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Botany Study Guide

by: Madilynn_Danielle

Botany Study Guide BTNY 11000 - 010


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Covers all the lessons we've learned
Introduction To Plant Science
Peter B Goldsbrough,Robert E Pruitt
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madilynn_Danielle on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BTNY 11000 - 010 at Purdue University taught by Peter B Goldsbrough,Robert E Pruitt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
Botany 110 Notes WK1 Why Do Plant Matter?  Molecules of life o Universe: H & He o Earth: H,C,N,O,Na,Mg,Al,Si,P,S,Cl,K,Ca,Fe o Organisms: H,C,N,O,Na,Mg,P,S,Cl,K,Ca,Fe  Protons: positive charge  Neutrons: no charge  Electrons: negative charge  Atomic Number: number of protons in an atom  Atomic Mass: number of protons plus neutrons in an atom  Bonds o Covalent: formed when 2 atoms share electron pairs (strongest) o Ionic: The force of attraction between oppositely charged ions (medium strength) o Hydrogen: electrons are not always held equally tightly by 2 atoms. Polarity results from the partial + or – charge caused by the unequal distribution of electrons. An extremely important polar molecule is water!! (weakest bond)  Water o Solid, liquid, and gas o Highly effective solvent o Hydrogen bonds make water cohesive o High specific heat (takes a while for the temp. to change) o Ice is less dense than water. Ice freezes at the top of water, so beneath the ice organisms can still survive  Carbon (it’s with virtually everything!) o Carbon can share 4 electrons forming covalent bonds o Can participate in many types of chemical reactions o Most often bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon o Carbon bonds are weak and can easily broken  Organic o Carbohydrates: contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1) and typically can be broken down to release energy in the animal body. (Starch, sugar and cellulose) o Lipids: fats. Fatty acids are NONpolar  Saturated fat: a fat in which the fatty acids all All in nutrition labels have single bonds  Polyunsaturated fat: a fat in which the fatty acids all have two double bonds  Unsaturated fat: a fat that has a least one double bond o Proteins: large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid o Nucleic Acids: include DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid), are made from monomers known as nucleotides (added in the numbers in the nutrition label) o Monosaccharides: single sugars (glucose6, frutose6, ribose6) o Disaccharides: two sugars (sucrose) o Polysaccharides: many sugars (starch and cellulose)  Phospholipids: hydrophobic  Proteins o Polymers : large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits  Made from amino acids (AA)  More than one bond = peptide bond  More than two bonds = dipeptide  More than three bonds = tripeptide  Enzymes o reduce the activation energy of a reaction o they bring everything together perfectly, which lowers the energy output o also known as a catalyst  Nucleic Acids o DNA & RNA o Polymers o Nitrogenous base  DNA = A, G, C, T  RNA = A, G, C, U o Polymerize into strings of nucleotides o Hydrogen bonds can form between two strands with complementary sequences  ATP (adenine triphosphate) o Energy created in a cell. If no energy, the cell is dead  Secondary Metabolites o organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism Tissues  Tissues: composed of one or more cell type with specialized functions  Plants develop from a single cell  Primary apical (root and shoot) meristems arise during embryonic development  Secondary meristems (vascular cambium and cork cambium) continue expansion and develop in woody plants during later development (ex. trees)  Tissues are derived from meristems o Also are organized regions of cells of similar structure that preform a collective function  Meristematic Cells: divide and then differentiate into other tissues o thin walls and dense cytoplasm  dermal tissues  ground tissues  vascular tissues  Dermal o Outermost layer of the plant (skin) o Epidermis: is usually a single, exterior layer of flattened cells providing protection  also contains specialized cells that regulate gas exchange- guard cells- controlling the aperture of pores called stomata  frequently also contains trichromes or leaf hairs that have many different functions o Cuticle: multilayered structure secreted by epidermal cells of leaves and stems (outside of epidermis, 7 layers, a way layer aka hydrophobic) o In woody plants, when the epidermis cracks, the cuticle comes in and replaces it  Ground o Parenchyma: living cells comprise the bulk of leaves. Where photosynthesis occurs bc its full of chloroplast o Sclerenchyma: some wall thickening (cellulose) support to young stems, petioles and leaf veins (celery strings)  Vascular o Liquid conducting tissues pf plants o Continuous throughout the plant from roots, through stems and into leaf veins o Water, nutrients, and solutes to move through the plant body  Xylem- moves water and nutrients from roots to shoots o Conducts water and dissolved minerals from the roots to all parts of plants (transpiration)  Pholem- moves sugars (mainly) from sources to sinks o Translocation- of food and metabolities from leaves (source) to flowers, roots, storage organs and meristems (sink) o composed of sieve-tube members (long slender cells with porous ends [sieve plates]) o companion cells aid in translocation  Taxony o Evolution of planta going for a long time o Early plants lacked seeds o Flowering plants are divided into a number of groups based primarily on floral structures The monocots and dicots are big groups but differ in jobs Week 2: stems, leaves, and roots  Plant Organs o Various tissues combine to form complex organs including: roots, leaves, steams, flowers, and fruits  Stems o Many are photosynthic o Support and is the structure to the plant (taller= more light) o Transport water and minerals o Produce food o Produce more stems  Nodes: the point where leaves or branches attach- needed for growth  Buds: new stems or flowers form in the axil of leaves  Internodes: length of stems between nodes  Stolons: below ground  Rhizomes: above ground  Tuber: storage- modified stems  Leaves o Photosynthesis (primary function) o Storage o Transpiration- the flow of water through a plant, from the roots to the leaves, via the xylem vessels.  