Study Guide Foundations of Mass Communication
Study Guide Foundations of Mass Communication MDIA 3300
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Hajduk on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MDIA 3300 at Auburn University taught by Ric Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Mass Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Study Guide for Exam 1 Mass Communication Chapter 1: Communication The Communication Process v Encoding: Transmitting the Message Ø Source: initiates the process by having a thought or idea that he or she wishes to transmit to some other entity. (individuals, group, or even organizations) Ø Encoding: putting ideas into words. Ø Message: actual physical product that the source encodes Ø Channels: ways the message travels to the receiver v Decoding: Receiving the Message Ø Decoding: Person understanding the message. Ø Receiver: is that target of the message v Feedback Ø Feedback: refers to those responses of the receiver that shape and alter the subsequent message of the source. More feedback, more fidelity. v Noise Ø Noise: anything that interferes with the delivery of the message § Semantic: when people have different meanings for different words. § Mechanical: problem with the technical equipment being used to transmit a message (light flicker on the projector, microphone static) § Environmental: source of noise of external, storm etc. Communication Settings v Interpersonal Communication Ø Interpersonal Communication: which one person (or group) is interaction with another personal (or group) without the aid of a mechanical device. Individuals or groups. § Physical presence § Variety of channels required § Encoding is one step § Private or public § Variety of channels § Little or no expense § Message is hard for receiver to terminate § Immediate Feedback v Machine-Assisted Interpersonal Communication § Machine-assisted interpersonal communication: combines characteristics of both interpersonal and mass communication situations § One or more people are communicating by means of a mechanical device § Allows the source and receiver to be separated by both time and space § Telephone § 2 steps of encoding, when sender is trying to make words and then when the machine encodes message. § Opportunity for feedback § Source-> machine -> receiver v Mass Communication Ø Mass Communication: process by which a complex organization with the aid of one or more machines produces and transmits public messages that are directed at large, heterogeneous, and scattered audiences. § Source: usually has very little info on the audience (sender) § Encoding/ Sending: machine is used in process of sending , multi stage process § Decoding/ Receiving: public messages. Messages easily terminated. § Receiver: heterogeneous, widespread and unaware, large. § Feedback: one way messages, difficult to get effective feedback § Noise: semantic, environmental, or mechanical. § Broad Audience, broad info, heterogeneous audiences, geographically divided, self selected. Ø Defining Mass Media § Mass Media: are the channels used for mass communication. Mechanical devices and also institutions that use the machines to transmit messages. § Medium is singular, media is plural. § Media Vehicle: single component of mass media, such as newspaper, radio station, TV network, etc. ♦ Largest audience, employ the most people, have the greatest impact-- mass medias: radio, tv, film, books, sound recordings, newspapers, and magazines, and the internet. Characteristics of media organizations v Formal Organizational Structure Ø Specialization, division of labor, and focused areas of responsibility. v Gatekeepers Ø Have control over what material eventually reaches the public. v Competition for profits Ø Most mass comm exist to make a profit. MAKE MONEY!! Build and sell an audience. Ø Sell content directly to consumers (Netflix, hulu, hbo go, dvd) Ø Advertising mostly Ø Other purposes: serve public interest, be a good corporate citizen. Models for studying mass communication v One too many model Ø Info from the environment filtered though a mass media org. decoded, interpreted, selected, then encoded and then reproduced, and then encoded. Ø Flows inward Ø Computer mediated environment Transition: emerging media trends v Audience segmentation, convergence, increased audience control, multiple platforms, user-generated content, mobile media, and social media. v Audience segmentation: the end of mass comm as we know it? Ø Audiences are becoming less mass and more selective (less time to watch) Ø More media to choose from Ø Channels are unchanged, but more and more mass media vehicles using these channels. v Convergence Ø Corporate convergence: one company delivering every service imaginable. Ø Operational convergence: occurs when owners of several media properties in one market combine their separate operations into a single effort. Ø Saves money Ø Workforce smaller Ø Device convergence: combining the functions of two or three devices into one mechanism. iPhone v Increased audience control Ø Buy certain