Study Guide Exam 1
Study Guide Exam 1 Psych 3320
Popular in Learning and Memory
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julie V. on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 3320 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Anthony Blum in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see Learning and Memory in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
PSYC 3320 Fall 2015 Study Guide 1 Chapter 1 (Lutz) 1. What is Kimble’s definition of learning? a. A relatively permanent change in behavioral potential due to practice. 2. How is the Hilgard and Bower definition a change from Kimble’s definition? a. It is relative permanent change in behavior, potential due to practice, but it is not due to: i. Native response tendency (instincts) ii. Maturation=>due to physical development iii. Temporary states 3. What are the central features of the Behaviorist approach to psychology? a. The central features that behaviorists focused on were the observable entities such as environmental stimuli and the observable responses. They do not mention the mental events when they explained the causes of the behaviors. 4. What are the central features of the Information Processing perspective? a. The central features of the information processing perspective include the view of thinking that our thinking is like workings of a computer. It represents the information inside the head. Chapter 2 (Lutz) 1. What is habituation? a. Habituation deals with decreasing responses due to repeated stimulation. 2. Distinguish between habituation and fatigue. a. As both deal with a decrease in responses, Habituation deals with specific stimulus and Fatigue deals with a general state. 3. What is the relationship between the intensity of a stimulus and habituation? a. The relationship between the intensity of a stimulus and habituation is that the less intense the stimulus is, the easier it is to habituate. 4. What is the relationship between the timing of stimulus presentation and habituation? a. The relationship between the timing of stimulus presentation and habituation is that the when the rate of presentation is slower, it is easier to habituate. 5. What is sensitization? a. Sensitization deals with an increase in responses due to repeated stimulation, state of alertness or increased vigilance. It is a general state, not dealing with specific stimuli. 6. What effect does stimulus intensity have on sensitization? a. The effect that stimulus intensity has on sensitization is that the more intense a stimulus, the easier it is to sensitize. 7. What is the relationship between the timing of stimulus presentation and sensitization? a. The relationship between the timing of stimulus presentation and sensitization is that when the rate of presentation is quicker, it is easier to sensitize. 8. What effect does stimulus variability have on sensitization? On habituation? a. The effect that stimulus variability has on sanitization is that the more variability in simulation, the easier it is to sensitize. The effect that stimulus variability has on habituation is that the less variability in stimulation, the easier it is to habituate. 9. Which of sensitization or habituation is the more general state? Which is stimulus specific? a. Sensitization is a more general state as Habituation is a more specific state. 10. Describe the difference between the habituation curve (figure 2.1) and the sensitization curve (figure 2.5). a. The habituation curve is a negative curve as the more stimuli is repeated, the lower the response strength. b. The sensitization curve is a positive curse as the more stimuli is repeated, the higher the response strength. Chapter 3 (Lutz) 1. Give an example of classical conditioning--- be sure to be able to identify which is the neutral stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus, the unconditioned response, the conditioned response, and the conditioned stimulus. a. An Example of classical conditioning would be the example of Pavlov’s experiment. i. The Unconditioned stimulus would be the Food ii. The Unconditioned response would be salivation iii. The Neutral stimulus would be the Bell 1. There would be no response to the bell iv. Putting the Bell and the Food together 1. The unconditioned response would be Salivation v. The conditioned stimulus would then be again the bell vi. The end conditioned response would then end up being the salivation b. The dog would hear the bell and begin to salivate without the view of food. 2. Of the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, which is easily habituated and which is easily sensitized? a. Between Neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, Neutral stimulus is easily habituated while Unconditioned stimulus is easily sensitized because it usually strong. 3. What is (classical) extinction? How do we obtain it? a. Extinction is seen as the elimination of a conditioned response as a result of repeated presentations of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus. b. We obtain it when one stimulus is presented without the other. 4. What are the two types of responses that can be classically conditioned? a. One of the responses that can be classically conditioned is Reflexes. b. The other responses that can be classically conditioned is Emotional Responses. 5. Describe the Little Albert conditioned emotional response experiment--- be sure to identify all the component parts (neutral stimulus, unconditioned stimulus, etc). a. With the study of Little Albert, it started with the: i. Before: 1. Having the Loud Noise as the Unconditioned Stimulus 2. Having the White Mouse as the Neutral Stimulus 3. Having the fear, crying as the Unconditioned Response ii. During: 1. Putting the White Mouse and the Loud Noise together iii. After: 1. Having the White Mouse as the Conditioned Stimulus 2. Having the fear, crying as the Conditioned Response 6. How did Mary Cover-Jones eliminate a conditioned emotional response? a. Mary Cover-Jones eliminated a conditioned emotional response by the use of counterconditioning, as pairing another response with the stimulus. 7. Describe the logic of systematic desensitization. a. It is also known as counterconditioning. It deals with extinction of what was learned before and bring back the original stimulus that was the original conditioned stimulus. 