Dicot- a flowering plant with two embryonic seed leaves  Monocot- single embryonic seed leaf o Simple leaves  Smooth  Teeth  Lobe o Compound Leaves  Pinnate (feather)  Palmate (finger on hand)  Leaf Vein Patterns o One central location – feather o Away from each other – hand o Parallel – monocots  Leaf Arrangement o Phyllotactic o Opposite o Whorled  Specialized Leaves o Bud scales (modified leaves) o Floral bracts o Succulent leaves o Water holding structures o Bulb o Spines (leaves) o Thorns (stems) o Prickles (usually derives from the epidermis)  Roots o Water and mineral uptake o Anchorage o Storage o Produce more roots  Root cap – protects and lubricates the growing root  Root tip – area of cell division  Root hairs – provide huge surface area for absorption  Casparian Strip o An impermeable waxy layer between the cells of the endodermis that stops water and solutes from entering the xylem expect by passing through the cytoplasm of adjacent cells o Water can move in the apoplast of symplastic, but must enter symplastic to bypass the Casparian strip  Apoplast: outside  Symplastic: inside  Specialized Roots o Aerial: stick in air to get water o Pneumatophores – (mangroves) breath underwater o Attachment – Ivy o Prop roots – support (corn roots)  Flowers o Sexual reproduction and asexual o Production of seeds o *NOT ALL PLANTS HAVE FLOWERS*  Non-Flower Plants o Ferns o Conifers o Mosses and liverwarts  Flowers Again o Almost all composed pf 4 different parts of organs  Modified leaves o Pistil: girl repo system, stigma (captures pollen), style (pollen attaches), overy o Stamen: boy repo system, anther (pollen), filament o Perianth: sepal, petals Week 3: Reproduction  Tubes arise at the end of the stolons and have no leaves associated with them  Bulbs are buds comprised of a short stem with numerous modified leaves attached to it  Reproductive Strategies o Offspring are clones of the plant o Requires less investment and less risk  Sexual Repo o Offspring are genetically variable o Is always expensive and can be risky  Asexual Repo o A very efficient strategy for colonizing a new area – many weeds and other pioneer use asexual o Different forms of asexual repo are possible o New plants can grow as off shoots from various structures – most often from modified stems o Some plants can produce small plantlets along the margins of leaves o Seeds can produce without pollination or fertilization apomixes o Asexually derived seeds survive in the soil and germinate the same way as sexually derived seeds but they are all clones of the parent o Seeds can also be produced by self-pollination  Sexual Repo o *Genetic variability*: is what allows organisms to adapt to their environment and evolve new capabilities o Central to plant sexual repo is the concept of alternation of generations o Sexual repo is not only performed by plants with flowers o Different organisms adapt to different life styles o The haploid and diploid parts of the life cycle alternate o Sometimes the diploid organisms dominate o Sometimes the haploid organisms dominate o In plants both parts of the life cycle are composed of multicellular organisms  Why Have Sex? o Sex is all about producing arrange of offspring with different genetic possibilities o In a completely stable environment clonal repo is a good strategy o When resources need to be exploited quickly, clonal repo is also a good strategy o When competition for resources exists or the environment is unpredictable, sexual repo is the way  Flowers o Some species are self-incompatible (reject their own pollen)  This can be due to the differences in the morphology or biochemical barriers or both o Most flowers are hermaphrodites (both male and female parts) o Some just have male (staminate) and some just have female (carpellate) o Monoecious - when a species has male and female flowers they may occur on the same plant o Dioecious - when a species has male and female flowers they may occur on separate male and female plants  Getting from the Anther to the Stigma o Wind – the main vector for inconspicuous flowers, flowers with no odor or nectar, and flowers with light pollen. Examples are grasses, olive, walnut, ragweed. Insects – are the main pollination vectors for colorful flowers and flowers with odor and nectar. Many examples. Other vectors include water, birds, bats, and other animals, including humans. Many red flowers are pollinated by birds, such as hummingbirds. Specific pollination vectors can increase the reproductive success of plants - less pollen and female resources are wasted on non- productive events  Events After Pollinating are Controlled by the Female o Pollen germination is frequently controlled through interactions with the stigma - typically restricted to pollen from the right species o Pollen tubes are guided through the female reproductive system to the ovules by signals from the female gametophyte o Release of the sperm cells into the female gametophyte also requires signals produced by the female gametophyte o For it to be successful the male need to listen to the female 


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