songs, watch certain shows Chapter 2 v Perspectives on Mass Communication § Functional Approach: emphasizes the way that the audience uses mass communication § Critical/Cultural Approach: uses the techniques of the humanities such as the analysis of texts and the deconstruction of messages, to examine the underlying power relationships in media exposure and stresses the many meanings and interpretations that audience members find in media content § Empirical Approach: uses the techniques of the social sciences, such as experiments and surveys, to investigate the cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral effects of mass communication Ø Functional Analysis § The Role of Mass Communication in Society § Something is best understood by examining how it Is used § Examining how audiences interact with media • Macroanalysis: on one hand, we could take the perspective of a sociologist and look through a wide-angle lens to consider the functions performed by the mass media for the ENTIRE SOCIETY. • Microanalysis: close up lens at the individual receivers of the content, the audience, and ask them to report on how they use mass media § Functions of Mass Communication for Society • Dysfunctions: harmful or negative effects. • Surveillance: refers to what we popularly call the news and information role of the media. ♦ Beware surveillance: occurs when the media informs about threats from terrorism, hurricanes, volcanoes, inflation, etc. ♦ Instrumental Surveillance: has to do with the transmission of information that is useful and helpful in everyday life. Films showing, recipes, stock market prices, etc. ♦ 2 consequences of relying on mass media to provide this Ø Speed of surveillance, leads to inaccuracy Ø Much of what we know about the world is machine-processed, hand-me-down information. Ø Credibility: put a certain amount of trust in the media that do our surveillance. • Interpretation ♦ Provide information and meanings behind events. ♦ Opinion pages, editorials, etc. ♦ Consequences Ø Audience is exposed to a large number of points of view. Ø Dysfunctions § No guarantee that opinions are accurate and valid § People are overly dependent on media for interpretation Ø Linkage § Linkage: join different elements of society that are not directly connected. § Harm of linkage • Hate sites Ø Transmission of Values § Socialization: refers to the ways an individual comes to adopt the behavior and values of a group. Ø TV and Socialization § Greatest potential for socialization § Violence and television Ø Entertainment § Will mass media turn us into a nation of watchers rather than doers? § How People Use the Mass Media (INDIVIDUAL LEVEL- MICROANALYSIS) • Uses-and-gratification model: posits that audience members have certain needs or drives that are satisfied by using both nonmedia and media sources • 6 Uses and gratifications ♦ Cognition: the act of coming to know something Ø This is when the individual is using the media to come to know something Ø Media keeps up with current events and other is to learn about general things in curiosity Ø Media satisfy a need for general knowledge Ø Catharsis ♦ Diversion Ø Stimulation Ø Relaxation Ø Emotional release ♦ Stimulation Ø Seeking emotional or intellectual stimulation seems to be an inherent motivation in human beings. ♦ Relaxation Ø When faced with stimulus overload, we want to seek relief. ♦ Emotional Release Ø Catharsis: release of pent up emotion like tragic plays ♦ Social Utility Ø Social utility: integrate us with people around us Ø Conversational currency: discussing current movies or songs, media provide common grounds for social conversations with others. Ø Parasocial relationship: develop feelings of kinship and friendship with media characters. ♦ Affiliation Ø Need to feel a sense of belonging or involvement within a social group. ♦ Withdrawal Ø Use media to create a barrier between themselves and other people or activities (avoid doing work) Ø Critical/cultural studies § Use more qualitative and humanities oriented approach § Macroanalytic view of mass comm, that media can be a powerful force in society, but also has dysfunctions § A brief history • Frankfurt school during 1930s and 40s, committed to ideas of Marx. • Best way to examine how a society worked was to examine who controlled means of production that met basic needs of population. • Viewers are not passive. Accept some, but interpret to own • James Carey ♦ Communication creates, maintains, and modifies a culture. • Key Concepts ♦ Culture: complex concept that refers to common values, beliefs, social practices, and rules, and assumptions that bind a group of people together ♦ Text: object of analysis ♦ Meaning: texts have meaning, interpretations that audience members take away with them from the text ♦ Polysemic: have many meanings ♦ Ideology: specific set of ideas or beliefs, particularly regarding social and political subjects, commercials show media is good for you ♦ Hegemony: power relationships and dominance Ø In the US, those who control mass media have cultural hegemony over us. Ø Depends on