8. Describe the suppression ratio. a. Suppression Ratio deals with seeing how much conditioning interferes with other behaviors i. Suppression Ration=# of Behaviors with Conditioned Stimulus Present/ (# of Behaviors with Conditioned Stimulus Present) + (# of Behaviors without Conditioned Stimulus) 9. Distinguish between delayed conditioning, trace conditioning, simultaneous conditioning, and backward conditioning. Which is the most effective in producing learning? The least effective? a. Delayed conditioning deals with the Conditioned stimulus/Neutral stimulus starting before the unconditioned stimulus is presented but lasts during the presentation of the Unconditioned stimulus. b. Trace conditioning deals with the Conditioned stimulus/Neutral stimulus starts first but ends before presenting the Unconditioned stimulus. c. Simultaneous conditioning deals with Conditioned stimulus/Neutral stimulus and the Unconditioned stimulus start at the same time. d. Backward conditioning deals with the Unconditioned stimulus first then the Conditioned stimulus/Neutral stimulus. e. The most effective in producing learning is Delayed conditioning. The least effective in producing learning is Backward conditioning. 10. What is the temporal coding hypothesis? a. Temporal coding hypothesis deals with how you learn the timing relationship between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus. 11. Distinguish between the inter-stimulus interval and the inter-trial interval. a. Inter-stimulus interval deals with the time delay between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus. b. Inter-trail stimulus deals with how long the delay is between trails i. One trail is one pairing of conditioned stimulus/neutral stimulus + unconditioned stimulus. 12. What type of inter-trial interval produces the best learning? a. The best type of inter-trail interval produces the best learning is the one with the longer delay. 13. What is the CS pre-exposure effect? a. The CS pre-exposure effect deals with having the Neutral stimulus/Conditioned stimulus being present without the unconditioned stimulus frequently which then does not produce a conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus link. 14. How do you produce pseudo-conditioning (the procedure)? a. As pseudo-conditioning is about the same as classical conditioning, it would deal with the about the same producers such as the used of the Unconditioned stimulus, Conditioned stimulus, the Unconditioned stimulus, the Conditioned stimulus and the Neutral stimulus. 15. Describe the procedure that produces higher-order conditioning. CS=Conditioned Stimulus US=Unconditioned Stimulus UR=Unconditioned Response CR=Conditioned Stimulus a. Step 1: CS1 + US—>UR b. Step 2: CS1—>CR c. Step 3: CS2 + CS1—>CR d. Step 4: CS2—>CR 16. Why is it hard to produce higher order conditioning beyond second order conditioning? a. It is hard to produce higher order conditioning beyond the second order conditioning because the problems with extinction becomes present. 17. Describe the procedure that produces sensory pre-conditioning. a. Step 1: CS1 + CS2 repeatedly b. Step 2: CS1 +US—>UR c. Step 3: CS1—>CR d. Step 4: CS2—>CR 18. What is the basic idea behind configural learning? a. The basic idea behind configural learning is that when multiple Conditioned stimulus’s are paired with the Unconditioned stimulus all at the same time, the overall combination of the Conditioned stimulus’s is learned. 19. Distinguish between the contiguity notion of classical conditioning and the contingency idea. a. Contiguity notion of classical conditioning deals with the Conditioned stimulus and Unconditioned stimulus put together have the result of a Conditioned response while the contingency idea deals with the Conditioned response only comes about when the conditioned stimulus is presented before the unconditioned stimulus. 20. Describe the procedure that produces the blocking effect. a. Step 1: CS1 + US—>UR b. Step 2: CS1—>CR c. Step 3: CS2 + CS1 +US—>UR d. Step 4:CS2≠≠>CR No CR to CS2 21. Describe the idea behind the Rescorla-Wagner equation. How does it explain the blocking effect? a. The idea behind the Rescorla-Wagner equation is that it is used to help explain blocking effect. b. It explains the blocking effect by saying that the reason that CS2 does not produce CR is because CS1 + US pairing captured most of the amount of learning available leaving little learning available for CS2. Ch. 4 (Lutz) 1. What are some differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning? a. Classical conditioning deals with two stimuli and puts them together to create a response, while Operant conditioning deals how the consequences of voluntary actions influence those actions. 2. Describe Thorndike’s puzzle box apparatus. What results did he find in his puzzle box experiments? a. Thorndike’s puzzle box consisted of a cage made from a fruit crate and he used a cat as the subject. He used a Trial-and-error type of procedure. He found that after a couple of trail and errors, the subjects would become more coordinated and efficient in their actions and would then come to choose some actions more than others 3. Describe Thorndike’s Law of Effect. a. Thorndike’s Law of Effect deals with the strengthening of an Simulus-Response connection. It deals with the connection being “stamped in” by the reward. 4. What is a discriminative stimulus? a. A discriminative stimulus is a signal to the learner that now is a good time to respond. 5. Distinguish between positive and negative reinforcement. a. Positive Reinforcement deals with the introduction of a stimulus and having the stimuli be pleasant, while Negative reinforcement deals with the removal of a stimulus and having the stimuli be unpleasant. 6. Distinguish between type 1 and type 2 punishment. a. Type I punishment deals with the introduction of a stimuli and having the stimuli be unpleasant, while Type 2 punishment deals with the removal of a stimuli and having the stimuli be pleasant. 7. What is shaping? a. Shaping deals with gradually leading the subject to perform a desired behavior. 8. What type of contingency did Skinner emphasize? a. The type of contingency Skinner emphasized involved the relationship between a response and a reinforce, which deals with operant conditioning. 