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Study Guide Court & Judicial Processes TEST 1 VOCAB

by: Molly Notetaker

Study Guide Court & Judicial Processes TEST 1 VOCAB 3503

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Criminal Justice > 3503 > Study Guide Court Judicial Processes TEST 1 VOCAB
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Just the vocab and court cases from Section 1-3 of the book
Courts and Judicial Process
Carolina H. Lawler
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Molly Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3503 at East Carolina University taught by Carolina H. Lawler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Courts and Judicial Process in Criminal Justice at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
  Study Guide Court & Judicial Processes TEST 1    Vocab Section I:  Adjudication: (describes what courts do) to hear and settle a case by judicial procedure. Imples  a formal decision by a duly recognized court of law. Includes a judge's decision at any stage of  the criminal/civil process    Jurisdiction: refers to the persons over whom a court has power and the subject matter about  which a court can make a legally binding decision. (the court has the power to hear the case (or  motion) and issue a ruling  1. Geographical  jurisdictions:  the courts entitlement to  hear and decide disputes  arising within specified political boundaries (cities, county, state, group of states,  nation) Ex: state court jurisdiction does not go behind the state  2. Subject matte​r jurisdiction: the type of cases the court is entitled to hear. Some  courts have jurisdiction over all criminal and civil mater while other only have it  for certain types of criminals  3. Orig ​ inal jurisdiction: refers to the court’s power to try a case and issue a ruling  4. Appellate jurisdiction: refers to the court’s authority to review decisions made by  a lower court.   *A court can have original and appellate jurisdiction EX: Supreme Court*  ● Ma ​ ndatory jurisdiction: The court must hear all properly filed appeals  ● Disc​retionary jurisdiction: The court can decide which cases it wants to hear    Judiciary Act of 1789: ​1st senate bill was introduced in 1789 which created a federal judicial  system  composed  of the supreme  court,  3  circuit courts,  each made up of 2 Supreme Court  Justices and a district court judge, and 13 district courts.     Court of Appeals Act of 1891: created a circuit court of appeal, a new layer of intermediate  appellate courts that would hear appeals from the district courts, and gave the Supreme Court  more discretion in deciding which cases to hear  (Judges Bill: addressed the issue of discretionary appeal to the Supreme Court *1925*)    En Banc: Occasionally the judges  in the  circuit  may decide to sit this; meaning that all the  judges will hear the case, which will be decided by a majority vote    Writ Of Certiorari: ​cases reach the supreme court though this; which is an order to the lower  court to send the records in the case forward to review    1  Rule of Four: t ​ o decide whether to issue the writ, the justices follow this; the case will be heard  and the writ issued if 4 of the 9 justices agree to hear the appeal, the refusal means only that, for  whatever  reasons,  the  Court  does  not  want  to  hear  the  case  at  the  time  of  the review  not  necessarily that they agree with the previous court ruling    Prosecutors: ​representative of  the executive branch of government, in both federal and state  courts, responsible to bring criminal charges against individuals who are accused of a crime and  the represent the government interest in the court    6th  Amendment: “In  all  criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to have the  assistance of counsel for his defense”  Gideon V. Wainwright (1963): lawyers are necessities not luxuries, court ruled that all  indigent criminal defendants charged with felonies are entitled to lawyers to assist them  in their defense  ​ Argersinger V. Hamlin (1972): no person could be imprisoned for any offense unless he  or she represent by council, and that the right to counsel applies to all “critical stages” of  the criminal justice process    Public defenders: salaried  government employees, hired by the state or  county to  represent  indigent defendants    Judge:  presides  over the trials and imposes sentences,  they make important decisions  at all  stages of the criminal process (ex: issue warrants)     Merit System:  Judges are  selected under  this  system, also known as the Missouri Bar Plan,  nominated by a judicial nominating commission that includes lawyer and layperson    Jury Pool: l ​ ist of names from which actual jurors will be chosen, should represent all the groups  in the community  6th  Amendment:  does  not  mean  that  every  jury  must  contain  representative  of  all  economic, social, religious ,racial political and geographical groups of the community    Venire: t ​ he process of selecting a jury begins with the selection of the jury pool, the method for  this varies Ex: they use voter registration lists or telephone directory lists    Jury Panel: ​individuals selected from the jury pool for a particular case are usually called this    Voir Dire: members of the jury panel are called into the court, this processes is called this, old  french word for “to speak the truth”  Discovery: ( ​ the last significant step leading up to trial or adjudication) the process by which both  parties to the case learn of the evidence that opposing side will use at trial  Brady V. Maryland (1970): prosecutor are not allowed to conceal exculpatory evidence,  which is evidence tending to show that the defendant is innocent    Exclusionary rule: evidence that is wrongfully  obtained such as through an unconstitutional  search is not admissible at trial  Weeks V. United States (1914): paper seized following a search that was in violation of  the 4th Amendment should be returned rather than used in a criminal trial against the  petitioner  ​ Mapp V. Ohio (1961): binded all the states through the due process clause of the 14th  amendment  Elkins V. United States: ​allowed federal prosecutors to use evidence illegally gathered by  state police, to be a violation of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution​   Plea Bargaining: more than 90% of defendants charged with felonies in state/federal court plead  guilty, it is a negotiation between the 2 parties to come to an agreement on a sentence without  trial  ​ 1: Charge bargaining: prosecutor offers to reduce severity of the charges or the number  of accounts in exchange for guilty plea  ​ 2.  