the dominated group’s accepting its position as natural and normal believing that the status quo is in its best interest. Chapter 3 Chapter 3: Mass Communication: Historical and Cultural Context v Before mass communication Ø Language led to the development of oral cultural, depended on spoken word. Ø Hard to keep records Ø Writing most likely developed in Sumeria Ø Developed gap between classes, those who could read and write Ø Records were kept and empires developed. v Printing § Chinese developed paper, and block printing. Ø Johannes Gutenberg- developed the printing press. Ø Gutenberg bible. Books were expensive. Ø Effects of the Gutenberg Revolution § Led to the development of vernacular (everyday) langauges. § Before, things were written in latin, printed books in French, German, or English. Nationalism developed, closer ties to home country. § Religious upheaval because now the bible could be read by more than the clergy. § Sped up scientific research § Helped exploration. § Growth of knowledge. Ø Technology and Cultural Change § Technological Determinism: the belief that technology drives historical change § Technology actually helps push change, but doesn’t cause it, helps it occur not cause. v Conquering Space and Time: telegraph and telephone Ø Development of the Telegraph § Harnessed electricity. § Before this, fasted form of communication was carrier pigeon. § Morse code Ø Cultural Impact of the Telegraph § Connected the country § Helped develop the railroad § Helped war, mobilize troops and such. § Sped up commerce, market prices, and news. v Capturing the image: photography and motion picture Ø Early Technological Development § Camera obscura-16 center dark chamber pinhole. § George Eastman- KODAK. Film developed and printed. § Daguerreotypes- long exposure times. Ø Photorealism and Mathew Brady § Civil war was the first war to be photographed § M Brady convinced government to let him photograph on the battlefield. Ø Photography’s Influence on Mass Culture § Photojournalism: new profession, new popularity. § Privacy issues with easy photography now on phones and such. Ø Pictures in Motion § Movie houses called nickelodeons storefronts into makeshift theaters. Ø Motion pictures and American Culture § Movies became a social activity. v News and Entertaining at Home: Radio and Television Broadcasting Ø Radio first medium that brought live entertainment into homes. Ø Radio Broadcasting § National craze in 1920s § Brought entertainment into the home § Commercials!! § FRC, federal radio commission regulated the medium. § Businesses and newspaper chains consolidated. Ø Cultural Impact of Radio § Popularized music § Radio news § Changed the way free time was spent. Ø Television Broadcasting § 1920s and 30s, TVs stalled during WWII § Prosperous after war. Ø Cultural Impact of TV § Women allowed to entire workforce in greater numbers § TV is apart of our lives. § Replaced radio as everyday entertainment v The Digital Revolution Digital Technology: system that encodes information ino a series of on and off pulses that are denoted at zeros and on Chapter 4: The Internet v Internet Ø Network of computer networks Ø Nobody owns it v Email Ø Electronic mail: cheap, fast, reliable Ø Can send graphics and vids Ø Drawbacks § not suited for all message content § not as private as letters § spam § time loss v Broadband Ø Transmission channel to allow large info transfers Ø Value of broadband goes up, internet goes down v Internet and the economy Ø Marketplace Ø Subscriptions Ø Products and services Ø Advertising v Social Media Ø How do you use it/ what’s its impact? Ø Changed entertainment and news gathering Ø Negative Impacts § Interferes with productivity § Information captured and shared § Cyber bullying § FOMO v No gatekeepers § Gatekeepers are evaluators of information § w/o gatekeepers, internet can be overwhelmed with unwanted messages § No gatekeepers=no censorship v Information overload Ø Internet is unparalleled information retrieval source Ø Epistemological Indeterminably: we cant determine what we should know because there is too much. Chapter 5 v A Brief History Ø Journalism in Early America § Printers did most of early publishing § Few papers § Not timely § No endorsed free press Ø The Beginnings of Revolution § Political Press: openly supported a party, faction, cause. § NEWSPAPERS AND DEMOCRACY BIG LINK- free flow of ideas Ø The Political Press: 1790-1833 § First Amendment: idea of free press § Daily newspapers 1783, then they grew § Mostly upper class read them, literacy was not huge. Ø Birth of Mass Communication § Needed faster printing press, enough literacy, and mass audience § R. Hoe and Company steam powered press could produced more, more literacy, more public schools Ø The Penny Press § The Development of Penny Press • Benjamin Day, sell paper for a penny attract readers with human interest and crime stiff • Made it available to more people Ø Yellow Journalism § SENSATION SELLS § Negatthe, but it brought enthusiasm to news energy to journalism Ø Early 20 Century § Jazz Journalism: they were