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Unit 1 Exam

by: Rachel Baines

Unit 1 Exam BIO360

Rachel Baines


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These notes cover chapters 1 through 6 in our textbook and follow along with the material of the exam.
Dr. Bruce Hedgepeth
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Baines on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO360 at Evangel University taught by Dr. Bruce Hedgepeth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Pathophysiology in Biomedical Sciences at Evangel University.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
Pathophysiology Exam 1 study notes Definitions: Pandemic disease: they are epidemics that affect a large geographic region, possibly spreading worldwide. Epidemic disease: An outbreak of a disease that occurs suddenly and affects numbers of people clearly in excess of normal expectancy. Endemic disease: A physical or mental disorder caused by health conditions constantly present within a community. Etiology: The study of the assignment of courses or reasons for phenomena. Pathogenesis: The development or evolution of disease. A description of the pathogenesis includes the process that occurs in the body from the initial stimulus to the ultimate expression of manifestations of disease. Clinical manifestations: The functional consequences of the structural and associated alterations in cells or tissues that are either characteristic of the disease or diagnostic of the process. Treatment implications: General statements (not specific prescriptions) implying that certain treatments could be helpful based on the knowledge of the etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical consequences. Disease Signs: Manifestations of disease. Disease Symptoms: Subjective feelings of abnormality in the body. Euploid: having a normal number o chromosomes (46 total) 22 pairs of autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes. Aneuplody: having an abnormal number of chromosomes. Deletion: loss of a chromosomal material resulting from the break in the arm of a single chromosome, resulting with a fragment without a centrosome. Turner Syndrome: also known as monosomy X, it is associated with the presence of only one normal X chromosome and no Y chromosome. Trisomy 18: also known as Edwards syndrome, it is less common and more severe than down syndrome. Most pregnancies carrying this disease are lost before term and if they are born, they do not live long. Cri du chat: It is the deletion of part of a short arm of chromosome 5 and results in a syndrome characterized by severe mental retardation, round face, and congenital heart anomalies. Other:  Fight or flight response (epinephrine and glucocorticoids). (sympathetic- adrenal-mullary system) o Hypothalamus secretes -> hormone secretes -> corticotropin activating -> nervous system which stimulates -> adrenal medulla which releases -> catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinephrine). Norepinephrine and epinephrine make the body take action and fight the stressor. o The hypothalamus secretes -> CHR (corticotropin releasing hormone) which stimulates -> anterior pituitary gland which releases -> adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causing -> adrenal cortex to release -> glucocorticoids (specific cortisol). This is called hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.  Glucocorticoids: o They are lipid-soluble hormones which allow them to pass through cell membranes to bind with receptors in the cytosol or nucleus which initiates changed in cellular activities. o Their main job is metabolism. o Cortisol is the primary one and it is secreted by the adrenal cortex in response to ACTH. Negative feedback loops maintain cortisol levels. Cortisol is able to bind to the receptors on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary glad to surpass CRH and ACTH.  Endorphins: o Endorphins and enkephalins are peptides that the body naturally uses to inhibit pain. They raise the threshold of pain and produce sedation and euphoria. o They are endogenous opioids that are produced within the central nervous system and leased in response to certain stressors, certain foods (chocolate), laughter, message and acupuncture.  Cell Injury  Cell Dysphoria o Atrophy: the decreased size in the cell due to disuse, denervation, ischemia, nutrition starvation, interruption of endocrine signals, and persistent cell injury. It represents effort to minimize its energy and nutrition consumptions by decreasing the number of intracellular organelles and other structures. o Hypertrophy: it is an increase in cell mass accompanied by an augmented functional capacity. This enlargement is mainly from an increase in cellular protein content and it subsides when the demand is removed. o Hyperplasia: this is the increase of cell number. This usually happens in response to physiologic demands or hormonal stimulation. Deregulation of hormones or growth factors can result in pathologic hyperplasia, such as that which occurs in thyroid or prostate enlargement. o Metaplasia: the replacement of different cell types with another. This often happens form adaption to persistent injury with replacement of cells that can handle it. They are well differentiated from their tissue type. o Dysplasia: these cells are disorganized from abnormal variations in size, shape, and arrangement. It mostly represents and adaptive effort gone astray.  Radiation and fetal cells o  Radiation and hematopoietic cells o When the whole body is exposed to high exposure of radiation it results in acute radiation sickness causing hematomic failures, destruction of the epithial layer of the gastrointestinal track, and neurological dysfunction.  Programmed senescence o Programed senescence theory states that aging Is the result of an intrinsic genetic program. Support for the theory comes from studying cells in a culture  Aging physiology and vessels o All of the body shows aging from decreased functional reserve or the inability to adapt to environmental demands.  Aging and muscle mass  Huntington disease characteristics o Huntington’s disease is an autosomal dominant disease that primarily affects neurologic function. It is localized to chromosome 4 where triplet repeats of (CAG) more than forty have been noted. o Symptoms are mental deterioration and involuntary movements of the arms (legs happen around age 40). It aggregates brain tissue which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis and neurodegeneration. Essay Questions: #1) In your opinion, does “form follow function”, “function follow form”, or other? Use supporting examples and supporting evidence. In my opinion, function follows form. You cannot have a complete function without out the form being completely together. For example, until a disease forms, it will not carry out its function causing signs and symptoms, a heart cannot beat and pump blood until the structure and valves are formed, and fish cannot swim until their fins are formed. Everything has a function but that function could not be without the thing. Life itself could not live or be until it was formed and created by God. #2) Discuss the concepts of the 3 levels of disease/illness prevention. The three levels of disease and illness prevention are: primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention’s main goal is to decrease the number of people exposed to or susceptible towards a disease. This can be accomplished through proper nutrition