HORT 100 Exam 1 Study Guide
HORT 100 Exam 1 Study Guide HORT 100-001
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Wade on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HORT 100-001 at Colorado State University taught by Hughes, Harrison G in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 348 views. For similar materials see Horticultural Science in Agriculture / Horticulture at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Exam 1 Study Guide History of Horticulture Latin Hortus (garden) colere (to cultivate) Concept of enclosed garden culture as opposed to open field agriculture Pomology Tree fruit Small fruit Viticulture Temperate Fruit Subtropical Olericulture (Vegetable Crops) Warm season vegetables ● Tomatoes ● Peppers Cool Season vegetables ● Cabbage ● Onions Floriculture Cut flowers Potted plants Bedding plants Interior plants Foliage Plants Turfgrass Golf course management Grounds care/Maintenance Medicinals and Herbs Landscape Design Contracting Build Arboretums Outdoor tree museum Botanical Gardens Horticulture Therapy Rehabilitation through potting plants for people with neurological problems Zoological Horticulture Improve zoo habitats Cellular Structure The cell is the basic structure of the organism Cytology the study of cells Types ● Prokaryote No separate subcellular units ● Eukaryote Compartmentalization bounded by membranes ○ Organelles specialized units ■ Nucleus ■ Mitochondria ■ Plastids ■ Vacuoles ■ Endoplasmic reticulum ○ Cytoplasm liquid that all the stuff is floating around in Plant Tissue Meristematic Cells are capable of cell division ● Apical Meristems ○ Shoot above ground ○ Root ○ Ex: grass keeps growing even though we cut off the tops ● Subapical Meristems cells elongate and expand ● Intercalary Meristems part at the bottom where cells elongate and expand (like how grass continues to grow from the bottom even though the top has been cut off) ● Lateral Meristems produce secondary growth ○ Vascular Cambium produce new xylem and phloem ○ Cork Cambium produce bark and protective covering Permanent Mature cells are incapable of cell division ● Simple tissue composed of single type of cells ○ Epidermis outer cell wall is thicker to hold on to water ○ Parenchyma most of the tissue in the cylindrical structure under the epidermis ○ Collenchyma gives support to young stems, petioles, and veins in leaves (the strings in celery) ○ Sclerenchyma dead cells, thick walls (rough cells just under the skin of pears) ○ Cork in the bark of maturing stems, trunks and potato skins ● Complex tissue composed of more than one type of cells ○ Xylem conduct water and minerals through plant ■ Xylem vessels ■ Tracheids individual cells that elongate and taper and conduct water ■ Fibers provide support ○ Phloem conducts food and metabolites ■ Sieve tubes long and slender with porous ends ■ Companion cells metabolite conduction ■ Phloem fibers stem support Plant Organs Leaves ● Leaf blade (flat part involved in photosynthesis) ○ Margin ○ Tip ● Petiole attaches blade to stem ● Stipule small leafy things at the base of the petiole ● Stomates minute opening in the epidermis through which gas exchange occurs, location varies from plant to plant Stems ● Rhizome ○ Underground stem that grows horizontally ○ Ex: bananas ● Stolons ○ Stem that grows horizontally above ground ○ Ex: strawberry ● Corms ○ Underground thickened compressed stems ○ Ex: crocus ● Bulbs ○ Highly compressed underground stems with storage leaves atatched ○ Ex: hyacinths, lilies, onions ● Tubers ○ Enlarged fleshy terminal portions of underground stems Root Morphology Fibrous Root System develops in many directions Ex: grass Tap Root System mostly develops downward Ex: carrot Regions of Root: ● Area of cell maturation ● Area of cell elongation sprout root hair to increase surface area of roots to absorb more water ○ If you root something in water, they do not sprout root hairs ● Apical Meristem ● Root Cap Young Root More Mature Root Flowers Specialized floral leaves modified for sexual reproduction (both male and female) Used extensively in the identification of plant species relative to the position of the ovary and how the floral parts are held A flower is complete if all four kinds of floral organs are present (sepals, petals, stamens, pistil) Complete Flower 1. Sepal (Calyx) leaf like scales that encircle the other flower parts, sometimes look like petals 2. Petal (Corolla) next whorl inward from the sepals 3. Stamen male part of flower Filament Anther Sac produces pollen 4. Pistil female part of flower Stigma receives pollen Style tube connected to the stigma Ovary contains ovules that develop into seeds Incomplete Flower Is lacking one of the above components Perfect vs. Imperfect Perfect flowers has stamens and pistils Imperfect flowers if either stamens or pistils are missing ● Staminate If stamens are present and pistils absent ● Pistillate If pistils are present and stamens absent ● Monoecious Both Staminate and Pistillate flowers occur on same plant ○ Ex: corn ● Dioecious Staminate and Pistillate flowers occur on different plants ○ Ex: asparagus A flower can be perfect but still be incomplete if it has both reproductive parts, but is missing sepals or petals Composite Flower Looks like one flower, but actually it has many flowers inside ● Ex: Sunflower has many flowers in the middle and many fruit (seeds) Inflorescence Flower Many flowers on one stem Racemose ● Ex: Snapdragon Microspore Pollen ● Generative Nucleus ● Sperm Nuclei ● Pollen Tube Nucleus ● Megaspore Ovule embryo sac ● Megaspore ● Egg Nucleus ● Antipodals ● Synergids ● Polar Nucellus Tissues Fruit Pericarp the ovary wall of the ripe fruit, usually has three parts: ● Exocarp the outer layer ● Mesocarp the middle layer ● Endocarp the inner layer, contains the seed (ovary) Fruit Type Based on Ovary Number Simple fruit formed by the development of a single pistil or ovary ● Fleshy fruits ○ Berry pulpy fruit from one or