Study Guide Unit 1 – Questions
1. Define Biology.
2. Name the 7 major characteristics of living things.
3. List the order from smallest to largest in Cells and Organization.
4. Describe each of the 8 parts from question 3.
5. True or False, every organism utilizes energy in one way or another to stay alive. 6. Define Nutrients.
7. Define Metabolism.
8. True or False, to survive, a living thing must not be able to adapt to changes in the environment.
9. Define homeostasis.
10. Describe the difference between mitosis vs. meiosis.
11. Describe the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction.
12. Define Biological Evolution.
13. Define natural selection.
14. What are the 2 major routes of biological evolution? Describe them. 15. Define taxonomy.
16. What are the 3 domains of life?
17. What is genomics?
18. What is proteomics?
19. Name the parts of the scientific method.
20. Why need a New Question as the last step of the Scientific Method? Chapter 2
1. Name a few of the basic properties of water. We also discuss several other topics like Why would soil and water be added to a compost pile?
2. Define what being polar is.
3. Define what being non-polar is.
4. Is water polar or non-polar?
5. What type of bond holds a water molecule together?
6. What kind of bond holds multiple water molecules together?
7. True or False, in water, the Oxygen molecule is positive and the hydrogen molecules is negative.
8. Explain what happens to water when it is heated and cooled.
9. What is different about freezing water verses most other substances? 10. Define solute, solvent, and solution. Name a good example of which contains all of these.
11. What is the term for water loving, will dissolve in water?
12. Name the term for water fearing, does not dissolve in water.
13. Describe the difference between strong acids and weak acids.
14. Describe the difference between Direct bases and Indirect bases.
15. On a pH scale, what does a high H+ concentration mean? And low H+ concentration mean?
1. Define what a Functional group is. We also discuss several other topics like uri physics 204
2. List the 7 major functional groups.
3. Explain how macromolecules are made and what they are made up of. 4. What is a polymer?
5. True or False, when 2 monomers are brought together, you lose a water molecule. 6. What is a Hydrolysis reaction?
7. What are macromolecules? Don't forget about the age old question of math240 umd
8. What are the 3 major types of macromolecules? Don't forget about the age old question of hoovercrats
9. How are polymers made?
10. What are the functions of proteins?
11. How are polymers (peptides) formed?
12. True or False, the 3D shape of a protein is critical for performing the job properly. 13. Is primary structure to quaternary structure complex to simple?
14. What does denaturing a protein do? Give a few examples of things that can denature proteins.
15. Which is the correct order for the flow of information in the cell?
a. RNA ???? proteins ???? DNA
b. DNA ???? RNA ???? proteins
c. Proteins ???? DNA ???? RNA
16. What do DNA and RNA stand for?
17. What is the difference between Purines and Pyrimidines?
18. How can you tell the difference between a DNA nucleotide and an RNA nucleotide? 19. List a few characteristics of lipids.
20. What are some types of lipids?
1. What is the smallest functional unit of life?
2. List the 3 characteristics of cell theory.
3. What are the 2 major cell types and what are their characteristics? 4. Explain Surface area to Volume ratio.
5. What are the components of a cell?
6. What are the components of the Endomembrane system?
7. What are the components of the Semiautonomous organelles?
Chapter 1 – Answers
1. The study of living things
2. Cells and Organization, Energy use and Metabolism, Response to Environmental Changes, Regulation and Homeostasis, Growth and Development, Reproduction, and Biological Evolution
3. Cells, Tissue, Organ, Organism, Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biosphere 4. Don't forget about the age old question of econ 317 usc
• Cells: made of atoms and larger molecules
• Tissue: cells of the same type
• Organ: contains 2 or more tissue types
• Organism: anything that contains everything it needs to live
• Population: group of organisms living together
• Community: populations of 2 or more species
• Ecosystem: interactions of the community and the environment
• Biosphere: all the places on Earth where living organisms exist
6. Compounds that can be broken down to release energy.
7. Breakdown and buildup of various compounds within the cell.
8. False, they must be able to adapt to changes around them.
9. The process by which organisms regulate their cells to maintain stable conditions. 10. Mitosis is asexual reproduction and Meiosis is for sexual reproduction. 11. Asexual reproduction is cell division, mainly used by bacteria. Sexual reproduction is the
combination of 2 different cells from different individuals to make a new organism. 12. It is how a population of organisms are modified over many generations. 13. When advantageous traits get passed on to the next generation instead of disadvantageous traits.
