Criminal Justice in America Chapter 2 Personal Textbook Notes
Criminal Justice in America Chapter 2 Personal Textbook Notes CRJU 203 002
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by juliac103 on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CRJU 203 002 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Theresa Clement in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
1 Criminal Justice in America Chapter 2 PERSONAL notes INSTRUCTOR: Clement 05 September 2016 Types of Crimes: Crimes can be categorized into seven different types: visible crime, occupational crime, organized crime, transnational crime, victimless crime, political crime, and cyber crime. Visible Crime Often called, “street crime” or “ordinary crime”, ranges from shoplifting to homicide. They are often the least profitable, and the hardest to hide. Those charged often times tend to be young men. ● Violent Crimes ○ Acts against people in which death or physical injury results. ○ Includes criminal homicide, assault, rape, and robbery. ● Property Crimes ○ Acts that threaten property held by individuals or by the state. ○ Includes theft, larceny, shoplifting, embezzlement, and burglary. ● Public-Order Crimes ○ Act that threaten the general well being of society and challenge accepted moral principles. ○ Includes drunkenness, aggressive panhandling, vandalism, and disorderly conduct. Occupational Crime ● Committed in the context of a legal business or profession ○ Often viewed as shrewd business practices ○ If done “right”, they’re never discovered ● Committed by respectable, well-to-do people taking advantage of opportunities arising from business dealing. 2 Organized Crime ● MINIMUM risk and MAXIMUM profit ● Involved a network of activities, usually cutting across state and national borders, which range from legitimate businesses to shady deals with labor unions and the provision of “goods”-- such as drugs, sex, or pornography-- that cannot be obtained legally. ○ Associated with the American Italian Mafia ● Includes commercial arson, illegal disposal of toxic wastes, and money laundering. ○ Money laundering: moving the proceeds of criminal activities through a maze of businesses, banks, and brokerage accounts so as to disguise their origin. Transnational Crime ● A term that refers to crime involving planning, execution, or victimization that crosses the borders of countries. ○ Caused by the growth of global transportation systems, international trade, computerized financial transactions, and internet globalization. ● Borders do not define or limit the rate of activity ● Grouped into three categories ○ Provision of illicit goods ■ Includes drug trafficking and moving of stolen property ○ Provision of illegal services ■ Includes human trafficking and cyber crimes ○ Infiltration of business or government ■ Includes bribery, extortion, and money laundering ● Difficult to stop these crimes because U.S. officials can not cross into other country jurisdictions on business without permission. Victimless Crime ● Involves a willing and private exchange of goods or services that are in strong demand but are illegal ○ Includes prostitution, gambling, drug sale and use. ● Referred to as “victimless” because the people involved do not believe anyone has been victimized. ● Most obvious example-- “War on Drugs” ○ 1/1/2014: Colorado is the first state to legalize the use of recreational marijuana ■ Followed by Washington State Political Crime ● Refers to criminal acts either by the government or against the government that are carried out of ideological purposes. ○ Morality that is above the law 3 ○ Ex) treason, the bombing of abortion clinics, etc.. Cyber Crime ● Involves the use of computers and the internet to commit acts against people, property, public order, or morality. ○ Includes child pornography, distribute viruses by hackers, etc… How Much Crime Is There? The largest decrease in violent crime occurred in the Midwest (7.4%) while the Northeast demonstrated the greatest decrease in homicide rates (14%). Dark figure of crime: a metaphor that emphasizes the dangerous dimension of crimes that are never reported to the police. ● Most often seen with rape victims Until 1972, the only crimes counted by the government were those reported by the police. ● Reported to the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) compiled by the FBI. After 1972, the Department of Justice sponsored the National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS). ● Surveys the public to find out how much victimization has occurred. The Uniform Crime Reports ● Issued by the FBI ● Statistical summary of crimes reported to the police through a voluntary national network. ○ Does not include those NOT reported to the police ○ Does not include occupational crimes ○ Lists 29 types of crimes ■ For 8 major crimes, shows such factors including age race and number of reported crimes solved each year. ● Congress authorized the system in 1930 ● After receiving criticism, the FBI later enacted the National Incident- Based Reporting System (NIBRS) ○ Police agencies are to report all crimes committed during an incident, not just the most serious one, as well as all available data on the offender. ○ Includes 46 different offenses in 22 crime categories. ○ Distinguishes between attempted and completed crimes. ● Differences between the URC and the NIBRS ○ NIBRS includes.. ■ More types of crimes 4 ■ Disaggregated ● Many jurisdictions report individual crime rather than just police department reporting counts ■ Reporting is more difficult ● Must have the same format ● Only fifteen states participate in this system National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) ● “Self reported” measure because it uses survey research to ask people whether or not they’ve been victims of a crime. ○ The same people are interviewed twice a year for three years and are asked if they’ve been victimized in the last 6 months. ○ Also asked a series of screening questions. ○ May be used to track serial offenders. ● Still has it’s own faults ○ What counts as victimization is not specified. ■ Based on victim's perception ○ People are unlikely to report crimes their families are involved in. ○ May be embarrassed to admit multiple victimizations
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