more carpels that develops few to many seeds ○ Ex: papayas, peppers, tomatoes ● Dryfleshy fruits ○ Drupe simple fruit from single carpel ○ Ex: peaches, plums, olives ● Dry fruits ○ Dehiscent seed pod that opens ○ Indehiscent no seed pod Aggregate fruit formed by the development of several ovaries produced by one flower ● One flower with many pistils inside ● Ex: blackberry, raspberry ● Aggregate Accessory fruit fleshy part from the ovaries and some from other areas Multiple fruit formed by the development of several flowers which fuze during ripening ● Ex: pineapple, fig Seeds Radicle primary root Plumule primary shoot Cotyledon store food (one or two in monocots or dicots) Coleorhiza protective sheath that the radicle grows through and the roots develop from Adventitious roots grow from shoot axis just above the ground Hypocotyl hook of the bean which carries the two cotyledons Plant Classification Taxonomy naming of plants and identification of their relationships ● Binomial nomenclature Carolus Linnaeus responsible for formalizing this method of naming things ● Ex: Strawberries Fragaria ananassa ○ Kingdom Planta ○ Division/Phyla Spermatophyta ○ Class Angiospermae ○ Subclass Dicotyledonae ○ Order Rosales ○ Family ROSACEAE ○ Genus ragaria (should always be underlined) ○ Species and authority ananassa Duch (should always be underlined) Identification ● Genus ○ Species ■ Authority abbreviated name of the scientist who named the species Botanical Variety ● Ex: Rubis idaeus var.vulgatus (idaeus)Arrhen. (Eur.) Cultivar a species that has been cultivated and remains genetically the same ● LINE propagated by seeds ○ Pure line ○ Hybrids ○ Synthetic ○ Seeding mixture ● CLONE propagated by vegetative methods ○ Ortet original plant from which a clone cultivar is derived ■ Ramet clone of a clone ■ APOMIXIS reproduction without fertilization Crucifers Cole Crops Brassica Oleracea ● Capitata ● Brotrysis ● Italica ● Gemmifera ● Acephala ● Gongylodes Scientific System Continued Group category below species, contains similar cultivars ● Ex: Brassica Oleraceae ○ Botrytis group cauliflower ○ Capitata group Cabbage ○ Italica group Broccoli ● Source of reference for naming ○ International Code of Botanical Nomenclature ○ International Code of Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants Taxonomy continued Chemotaxonomy Use chemicals to tell different kinds of plants apart because there are so many that are so similar, sometimes you can’t tell from looking at them Fingerprinting Another way to tell plants apart when just looking at them won’t do ● RFLP, RAPD Ecological groupings ● Cline ● Ecotype Other Classifications Climate tropical, temperate Usage ● Fruit temperate, tropical ● Vegetable cold, warm ● Nut ● Herb (culinary) ● Flavorings Life Cycle ● Annual plants that live for one year ● Biennial two years ● Perennial forever/until some other factor intervenes Genes Gene a sequence of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) coding for a specific characteristic ● Paired in the chromosomes ● Allelic gene different forms of the same gene ● Replication ○ Bb Heterozygous (small b is recessive and big B is dominant) ○ BB or bb Homozygous ● Punnett square ○ Genotype genetic makeup of a cell that determines specific traits/characteristics ○ Phenotype Physical expression/characteristics of a trait Crossingover chromosome sections from one parent crosses over a chromosome from another parent (mutation) Associated with linkage Mutations necessary for evolution Types of genes Major genes ● Qualitative inheritance/single gene is expressed as a phenotype Minor genes ● quantitative/multiple genes work together to be expressed Genome Chromosomes ● Gametic # (1N) mature sexual reproductive cell ● Somatic # (vegetative) (2N) any cell of the plant besides the reproductive ones Polyploids ● Euploids extra of one or more complete sets of chromosomes ● Aneuploids Extra part or whole chromosome Variation in a Population Genetic variation variation in alleles of genes between populations and individuals ● Genetic variation brought on by random mutation Environmental variation species respond to variation in the environment ● Global warming ● Something other than the average norm Heritability how much phenotypic variation in a population is due to genetic variation Plant Breeding Pollination and its implications ● Selfpollination (autogamy) ● Crosspollination (allogamy) ○ Dioecious Male and female flowers are on separate plants ○ Incompatibilities ■ Inbreeding causes less variation, genetic erosion Individuals ● Heterozygous (Aa) ● Homozygous (AA, aa) Population ● Heterogeneous (AA, Aa, aa) ● Homogeneous (AA, AA, AA) Plant Biotechnology ● Plant tissue culture ● Somaclonal variation ● Protoplast fusion ● DNA injection ● DNA analysis ● Transformation Crop Origins and Improvement Vavilov’s centers of origin ● Vavilov identified the places across the globe where plant domestication probably originated and reasoned that these would be the places that retained the most genetic diversity ● People went to these areas to try to collect and preserve as many different seeds as possible ● Germplasm protoplasm of the sexual reproductive cells containing the units of heredity (chromosomes and genes) National Plant Germplasm System Preserve genetic diversity of plants Germplasm station regions: ● Western ● North Central ● Southern ● Northeastern Facilities Used ● USDA Plant Germplasm Laboratory ● USDA National Seed Storage Laboratory (Germplasm center) ● StateFederal Interregional Potato Induction Facility ● National Clonal Germplasm Facility Repositories ● GRIN System ● Advisery System International Efforts IBPGR International Board for Plant Germplasm Resources Plant Propagation Sexual Propagation (seed) plant a seed ● Create a new plant Aesexual Propagation (vegetative) taking cuttings from a plant and growing it ● Make more of the exact same plant
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