance, along with food stress  ­ Diamond (1999) ­ At the end of the last ice age (ca. 13,000 y.a.) improvements in  hunting techniques resulted in a decline in large game  ­ Agriculture may have been started many times, but it was only in a few areas  where the conditions were right for it to become dominate and then spread  ­ This makes agriculture sort of more profitable than hunter­gathering    Theories of the Spread of Agriculture:  1. Demographics  ­ Diamond (1999) ­ Populations can rapidly increase in sedentary populations  ­ Stable food supply (and subsequent development of storage facilities) buffers  environmental fluctuations  ­ Can feed more people per km2, but need more labor. This adds pressure to have  more children to work  ­ Positive feedback loop of population growth and greater production of food  2. Disease and disease resistance  ­ Diamond (1999) ­ Many “diseases of crowding” originated in domesticated  animals and transferred to humans  ­ Agriculturalists evolved resistance to these diseases. When hunter­gatherers  visit, they get the diseases that they do not have a resistance to and they die  3. Cultural and Technological developments  ­ Diamond (1999) ­ Sedentary, high density populations allow for division of labor ­  tool makers vs. food producers  ­ Time to experiment with ceramics, metals, etc.   ­ Emergence of political or religious hierarchies  ­ Standing armies    Domestication: Human Perspective  ­ Development of agriculture + sedentary lifestyle = Increased population density,  expansion   ­ Domestication ­ anthropogenic (human caused) evolution of a wild species to one which  cannot survive without human assistance    Domestication: Plant Perspective  ­ Evolution ­ change in trait frequency over time  ­ Diversity ­ need multiple versions of traits for trait frequency to change  ● Mutations ­ change certain traits  ● Recombination ­ mixes parents’ traits  ● Migration ­ introduces new traits into a population  ­ Selection ­ this is the pressure that acts on diversity  ● Humans select for traits associated with agriculture  ● May result in loss of diversity    Patterns of Domestication: “The Domestication Syndrome”  ­ The suite of traits which were selected for during domestication are considered the  “domestication syndrome”  ● Loss of seed dispersal  ● Improved yield  ● Synchrony of germination and flowering    “Unintentional Domestication”  ­ Theory ­ Initial cultivators would harvest plants which are most suitable for agriculture  ● Seeds which “dispersed” during collection would fall to the ground and would not  be harvested  ○ Harvesters selected for: Lack of seed dispersal  ● Only harvested the largest seeds  ○ Harvesters selected for: Improved yield  ● Only plants producing seeds at the time of harvest would be collected  ○ Harvesters selected for: Synchrony of seed production and flowering    How does domestication occur?  ­ Utilized → cultivated → semi­domesticated → fully domesticated (need heavy human  input)    Selection and Diversity  ­ Diversity is a prerequisite for evolution ­ with very few exceptions, diversity exists in all  species (cheetahs are an exception)  ● Selection changes levels of diversity  ○ Strong selection for specific traits reduces diversity  ­ Differential selection for each variety can increase between­variety diversity  ● Keeping specific seeds to plant the following year can increase the number of  varieties    Loss of Diversity  ­ Industrial monoculture farming relies on (nearly) genetically identical plants:  ● Domestication syndrome  ● Strong “selection” leads to dramatic reduction in a crops’ diversity    Importance of diversity: allows crops to evolve (or humans to breed them)  ­ Movement to new environments  ● New enemies:  ○ Pests and disease  ● Different Climates:  ○ Temperature  ○ Water  ○ Human Uses  ○ Day length     USA ­ 2.3 billion acres of arable land, most of any nation  ­ Now down to (less than 400 million?)  ­ Losing 3000 acres every day to development    Classical Breeding  ­ The intentional selection and crossing of plant varieties to produce plants with desirable  traits   ­ The Green Revolution ­ Norman Borlaug figured out how to create crops with better yield  to help people starving in Mexico    The Green Revolution   ­ Criticisms  ● Landraces ­ Traditional varieties of crop plants that are locally adopted to the  area where they are grown (climate, pests, local uses, etc.)  ○ have been produced by both unintentional and intentional selection  ○ If you get rid of landraces and use the “better” higher yield crop, and then  something goes wrong and that one dies, then you have nothing    Genetically Modified Organisms  ­ “Any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained  through the use of modern biotechnology”  ● How the genes are produced, not what they are  ­ Gene knockouts, gene editing, gene addition a ​ r​ GMOs    Transgenic crops  ­ A transgenic crop is a crop that contains genes that have been artificially inserted  ­ Types of things transgenic crops are created for:  ● Insect resistance  ● Disease resistance  ● Delayed ripening  ● Herbicide resistance    Preserving Genetic Diversity  ­ Nikolai Vavilov ­ Had the idea to go to the supposed origins of agriculture to collect as  many different types of seeds as possible to be preserved in order to prevent the  starvation of the world  ● Ironically, he starved to death in prison    USDA set up National Plant Germplasm System  ­ The National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) at CSU   


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