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BLAW Exam #1 Study Guide

by: Lexie Barclay

BLAW Exam #1 Study Guide BLAW

Marketplace > University of Arkansas > BLAW > BLAW Exam 1 Study Guide
Lexie Barclay

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11 pages to help you get through this first exam! CH. 1-5
Business Law
John Norwod
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lexie Barclay on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BLAW at University of Arkansas taught by John Norwod in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 163 views.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
BLAW Study Guide #1  (Wk 1­4)    Chapter 1    3 MAJOR TOPICS:  ● Systems of Law  ● Classifications of Law  ● Sources of Law    1) Systems of Law  ​a) Common Law Nation: judges make laws  ​ b) Civil law nation: j​udges do​ ot make laws  i) Code based  ii) Most common system in the world  iii) Louisiana is a civil law system bc of the Louisiana Purchase­­they  retained French tradition  2) Classifications of Law  Criminal Law  Civil Law      ● Person commits offense against  ● Offense against another  the ​government  individual  ● EX: felony  ● EX: running over pedestrian  ● Government  ​ vs. defendant  ● Plaintif​ vs. Defendant  ● BURDEN OF PROOF: guilt must  ● BURDEN OF PROOF: by a  be proven by the government  preponderance of the evidence  beyond a reasonable doubt  (​ ore guilty than innocent)  ● If government is unable to  ● Settled by $$$  produce enough proof that​  ● Plaintiff brings case  defendant is guilty=not guilty  ● Settled by jail time/$$$  ● EX: Casey Anthony trial  ​ ● Government brings case        Double​  Jeopardy→ c ​ an’t​ e tried ​twice for ​ a​ e crime (5th amendment) C​ AN however, be  tried in a ​higher court  ● EX: if the crime committed is also a federal offense, you can take them then to federal  court  ● Can be taken from criminal court to civil court if it is both a criminal offense and a civil  offense (different courts)  ● EX: OJ Simpson­­found not guilty in criminal court, then found liable for millions of  dollars in civil court    3) Sources of Law  ● Constitutions  ● Legislations (passed by elected officials; statute/code)  ● Administrative Regulations (rules promulgated by administrative agencies)  ● Executive orders  ● Case Law (aka common law)  ○ Fill in gaps not covered in the types of laws above      1. Constitutional Law:​ contract between the people and the government  a. Only really applies in some cases that are in conflict with the government  b. There are state and federal constitutions  c. Only applies if there is “state action”  d. Doesn’t apply to private enterprise/private parties  2. Legislation:​ “statutory law”  a. Federal (passed by Congress): US Code  b. State  c. Local  d. Issues associated with Legislation  i. If the judiciary interprets the law a certain way, legislation can not change  the law but CAN w ​ rite a new law  ii. If legislation conflicts with constitution, CONSTITUTION TRUMPS  LEGISLATURE  iii. Judicial branch makes this call^^^  iv. EX: Marbury VS Madison, 1803  1. First challenge/example of this  3. Administrative Law  a. Subservient to statutory law  4. Executive Orders  a. CAN be repealed by congress, but it is very rare  5. Case Law (Common Law)  a. “Stare Decisis”­ “let the decision stand”  b. Most lawsuits are handled outside of court (not a legal precedent that can be  brought before a judge)  c. Trial court verdicts (very little legal precedence)  d. NO: cases have to be appealed ­­appellate decisions are in national reporter  system, p. 16  e. One state does not have to follow precedent of another state  f. FEDERAL LAW: they do not have to follow precedents set in other circuits (but  are often affected by them)  i. AR: goes to St. Louis federal court (closest to us)  ii. OK: goes to Denver federal court    ● William Marbury v James Madison  ​ (1803)  ○ It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the  law is   ○ It is the responsibility of the supreme court to determine whether or not a statute  violates the constitution    ● State ​courts have the right to interpret ​state​ laws (not even the Supreme court can  overrule).  ○ State can rule for MORE protection for the accused but NOT LESS.    ​ ● Precedent:​ an a ​ ppellate opinion which is binding law on subsequent similar cases in the  same jurisdiction              Chapter 2    Stages of Litigation:  1. Complaint  2. Service of Process­formal notice to the defendant that they have been sued (summons:  standard form that explains to the defendant what the law is)  3. Defendant files an answer  a. If the defendant does NOT file answer, plaintiff automatically WINS  ​ b. At this point^^ government can seize ​assets and/or g 4. Discovery  a. request for production, interrogatories, depositions    ● NO screening process up front (anyone can file a lawsuit)  ○ Open Door Policy​ in civil court  ○ Occasionally leads to frivolous lawsuits  ■ EX: 2001 former state senator sued in federal court to have his daughter  put on the Central Cheer squad  ■ EX: Koch VS Adams student sues teacher for confiscation of cell phone  ■ EX: Stella Liebeck VS McDonalds  ​ ● Coffee W​ AS too hot & she won $2.9 million      ● Damages  ​ ○ Compensatory Damages: compensate for $$$, pain and suffering, and loss of  income  ​ ○  ​ unitive Damages: rare may be awarded due to extreme negligence  ■ Occur in tort settings, not contract settings    ● Adversary System:​ civil cases vs. criminal cases  ○ Obligation to represent defendant/plaintiff with enthusiasm  ○ Can’t present untrue evidence  ○ “Rules of ethics:” can not make an argument they know is frivolous    ● Method of Payment  ○ Defendant’s lawyer: hourly  ○ Plaintiff’s lawyer: contingency (30% or even higher) (if they lose, no pay)    ● Reducing litigation:  ○ Use the ​contingency rule  ○ “Loser pay” rule:​ plaintiff sues defendant and loses, plaintiff must pay  defendant’s legal expenses  ■ AR uses this rule: breach of contract cases only  ■ Discouraging frivolous lawsuits: “Rule 11”          Terms:    Deposition:​ each side may interrogate potential witnesses; both sides lawyer & court reporters  are there  i. Taken prior to trial  ii. Rules of perjury apply  iii. Witness must then take the stand in court    Liable​: someone found guilty in civil court    Comparative Negligence:​  party A is __% at fault and party B __% at fault    Tort Reform:​ limits what a plaintiff may recover in a tort case  ○ Capping punitive damages  ○ Limiting pain and suffering  ○ associated in some states (not all) in efforts to reduce number of frivolous  lawsuits    Summary Judgement:​ the judge decides the case without going to the jury (no fact issue)  pre­trial, during the discovery stage of litigation    Directed Verdict:​ will be granted if the plaintiff’s attorney fails to offer a key piece of evidence     Judgement Notwithstanding the Verdict:​ there was a verdict returned, but the judge decided it  was erroneous        Chapter 3    ADR­>>​ Alternative Dispute Resolution  Reasons for this: cost, time, flexibility/control, avoids “all or none” verdict    Two Types:  1. Mediation  a. Neutral third party leading to settlement (?)  b. Non­binding  c. Most popular­often required by judges before judges before seeing their case on  trial  2. Arbitration  a. Neutral third party  b. Binding  c. Ways it is agreed to:  i. After the dispute arises  ii. In the contract  d. Federal Arbitration Act of 1925  e. EX:  f. Prepaid card  g. Student loans        Chapter 4     CONSTITUTIONAL LAW “esto perpetua”    ***TEST NEXT THURSDAY 6­7***    “Esto perpetua” (latin)­ “Let it be perpetual”  ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ 4. Unprotected Speech  a. “Clear and Present Danger” concept: fighting words, threatening speech, etc.  i. EX: shouting “FIRE!” in crowded theatre  b. Defamation (covered under torts)  c. Obscenity  i. “I know it when I see it.” Jacobellis vs. Ohio, 378 US 184 (1964)   ii. Defined by law as:  1. Whether the average person, applying contemporary standards, would  find that ​the work appeals to the prurient interest. ​    2. Whether t ​ he work depicts sexual conduct in a patently offensive way  ​ as  defined by applicable state law.  3. Whether t ​ he work lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific  value​.       Amendment 2: ​Right to bear arms    Amendment 3: ​quartering of soldiers    Amendment 4: ​right from unreasonable s ​ earches ​and s ​ eizures  Searching may be based on:  1. Consent: State vs. Brown, 156 SW 3d 722, AR Supreme Court  2. Warrant  3. Justifiable Excuse (emergency , pat down pursuant to lawful stoppage)  a. Cell phones?? US Supreme Court, June 27, 2014  i. Can’t search your cell phone if you get arrested    Amendment 5: ​protection of the accused  ­double jeopardy  ­self incrimination  ­due process  ­5th & 14th amendments  ­must be “state action!”    Amendment 6: ​criminal procedures in federal court (later extended to state courts)    Amendment 7: ​juries in civil cases (federal court) (doesn’t apply to state courts)    Amendment 8: c ​ ruel and unusual punishment  ­excessive bail  ­death penalty ?    Amendment 9: ​rights retained by people (including right to privacy)  EX: Griswold vs. Conn., 381 US 479 (US Supreme Court, 1965)  → found guilty, then SCOTUS overturned verdict  EX: Roe vs. Wade    Amendments 10­13: not on exam    Amendment 14: due process a ​ nd ​equal protection. ​ .not an “absolute” right (Strict Scrutiny  test vs. Rational Basis test)  Strict Scrutiny→ “compelling state interest”   EX: different treatment based on race  Rational Basis→ any conceivable rational basis for different treatment   2 EX Cases:  1. Registering for selective service:  a. Rostker vs. Goldberg, 454 US 57, US Supreme Court, 1981  2. Drinking Alcohol: Craig vs. Boren, 429 US 1124, US Supreme Court, 1977    QUIZ:  3. C  4. C  5. C (not on test)  6. D  7. C  8. D      Chapter 5    Sect. 1​: Background and Significance:   Three primary beneficial functions (comparable to three branches of government):  Rulemaking​ (legislative)­ based on expertise and experience  Enforcement ​(executive)­punishments for violations of rules  Adjudication  ​ (judicial)­quicker  Sect. 2:​ ​Agency Creation & Powers  Creation: ​Enabling Legislation: ​ “defines the agency’s authority”  Independent regulatory agencies (pg 109)  Agency Powers & the Constitution: Delegation Doctrine→ Article 1  ­subject to executive control, legislative control, judicial control  Sect. 3:​ Administrative Procedures Act (federal)  A. Arbitrary and capricious test: courts authorized to i​ nvalidate agency actions  ​ which are  a​rbitrary, capricious or abuse of discretion  B. Rulemaking authority:  a. Notice to public  ​ ​ ​ ​


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