PSY 200: Mayhorn Exam 1 Study Guide Review Sheet
PSY 200: Mayhorn Exam 1 Study Guide Review Sheet PSY 200
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Huriyyah Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 200 at North Carolina State University taught by Christopher Mayhorn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 651 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Psychology 200006 (Mayhorn) Review Sheet for Exam #1 The first exam will cover materials from the textbook (Chapters 1, 2, 3, & 5) as well as the lectures. The majority of the test material (80%) will come directly from the lecture with the remaining 20% coming from the textbook. A number of questions are applied….this means that you will have to be familiar with concepts and be able to apply them in specific situations. Be familiar with the following concepts: Psychology as a science ● Scientific study of behavior ● Behavior: anything that you as a person do Major Philosophical Issues in Psychology Free Will versus Determinism ● Free will: human beings have a choice in how they act or behave (selfdetermination) ● Determinism: idea of predeterminism that all idea or actions of human beings are decided way before they actually happen Nature versus Nurture ● Plato proposed nature theory all knowledge is innate ● Aristotle proposed nurture theory all knowledge is learned through experience MindBrain Problem ● Mind consists thoughts, consciousness, and other mental processes and the body includes the brain with neurons and structure Types of Psychologists ● Clinical Psychologist ● Bio psychologist ● Cognitive Psychologist ● Counseling Psychologist ● Developmental Psychologist ● Educational Psychologist ● Environmental Psychologist ● Industrial/organizational psychologist ● Personality psychologist ● School psychologist ● Social psychologist History of Psychology ● John Watson: “Father of Behaviorism” ● Wilhelm Wundt father of scientific psychology ● association/classical learning (pavlov): A causes C A is equal to B therefore B causes C What is Science? Solvable Problems: a testable theory Falsifiability: theory that data is changed or altered to make data pattern make more sense/ data is wrong and not credible Systematic Empiricism: observation and experiment Parsimony: when a simple explanation is chosen to explain something Publicly Verifiable Knowledge: data does not exist until verified or replicated Cumulative: adding results as you go/ results building up Goals of Psychology Description: observe what people do Explanation: why do people do that Prediction: propose a hypothesis which is a testable statement Control: guide behavior in right direction (Pavlov’s study) ex. Teacher learning better ways to make her class behave better Improvement: idea that people can do better Ex. Children’s Math Errors ● Declarative (factual) vs. Procedural (how to do it) Data Collection Methods Case Study: in depth study of one subject ● Clinical studies: first discovered by Sigmund Freud (neurologist) he was the father of psychoanalysis ● Developmental: Jean Piaget (psychologist) studied child development ● Cognitive: Patient H.M. case * Patient H.M. had seizures and epilepsy. He had psychotherapy and had the hippocampus cut off. H.M. could remember all events before the surgery, but nothing after. This patient was not able to create new memories, but his seizures were no longer there. Observational Study: straight observing and no variable or part of the experiment is manipulated Surv uestionnaires to collect data Experimentation: there are some manipulated variables this is basically a real experiment with control and manipulated independent variables *HAWTHORNE EFFECT: by observing behavior, you change or alter it because they subjects are aware ● Ex. You observe children playing in a playground and they know you are watching, so they will behave differently because of that. Populations versus Samples ● Population: all members of a group ● Sample: small parts or segments of a population Correlation Correlation Coefficient (r) ● Two parts or two variables necessary to interpret a correlation ® 1.) sign positive: one variable increases and the other increases negative: inverse relation or one variable increases and other decreases 2.) Magnitude (range from 101) The closer it is to 1 or 1, the stronger it is The closer to 0 it means it is weak Con: not good at describing data Types of Variables Independent variables what we manipulate/study method Dependent variables what we measure/ test performance Confounding variables might cause alternate explanations of data Ethics ● Sample experiment with data ○ Example study: distributed studying for a test vs. cramming studying for a test ● Participation cannot be forced/ has to be voluntary ● Informed consent: must be told what the experiment will consist of/ you can decide whether to stay or leave based on that information ● Protection from harm: people conducting study may lie to you for purposes of the study but have to inform participant that they lied after experiment ● Preventing or making better emotional and physical harm ● Confidentiality: your information and answers are your own business/ no one can see them with your consent ● Debriefing: interview between researchers and participants before experiment ● Animal participants: you can’t hurt animals physically *Ex. Tuskgee Experiment: unethical research People basically were injected with syphilis Measures of Central Tendency ● Mode: score that occurs the most ● Mean: the numeric average of a set of scores ● Median: exact middle score of distribution Measures of Variance ● Range: highest minus lower score ● Variance (average difference between each score and mean ● Standard Deviation Divisions of the Human Nervous System ● Peripheral Nervous system (PNS) ○ Somatic nervous system: contains peripheral nerve fibers which send sensory info. to CNS and motor fibers which protect skeletal muscle / voluntary movement ex. Scratch head ○ Autonomic nervous system: involuntary survival behavior/ fight or flight ■ Sympathetic nervous system: emergency action ■ Parasympathetic nervous system: normal relaxed action ■ Enteric nervous system ● Central nervous system (CNS): brain and spinal cord and controls sensory and motor movement Three Major Divisions of the Brain ● Forebrain: complex behaviors develop, advanced ○ Thalamus: all of senses go through this for further processing except smell (cerebral cortex ○ Hypothalamus: gives you location, located below thalamus, associated w/ regulating behavior like eating, drinking, arousal, temperature control, etc. or being able to start or stop ○ Limbic System: ■ Hippocampus: memory formation ■ AmygdALA: regulating aggressive behavior ■ Septum: regulating fear ● Midbrain: “relay station”, ½ auditory information, ½ visual information, send for further processing to forebrain (a lot of differentiation between species) ● Hindbrain: provides ability to breathe/life support ○ Reticular activating system: arousal, sends signal to brain, basic form of learning such as sleeping in a loud area, very basic level of staying attentive (habituation) ○ Cerebellum: motor coordination ex. Alcohol and touching finger to nose ○ Pons: transition from waking to sleeping (bottom of pons controls sleep and top controls being awake) ○ Medulla: physical connection between spine and brain, different areas control Blood pressure, heart rate etc. ● Hindbrain+midbrain = brain stem Brain Structures and the associated function ● Dura mater: serves as protection/hard ● Arachnoid: has vessels that deliver oxygen via blood ● Pia Mater: cushioning for brain *Invaginations/creases or folds in brain: increase surface area of brain and deep folds are sulfy* ● Two Hemispheres of Cerebral Cortex ○ Left hemisphere associate w/ language ○ Right hemisphere associated w/ visualspatial information ○ Connected to each other by corpus callosum which allows them to communicate ○ Contralaterality left hemisphere controls right side of body and vice versa ● 4 lobes of cerebral cortex ○ Occipital (vision) ■ Agnosia from damage (inability to process visual information) ○ Parietal (body perceptions): touching cold hot ■ Agraphia: damage > lateral effects ○ Temporal (audition)/ right localization ■ Wernicke’s aphasia: difficulty producing speech/ difficulty lies in comprehending speech (cognitive effect) ○ Frontal (motor activity, higher cognitive function, emotion) ■ Damage ex. Paralysis ■ Broca’s aphasia: inability to communicate/ difficulty lies in body not cooperating or coordination (motor) *Ex. Phineas Gage: huge piece of metal hit his skull, went about his business, but people said his personality was changed and he had difficulty with emotion* Structure of a neuron ● Axon messages are sent by this to other neurons ● Soma cell body ● Dendrites these receive the messages and then deliver it to the soma ● Types of neurons ○ Sensory neurons: messages from body to CNS ○ Motor Neurons action messages from CNS to muscles and glands ○ Interneurons how the motor and sensory neurons communicate together ○ Synapse these are spaces or gaps between the axon of the neuron that is sending and the dendrites which is receiving the neurons ■ Electrical becomes chemical ○ Lock and key mechanism ■ Axon release neurotransmitter chemical from axon ■ Bind to receptors on postsynaptic Neurotransmitters and their function ● Over 40 neurotransmitters are identified ● Focus on 3 main ones ○ Acetylcholine help in learning and memory ○ Dopamine help in movement, attention, and memory ○ Serotonin help in arousal, sleep, mood, appetite, sensitivity to pain ■ Ex. Prozac is a drug which is an Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor ○ Body naturally creates these neurotransmitters You should be able to: Identify independent, dependent, and confounding variables Interpret scatterplots of correlations Calculate measures of central tendency Calculate measures of variance Label diagrams of the brain and associated structures Match a behavioral disorder to damaged brain regions and specific neurotransmitters Brain Structure Function Damages Hindbrain 1. Reticular Activating 1. Arousal, 1. Can’t stay System attention alert 2. Cerebellum 2. Balance, 2. Difficulty 3. Pons coordination standing and 4. Medulla 3. Dreaming, walking sleeping 3. Can't sleep or 4. Heart rate, stay awake breathing, 4. death blood pressure Midbrain 1. Midbrain 1. Process visual and 1. Can’t pass auditory information comprehension between parts of the brain Forebrain 1. Thalamus 1. Telephone 1. Synesthesia, 2. Hypothalamus switchboard Visual for sensory/ information vision, processed as audition, auditory vice touch, taste versa 2. Eating and 2. Can’t regulate drinking these behaviors Limbic 1. Hippocampus 1. New 1. Can’t learn System 2. Amygdala memories new 3. Septum created information 2. Aggression 2. Can’t control 3. Regulates anger fears 3. No fear, controlling fear Cerebral 1. Occipital 1. seeing/vision 1. Difficulty in Cortex (two 2. Parietal 2. Touch processing hemispheres 3. Temporal 3. Auditory visual connected by 4. Frontal processing information/ corpus 4. Motor agrasia callosum) function, 2. Laterality emotion, effects, left: higherorder agraphia/ procession writing, right: drawing pictures 3. Wernicke's aphasia on left and difficulty in localization on right 4. Left frontal cortex, Broca’s asphasia
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