tabloids and richly illustrators with photograph § Tabloid: printed on a page about one half the size the size of a normal news paper Ø The Impact of the Great Depression § Greater readership, lower revenue Ø Post War Newspapers § Chains, becoming expensive to print § Consolidation § TV cut into newspaper advertising v Newspapers in the digital Age Ø Transitions § Need to cost cut and increase revenue. Ø Online Newspapers § News hole: amount of news that can be printed in one editing, online Ø Mobile Media § News paper Apps § Nook subscriptions § Subscriptions, through apple sometimes on app store. Ø User-generated content § Commenting § Citizen journalism Ø Social Media § Share on social media, twiteter v Defining features of newspapers Ø Diverse Content Ø Conveniently packaged Ø News papers are local Ø Serve as a historical record Ø Watchdog in our society Ø Timely v Organization of the newspaper industry Ø Print Dailies § Dailies have to appear 5 times a week § Circulation: number of copies delivered to subscribers, newsstands, and vending machines. Chief concern. § Circulation is down § National Newspapers • Geared towards the entire country • Not declined as much as others § Large Metropolitan Dailies • Based in areas of 500k and more, in biggest trouble • Dropped more than 40 percent § Medium Sized Dailies • 100k-500k- in bigger younger cities went down • in older cities not as bad § Small-Town Dailies • Under 100k- best job weathering the storm Ø Print Weeklies § Fairly stable § More cost conscience Ø Special-Service and Minority Newspapers § College press! Ø Organization of Online Newspapers § News aggregators • Sites that take info from many sources meld into a news presentations • Two types ♦ Sites that use an automatic formula to scan news and group stories together (Google news, yahoo news) ♦ Sites that use humans to scan and select studies (huff post) § Online websites associated with local or national newspapers • Vast majority of online are associated with print dailies or weeklies § Online sites • Mostly originated from journalist who were laid off v Producing the Print and online newspapers Ø Departments and Staff § 3 departments • Business: selling advertising space and build circulation and web traffic • Production • News-editorial § 4 roles • new flow editor who manages the progress of a story through print and online • Story builder who combines print audio video for story • News resources specializes in information, provide background context • Backpack journalist: interviews, photographs, record Ø Prepublication Routine § Two basic sources for news: local reporting and wire services § Convergence at individual level- participate with readers v The Economics of newspapers publishing Ø Revenue § Circulation and advertising (mostly local and classified_ v Newspaper Audience Ø Sources of Feedback § Audit Bureau of Circulation: ABC, feedback system in 1990s. Establish ground rules for counting circulation. Chapter 6: Magazines v A Brief History Ø Magazine means warehouse or depository Ø Strong political bias Ø Literacy rate and artistic expression encouraged v Penny Press Era Ø 1820-60s magazines appealed to mass audiences, target middle class Ø Magazine Boom Late 1800s § More money, more printing § Postal Act of 1879: cost of home delivery cheaper § Muckrakers: investigative reporting Ø Between World Wars § More money, more leisure time § Three types of magazines developed • Digest • Newsweekly • Pictorial magazines Ø Post-War Period § Liberalized views, urban lifestyle § Specialized v Digital Age Ø Generating revenue from the internet § Ad revenue § Repackaged print content § Charging for access to archives § E-commerce v Modern Ø Competition from internet and TV Ø Magazines have to have large web presence and app v Defining Features of Magazines § Specialized Audiences § In tune w/ social, economic, and cultural trends § Convenient format v Immediacy Vs. Depth Ø Magazines depth v Audience Approach Ø Horizontal: in depth one position across industries Ø Vertical: top to bottom of one industry v Dummy: conceptual plan or blueprint of the final publication v Revenue for magazines Ø Subscriptions, single copy sales, advertising v Digital Magazines Ø Advantages § Available sooners § Sharing § Cheaper v Functional Categories of Magazine Ø Production Ø Distribution § Paid Circulation: readers pay to receive magazine though subscription at newsstand • Advantages: lower postal rates, additional revenue • Disadvantages: must promote to get more subscriptions, added expense of keeping subscription records § Controlled Circulation: set specific quanities for those who are to receive the magazine. Airline, hotel • Advantages: reach all personell in a given industry, avoid cost of promoting subscriptions • Disadvantages: gain no revenue from subscriptions and single copy sales, postage costs more. Ø Retail § Supermarkets and stores v Producing the magazine Ø Department and staff § Circulation Department § Advertising and Sales § Production § Editorial
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