habits, increase regularity of sanitation precautions, improving housing conditions and overall economy improvement. Immunizations is a huge contributor to methods of primary prevention. Health education along with immunizations educates the person about proper every day precautions and in a sense educated the body how to fight off disease. Secondary prevention involves tests to find diseases at an early stage and controls the disease. Routine physical examinations and tests increase the chances of an early diagnosis of a disease as well as the probability of a cure. Tertiary prevention of disease is the most extensive and tailored form of prevention. Once a disease has been diagnosed, treatment is set into place to diminish or demolish the spread of the disease. This prevention is the most personal because it involves professional customizing treatment for a particular patient depending on their diagnosis. #3) Stress happens. If not managed properly it can do harm. Choose two body systems fro Figure 2-3 and describe how you would counsel someone to relieve the symptoms and the manifestations of those systems by addressing 1 of the manifestations from each chosen system. Stress can cause a disturbance of heart rate and rhythm in the cardiovascular system. This may lead to a more rapid rhythm (the heart racing) or irregular beating. Anxiety from the nervous system can lead to this disturbance in of heart rate. If a patient is more prone to anxiety I would encourage them to learn to deal with this properly. That could look like many things for different people. The main thing I would say is that in the moment when their heart feels like it is racing, to take a minute to stop, sit down, and concentrate on breathing. It never helps to be overwhelmed in a situation, so encouraging them to try to stay calm and think through what they are feeling in those moments is key. It can be that the person is getting overly stressed and feeling as if they have no control over the situation or that everything will go wrong. I would encourage them to think through those things that intimidate them or make them feel stress and have them identify what is making them feel overwhelmed, scared, nervous, ect. When a person feels as if they have a better handle on the situation or knows what is going on, it becomes less stressful. Focusing on their anxiety in this situation, should help with their overall heart rate and focusing on being calm. #4) Your friend is worried about his on-line pathophysiology test and is acting weird. Identify and describe 2 physical indicators and 2 behavioral indicators from box 2-2 that you see and explain them to him in laymen’s terms. My friend seems restlessness and his increased muscle tension is making it hard to help him relax and just study. The craving to constantly move is causing him to have problems concentrating on what it most important to look over during the exam. His migraine headache and upset stomach is a sign of his extreme anxiety for the exam to just be over. Observing him, I see that his motivating to study is slowly dwindling and he is reaching mental exhaustion. I explain that he just needs to focus on breathing and try to relax. The exam itself does not matter and he just needs to focus on learning the information. Stress is crippling him from being able to absorb and learn anything, and it is also hurting his health by making his body tense, straining it which makes it harder to function. I would encourage him to focus on one thing at a time and study in a comfortable environment. By trying to relax while working will help with his headaches and upset stomach as well as let all the other muscles relax. It will be easier for him to learn the information and when it comes time for the test, his mind can easily apply it to the testing material. #5) Figure 4-6 shows 5 types of adaptive cellular responses. Choose 3 and describe real-life scenarios that might cause them. A person may have a beautiful grand piano that they could possibly want to move to another room in their house. While moving this grand piano all by themselves, they realized that they had underestimated the strength it would take to pick one up and the piano came crashing down on their arm. Trauma from the fall on their arm caused ischemia, which is when not enough blood flows to the tissues. This causes not enough oxygen to be able to reach the cell as well as glucose needed metabolism and further cell growth. Since the cells are not receiving the proper nutrition they shrink impairing other cellular functions. If this is not treated by re-establishing proper blood flow, the tissues experiencing ischemia will die resulting in amputation of the arm in this case. A 40 year old chain smoker has an extremely high chance of developing metaplastic cells. The once healthy cells in their bronchial tubes can become irritated by the inhalation of cigarette smoke. This pollution of cellular environment can inhibit the columnar epithelium cells from secreting mucus like normal and change them into squamous epithelium cells, thug changing them into a different cell type. I can imagine this is a possibility with any person over exposed to toxic air pollutants such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. This is also common foreground for the formation of cancerous cells if the pollutant is not removed in time. Human muscle tissue is a great example of cells that undergo both hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Many people who wish to be stronger and build muscle go to the gym to work out. When a person has observed that their muscles have grown, they are actually observing that the individual muscle fibers splitting and those new fibers grow in size as well. As the person is working out in the gym, the body is realizing that is need more energy to complete the demand of work the brain is telling It to do. Cells responding to the demand of work through mitotic division and increasing their mass creating ATP. The body uses ATP as a source of energy to accomplish work. Therefore, muscles increase because the average demand for work has also increased. #6) Describe and discuss 2 manifestations and/or ramifications of cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis the most common genetic lung disease causing manifestations such as: rough cough, repeating pulmonary infections, spouts of bronchitis. These reoccurring symptoms may eventually cause pneumonia and right side heart failure. Cystic fibrosis comes from a deletion of three nucleotides on chromosome 7. This deletion of the amino acid phenylalanine, causes the protein to fold abnormally. Since this protein is folded abnormally, it cannot complete its normal functions which then in turn cause a heavy buildup of thick mucus covering glands and ducts. It is this heavy mucus that causes the cough and infections. Many of the treatment options for cystic fibrosis can be unpleasant and require a lot of intentionality of the patients part. Forced coughing, percussions and vibrations to loosen the mucus is necessary. Maintaining a healthy diet full of high protein consumption and vitamin supplements as well a restricted fat consumption help the control of mucus. However, our text states that the only true definite treatment of cystic fibrosis is a heart-lung or lung transplant. It will be interesting what genetic studies and possible modifications can increase the treatment options for disease like this.


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