9. Describe a Skinner Box. a. A Skinner box was a small cage that used a rat that had one trough in one of the walls. It had a lever close to the trough. The rat would need to push the lever to respond and when the light was on, the rat would be able to respond and get food in the trough. If he light was not on, nothing would happen when the lever was pressed. On the floor of the box, is had metal rods. The rods could be electrified and it would shock the rat every time it responded or it would turn off the shock by pressing the lever. 10. What is a control group? a. A control group is used to show that the measures found during an experiment are changing due to the operant learning procedures that are used or if they are due to something else. 11. Describe the ABAB experimental design. a. The ABAB experimental design consists of recording a baseline measure of performance before any reinforcing had been done (first a) then recording performance during the learning phase (the first b) then recording performance during a return to baseline conditions (the second a), and then finally recording when the learning conditions were reintroduced (the second b). Thus each subject’s performance during the learning stage is compared to its own typical performance; each subject serves as its own control. 12. What is the effect of delay of reinforcement on behavior? a. The effect of delay of reinforcement on behavior is that when there is ls stim between behavior and reinforcement the more effective the reinforcement is. 13. What is the relationship between deprivation and learning? a. Deprivation deals keeping a reward from the subject for long periods of time. The longer the subject has been without a particular reinforce, the more effective that reinforce is in controlling the subjects’ behavior. Eventually, the subject that is deprived longer, actually learns more effectively. 14. What is a positive contrast (elation) effect? a. Positive contrast effect deals with a dramatic increase in performance. 15. What is a negative contrast (depression) effect? a. Negative contrast effect deals with a dramatic decrease in performance. 16. Distinguish between a continuous and a partial schedule of reinforcement. a. Continuous reinforcement deals with every occurrence of desired behavior gets rewarded while Partial reinforcement deals with the desired behavior is only occasionally reinforced. 17. Distinguish among a fixed ratio, a fixed interval, a variable ratio, and a variable interval schedule of reinforcement. a. Fixed Ratio Schedule deals with only rewarding the subject after a fixed number of behaviors. b. Fixed Interval Schedule deals with fixed amount of time has to pass between reinforces. c. Variable Ratio Schedule deals with the number of behaviors needed to get reinforced changes from one reinforce to the next. d. Variable Interval Schedule deals with time intervals that must elapse between reinforcement changes from trail to trail. 18. What type of responding do we find in the schedules mentioned in 17? a. The type of responding that we find in the schedules mentioned in 17 is partial reinforcement which is part of operant conditioning. 19. What is the partial reinforcement extinction effect? a. Partial reinforcement extinction effect deals with behavior obtained under partial reinforcement that will persist longer when reinforcement stops when compared to behavior obtained under continuous reinforcement. 20. What is the frustration tolerance hypothesis? a. Frustration tolerance hypothesis deals with being frustrated when not being reinforced but the behavior is persisted before a reward is eventually presented. 21. What is the matching law? a. Matching law is the proportion of behavior 2 to total number of behavior which is equal to the proportion of reinforcements for behavior 2 to total number of reinforcements possible. 22. Under what conditions can the matching law be established? a. Matching law can be established under two conditions: two behaviors and two variable interval schedules. 23. What is over-matching? Under-matching? a. Overmatching deals with subjects are trained on the two schedules separately so that they never learn to switch between them, they tend to respond only to the richer choice and not match at all. b. Under-matching deals with when there is no ‘empty’ time between the interval schedules, that sometimes the subjects just respond to each choice about equally. Ch. 1 (Yang) 1. According to Yang, what is our greatest intellectual feat? a. According to Yang, our greatest intellectual feat is Language. 2. Sketch out the parallels between birdsong learning and human language learning. a. A parallel that those two learning have been: that with learning a birdsong, different rhythms mean different things, just as different words in language mean different things. Also different ways of saying the words also mean different things. 3. What types of facts led Noam Chomsky to conclude that the ability to learn language was innate? a. Language is different from other types of learning: i. Syntax is a complicated object of knowledge. ii. Children learn their languages syntax at a very young age. iii. Comparable sequence of development for all children and all language. iv. It does not depend upon IQ level. Ch. 2 (Yang) 1. Why do we need hidden assumptions when it comes to learning a language? a. We need hidden assumptions when learning to find out what the true rules of syntax are. Without assumptions, we would not find out the true rules when created our language. 2. Give me an example of an incorrect rule of question formation. a. An example of an incorrect rule of question formation is to move the second word to the front of the sentence. 3. What is the correct rule for question formation? How does it exemplify the principle of structural dependence? a. The correct rule for the question formation is to take the main verb and move it to the front of the sentence. 4. What is the principles and parameters theory of Universal Grammar? a. The universal grammar is thee abstract language that underlies all human languages. The theory of universal grammar has turned the traditional conception of language upside down. That language is like any other social convention that dictates what we do. Also, that our language is negotiated by community consensus.
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