• Vertical descent with mutation: observe the lineage or series of ancestors for a particular species.
• Horizontal gene transfer: gene exchange from one species to another or different species
15. A grouping of species based on similar characteristics.
16. Eukaryotic, and prokaryotic which include bacteria and archaea.
17. Study of genes.
18. Study of proteins.
• Observations & Develop Questions based off the observations
• Hypothesis & Prediction Don't forget about the age old question of integrins are integral membrane proteins
• Data Collection & Analysis
• Accept or Reject Hypothesis
• New Question
20. Hypotheses and theories are always being changed and bettered. Therefore, the New Question step is the start or beginning of a new hypothesis.
Chapter 2 – Answers
1. Makes up 60-70% of humans, 95% of plants, it is a big environmental component, a part of many chemical reactions, polar.
2. Slightly charged portions of the molecule.
3. No difference in charge throughout the molecule.
5. A covalent bond.
6. A hydrogen bond.
7. True, the interaction between the positive and negative portions are weak. 8. When water is heated, there are fewer stable hydrogen bonds because they are broken, therefore liquid water is turned into a vapor, or gas. When water is cooled there are more stable hydrogen bonds because cooling the water allows more hydrogen bonds to form, therefore, liquid water turns into a solid, ice.
9. Most substances get smaller; water expands when it is frozen because it is less dense due to the more hydrogen bonds.
10. Example: Kool-Aid
• Solute: anything that can dissolve in a liquid
• Solvent: the liquid in which things can be dissolved
• Solution: solutes dissolved in solvents
13. Strong acids completely dissociate in H2O. Weak acids, some will remain intact; only some will dissociate.
14. Direct bases release OH- into H2O. Indirect bases absorb H+ from H2O. 15. High concentration means that it is acidic and 7 and below on the pH scale. Low concentration means that it is basic and 7 and above on the pH scale.
Chapter 3 – Answers
1. A group of atoms that are important as a group for chemical reactions. 2. Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl. 3. Made by bonding together smaller organic molecules called monomers. 4. Many monomers bound together make a polymer.
6. The breaking apart of a bond between monomers by adding H2O to the bond. 7. Large organic molecules (polymers) built of many monomers.
8. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Nucleic acids.
9. Condensation reactions, forming a covalent bond between monosaccharides.
10. Gene regulation, motor proteins, defense proteins, metabolic enzymes, cell signaling, structural proteins, transporters/ membrane transport proteins.
11. Held together by peptide bonds, formed by condensation/ dehydration reactions. 12. True.
13. No, primary structure is simple and quaternary structure is more complex with multiples.
14. Unfolding a protein messes up the structure and function of that protein. Example: pH, Salinity, Temperature, Organic solvents
15. B, DNA and RNA are nucleic acids and they provide the information and direction for protein synthesis.
16. DNA: deoxyribose RNA: ribose
17. Purines have 2 rings and are A & G. Pyrimidines have 1 ring and are U, T, & C. 18. Monomers differ in structure between DNA and RNA, Nitrogen bases pair up in DNA, A & T, G & C.
19. They are not true macromolecules, no set monomer, mostly made up of carbon & hydrogen, hydrophobic and non-polar.
20. Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Steroids.
Chapter 4 – Answers
1. A cell.
• All living things are made of cells
• Cells are the smallest unit of a living organism
• All cells arise from preexisting cells
− No nucleus
− No membrane bound nucleus
▪ DNA free within the cell ???? nucleoid
− Plasma membrane
− Often have a cell wall
▪ Extensive structure existing outside the membrane
− Typically, on the smaller side of the range of cells
− Have a nucleus
− Have a membrane bound nucleus
▪ Contains DNA
− Plasma membrane
− Internal, membrane bound organelles
− Some have cell walls, some don’t
− Can be large
4. Having more surface area to volume, for example, a baseball might be smaller but it has more surface area to volume ratio than a basketball.
5. Membrane, Cytoplasm, Nucleus and Endomembrane System
6. Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Lysosome, Vacuole, Golgi apparatus
7. Mitochondria, Chloroplast, Peroxisome