AGRI 116 Exam 1 Study Guide
AGRI 116 Exam 1 Study Guide AGRI 116 001
Popular in Plants and Civilizations
Popular in Agricultural and Environmental Plant Sciences
SOC 1300 - DORSEY
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Wade on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AGRI 116 001 at Colorado State University taught by Andrew P. Norton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see Plants and Civilizations in Agricultural and Environmental Plant Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Some Basics Photosynthesis chlorophyll in plant cells captures energy from sunlight (what makes plants green) ● Splits water (H2O) into oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H2) Primary Metabolites directly involved in growth, development, or reproduction ● Cellulose/lignin fiber in stems, leaves and roots ● Chlorophyll light harvesting compound in leaves Plant Evolution Algae ● No roots or leaves Moss ● Bryophytes nonvascular plants Ferns ● Seedless vascular plants Conifers ● Cycads seeded plants Fruiting or Flowering plants ● Angiosperms ○ Monocots ○ Dicots Terminology Gymnosperm naked seeded ● Ex: Cycads such as conifers Angiosperm seeds enclosed in fruit ● Ex: flowering plants like an apple tree Monocot one nutrient storage are (cotyledon) ● Ex: arrowhead, lily, orchid Dicot two nutrient storage areas (cotyledons) ● Buttercup, rose, aster Coevolution Reciprocal encouragement by different species for each other to evolve ● Plant develops defences against being eaten, animal becomes immune to defenses to eat plants, and so on Plants can’t move, so they have other methods to get pollinated, to disperse offspring, and to defend against herbivores ● When bees go out to visit flowers, they only go to one type ● Wind blows pollen and seeds, but animals are better helpers ● Nectar and fruit attracts insects, birds, and bats that help disperse ● Seeds with barbs that attach to animals ● Neurotoxins, tons of other chemicals that plants developed as defenses and we now use for medicines and drugs What we think we know Humans have been on Earth for about 2.5 million years, modern humans for about 100,000 years Agricultural societies started independently about 911,000 years ago in 57 different locations around the Earth and they all started within 7,000 years of each other Origins of Agriculture: Crops Different species of grasses (cereals) and legumes (beans) are domesticated by separate isolated cultures around the world Grains and beans have a nearly complete amino acid content (protein building blocks) Missconceptions of huntergatherer societies as being brutish cavemen always scrambling to survive Evidence shows that huntergatherer societies were/are actually very well fed and don’t have to work that hard to get the food they need, they have enough extra time to develop better tools, social structures, etc. Archaeological Evidence Scientists can get an idea of the diet and health of ancient civilizations through: ● Carbon chemistry (approximate age) ● Skeletal Morphology (disease, diet) In general, preagricultural humans were healthier than those that developed agriculture ● Taller ● Better teeth (because agricultural societies eat a lot of corn which has sugars) ● Lower incidence of disease (animal domestication living closer with animals and getting diseases from them, over time we have developed more immunities to this) Phytolith (siliceous plant remains) findings are becoming more important in determining the diet of preagricultural/early agricultural societies Huntergatherers maintain populations at or below the carrying capacity of their environment Origin and Spread of Agriculture 8 Theories of Agricultural Origins: 1. Agriculture is a discovery Darwin (1896) Sauer (1952) some “wise old savage” discovered useful plants on a dump heap or in nature and discovered that you could plant, cultivate and harvest it. Assumes that agriculture is superior and the only reason people didn’t do it before that is because they didn’t know about it yet 2. Agriculture from crowding Childe (1952) His “propinquity” theory that through proximity to each other, and food stress (hunger), humans domesticated plants and animals Propinquity closeness, either physical or through ideas and shared opinions Assumes that agriculture is superior/more efficient than gathering (at least in crowded areas) 3. Evolution (Coevolution) David Rindos Huntergatherers gradually changed plants through selecting and tending the most desirable ones Agriculture is not a discovery, but a gradual change from huntergather to sedentism to agriculture 4. Agriculture as an extension of gathering BinfordFlannery (1968) Agriculture developed at the edges of permanent settlements (fishing villages) Agriculture becomes profitable when gathering ability/reward is diminished for certain populations within a system 5. Need for Alcohol McGovern (2010, 2013) Motivation for population sedentism and domestication of crops was to make an alcoholic beverage of some sort Agriculture arose from interest in alcohol/need for social lubricant 6. Domestication for religious reasons Hahn (1896) Cattle, chickens, or plants were domesticated for religious purpose (ritual sacrifice, etc.) Assumes that agriculture is more efficient than gathering 7. “No one theory” theory Harlan (1972) Agriculture developed for different reasons and by different