Sentence  bargaining:  sentence  bargaining,  in  which  the  prosecutor  agrees  to  recommend leniency at the sentencing stage    Bench Trial: the  judge presiding  over the  case decides whether  the defendant is to be held  accountable for the crime in question  ​ Williams V. Florida (1970): Supreme court held that the 6th amendment does not require  juries in criminal cases to be the traditional size of 12 persons  ​ Apodaca V. Oregon (1972): Supreme court held that guilty verdicts from 6­person juries  must unanimously, but  those from 12­person juries need not  be  (9 is  constitutionally  permissible)    Writ of Habeas Corpus: ​process begins when the offenders petitions the U.S Supreme Court or  one of the federal district courts and asks the court to issue this     ​ Wedding Cake Metaphor: adopted by Friedman and Percival ( the variations in the treatment of criminal offenders and their cases, there is not criminal justice  “system” rather several layered on top of one another that function simultaneously     Courtroom  Workgroup: ​a more realistic view  of the criminal  court system, the courthouse  community cooperate to process cases as expeditiously as possible (judges, prosecutor, defense  attorneys work together day after day to move cases through the court system)  Vocab Section II:  Code of Hammurabi: 1 and also enumerated settlements for common disputes   Common law: “common custom of the realm rather than the parochial traditions of a particular  shire or village”, time of Henry II, a body of law had been developed, and decisions of the courts  were written down and circulated    Ecclesiastical courts:​ In the middle ages which were found in many parts of Europe  Courts Christians: ​another name of an the above court mentioned, exercised jurisdiction over  religious matter and sometimes other matters as well  ● Both dealt with the canon law, eventually King William I of England initiated a writ that    Mediation: ​bringing neutral their party and the parties to a dispute together to resolve the matter  Binding  arbitration: requires that the parties to dispute agree to abide by the neutral party’s  decision, which cannot be appealed. Privately conducted trail    Stare Decisis: ​“let the decision stand”, interpreting the law and deciding whether it is applicable  in a given situation  Precedent: the same issue has come up before, it makes sense to look to past decisions, to see  how the matter has be resolved previously  ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Plessy V. Ferguson (1896): Upheld racial  segregation in public accommodations,  separate but equal doctrine  ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ 5  Due process model: s ​ ee the process as an obstacle course, stresses reliability and minimization  of the potential for mistakes, contends that informal, non adjudicatory fact finding carries with it  a strong likelihood of error.    Factual guilt: means that the evidence shows that there is a high probability that the dfendant  committed the crime of which he or she is accused  Legal Guilt: ​refers to the process by which determination of guilt are made, defendants are not  to be deemed guilty unless all of the mandated procedures and rules designed to protect the right  of the accused have been followed    Parens  Patriae:  a  medieval doctrine  that  permitted the state to take away  the rights  of the  natural parent and to act as the parent or guardian of a child if his or her welfare were at risk    Waiver of Juveniles to adult court: states responded to the increase in serious juvenile crime  by  either  lowering  the  age  when  children  can  be  transferred  from juvenile  court  to (adult)  criminal court or expanding the list of offenses for which juveniles can be waived to criminal  court (or both)    Vocab Section III:    Adversarial System: ​Pits two parties against each other, the prosecution and the defense, in  pursuit of the church    Inquisitorial  System:  found  in  most  countries  on  the  European  continent,  opposite  of  adversarial system, more like an investigation     Prosecutors: decides who will be charged, what charge will be filed, who will be offered a plea  bargain, and the type of bargain that will be offered    Charging  decisions:  a  lot of research on prosecutors and prosecutorial decisions making is  limited, there is an emerging body of research on the factors affecting charging decisions, the  prosecutor is in charge of this    Legal Sufficiency policy: ​prosecutors accept all cases in which the legal elements of the crime  are present  Trial sufficiency policy: ​evaluate cases in terms of their likelihood of conviction at trial  System efficiency policy: ​emphasizes case screening as a way of decreasing office workload, is  characterized by high levels of referrals to diversionary programs  ​ ​ ​ 7  ● “the deficient performance prejudiced the defense, errors were so serious  as to deprive the defendant of a fair trial”         


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