mechanisms in different parts of the world Problem is this doesn’t give us a definitive answer 8. Chance, along with food stress Diamond (1999) At the end of the last ice age (ca. 13,000 y.a.) improvements in hunting techniques resulted in a decline in large game Agriculture may have been started many times, but it was only in a few areas where the conditions were right for it to become dominate and then spread This makes agriculture sort of more profitable than huntergathering Theories of the Spread of Agriculture: 1. Demographics Diamond (1999) Populations can rapidly increase in sedentary populations Stable food supply (and subsequent development of storage facilities) buffers environmental fluctuations Can feed more people per km2, but need more labor. This adds pressure to have more children to work Positive feedback loop of population growth and greater production of food 2. Disease and disease resistance Diamond (1999) Many “diseases of crowding” originated in domesticated animals and transferred to humans Agriculturalists evolved resistance to these diseases. When huntergatherers visit, they get the diseases that they do not have a resistance to and they die 3. Cultural and Technological developments Diamond (1999) Sedentary, high density populations allow for division of labor tool makers vs. food producers Time to experiment with ceramics, metals, etc. Emergence of political or religious hierarchies Standing armies Domestication: Human Perspective Development of agriculture + sedentary lifestyle = Increased population density, expansion Domestication anthropogenic (human caused) evolution of a wild species to one which cannot survive without human assistance Domestication: Plant Perspective Evolution change in trait frequency over time Diversity need multiple versions of traits for trait frequency to change ● Mutations change certain traits ● Recombination mixes parents’ traits ● Migration introduces new traits into a population Selection this is the pressure that acts on diversity ● Humans select for traits associated with agriculture ● May result in loss of diversity Patterns of Domestication: “The Domestication Syndrome” The suite of traits which were selected for during domestication are considered the “domestication syndrome” ● Loss of seed dispersal ● Improved yield ● Synchrony of germination and flowering “Unintentional Domestication” Theory Initial cultivators would harvest plants which are most suitable for agriculture ● Seeds which “dispersed” during collection would fall to the ground and would not be harvested ○ Harvesters selected for: Lack of seed dispersal ● Only harvested the largest seeds ○ Harvesters selected for: Improved yield ● Only plants producing seeds at the time of harvest would be collected ○ Harvesters selected for: Synchrony of seed production and flowering How does domestication occur? Utilized → cultivated → semidomesticated → fully domesticated (need heavy human input) Selection and Diversity Diversity is a prerequisite for evolution with very few exceptions, diversity exists in all species (cheetahs are an exception) ● Selection changes levels of diversity ○ Strong selection for specific traits reduces diversity Differential selection for each variety can increase betweenvariety diversity ● Keeping specific seeds to plant the following year can increase the number of varieties Loss of Diversity Industrial monoculture farming relies on (nearly) genetically identical plants: ● Domestication syndrome ● Strong “selection” leads to dramatic reduction in a crops’ diversity Importance of diversity: allows crops to evolve (or humans to breed them) Movement to new environments ● New enemies: ○ Pests and disease ● Different Climates: ○ Temperature ○ Water ○ Human Uses ○ Day length USA 2.3 billion acres of arable land, most of any nation Now down to (less than 400 million?) Losing 3000 acres every day to development Classical Breeding The intentional selection and crossing of plant varieties to produce plants with desirable traits The Green Revolution Norman Borlaug figured out how to create crops with better yield to help people starving in Mexico The Green Revolution Criticisms ● Landraces Traditional varieties of crop plants that are locally adopted to the area where they are grown (climate, pests, local uses, etc.) ○ have been produced by both unintentional and intentional selection ○ If you get rid of landraces and use the “better” higher yield crop, and then something goes wrong and that one dies, then you have nothing Genetically Modified Organisms “Any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology” ● How the genes are produced, not what they are Gene knockouts, gene editing, gene addition a r GMOs Transgenic crops A transgenic crop is a crop that contains genes that have been artificially inserted Types of things transgenic crops are created for: ● Insect resistance ● Disease resistance ● Delayed ripening ● Herbicide resistance Preserving Genetic Diversity Nikolai Vavilov Had the idea to go to the supposed origins of agriculture to collect as many different types of seeds as possible to be preserved in order to prevent the starvation of the world ● Ironically, he starved to death in prison USDA set up National Plant Germplasm System The National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) at CSU
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