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PSY 200: Mayhorn Exam 1 Study Guide Review Sheet

by: Huriyyah Notetaker

PSY 200: Mayhorn Exam 1 Study Guide Review Sheet PSY 200

Marketplace > North Carolina State University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSY 200 > PSY 200 Mayhorn Exam 1 Study Guide Review Sheet
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About this Document

This has everything we went over for Exam 1
Introduction to Psychology
Christopher Mayhorn
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Huriyyah Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 200 at North Carolina State University taught by Christopher Mayhorn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 651 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at North Carolina State University.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
Psychology 200­006 (Mayhorn) Review Sheet for Exam #1  The first exam will cover materials from the textbook (Chapters 1, 2, 3, & 5) as well as the lectures.  The  majority of the test material (80%) will come directly from the lecture with the remaining 20% coming  from the textbook.  A number of questions are applied….this means that you will have to be familiar with  concepts and be able to apply them in specific situations.  Be familiar with the following concepts:  Psychology as a science  ● Scientific study of behavior   ● Behavior: anything that you as a person do   Major Philosophical Issues in Psychology              Free Will versus Determinism  ● Free will: human beings have a choice in how they act or behave (self­determination)  ● Determinism: idea of predeterminism that all idea or actions of human beings are decided way  before they actually happen               Nature versus Nurture  ● Plato proposed nature theory ­ all knowledge is innate   ● Aristotle proposed nurture theory ­ all knowledge is learned through experience               Mind­Brain Problem  ● Mind consists thoughts, consciousness, and other mental processes and the body includes the  brain with neurons and structure    Types of Psychologists  ● Clinical Psychologist    ● Bio psychologist   ● Cognitive Psychologist   ● Counseling Psychologist   ● Developmental Psychologist   ● Educational Psychologist   ● Environmental Psychologist   ● Industrial/organizational psychologist   ● Personality psychologist   ● School psychologist   ● Social psychologist   History of Psychology  ● John Watson: “Father of Behaviorism”   ● Wilhelm Wundt ­ father of scientific psychology  ● association/classical learning (pavlov): ​A causes C A is equal to B therefore B causes C  What is Science?              Solvable Problems: ​a testable theory  Falsifiability​: theory that data is changed or altered to make data pattern make more sense/ data is  wrong and not credible              Systematic Empiricism: ​observation and experiment               Parsimony: ​when a simple explanation is chosen to explain something               Publicly Verifiable Knowledge​: data does not exist until verified or replicated              Cumulative: ​adding results as you go/ results building up   Goals of Psychology              Description: ​observe ​ ​what people do   Explanation: ​why do people do that               Prediction: ​propose a hypothesis which is a testable statement              Control: ​guide behavior in right direction (Pavlov’s study) ex. Teacher learning better ways to  make her class behave better               Improvement: ​idea that people can do better   Ex. Children’s Math Errors   ● Declarative (factual) vs. Procedural (how to do it)     Data Collection Methods              Case Study: ​in depth study of one subject   ● Clinical studies: first discovered by Sigmund Freud (neurologist) ­ he was the father of  psychoanalysis   ● Developmental: Jean Piaget (psychologist) ­ studied child development   ● Cognitive: Patient H.M. case     *  Patient H.M. had seizures and epilepsy. He had psychotherapy and had the hippocampus cut  off. H.M. could remember all events before the surgery, but nothing after. This patient was not  able to create new memories, but his seizures were no longer there.               Observational Study: ​straight observing and no variable or part of the experiment is manipulated              Surv​ uestionnaires to collect data               Experimentation: ​there are some manipulated variables ­ this is basically a real experiment with  control and manipulated independent variables      *HAWTHORNE EFFECT: by observing behavior, you change or alter it because they subjects are aware  ● Ex. You observe children playing in a playground and they know you are watching, so  they will behave differently because of that.   Populations versus Samples  ● Population: all members of a group   ● Sample: small parts or segments of a population   Correlation  Correlation Coefficient (r)  ●  Two parts or two variables necessary to interpret a correlation ®  1.) sign   ­positive: one variable increases and the other increases  ­negative: inverse relation or one variable increases and other decreases     2.) Magnitude (range from ­1­0­­1)   ­ The closer it is to ­1 or 1, the stronger it is   ­ The closer to 0 it means it is weak   ­ Con: not good at describing data  Types of Variables  ­ Independent variables ­ what we manipulate/study method   ­ Dependent variables ­ what we measure/ test performance   ­ Confounding variables ­ might cause alternate explanations of data   Ethics  ● Sample experiment with data  ○ Example study: distributed studying for a test vs. cramming studying for a test  ● Participation cannot be forced/ has to be voluntary   ● Informed consent: must be told what the experiment will consist of/ you can decide whether to  stay or leave based on that information  ● Protection from harm: people conducting study may lie to you for purposes of the study but have  to inform participant that they lied after experiment  ● Preventing or making better emotional and physical harm   ● Confidentiality: your information and answers are your own business/ no one can see them with  your consent  ● Debriefing: interview between researchers and participants before experiment   ● Animal participants: you can’t hurt animals physically      *Ex. Tuskgee Experiment:   ­ unethical research   ­ People basically were injected with syphilis     Measures of Central Tendency  ● Mode: score that occurs the most   ● Mean: the numeric average of a set of scores  ● Median: exact middle score of distribution  Measures of Variance  ● Range: highest minus lower score   ● Variance (average difference between each score and mean  ● Standard Deviation  Divisions of the Human Nervous System  ● Peripheral Nervous system (PNS)  ○ Somatic nervous system: contains peripheral nerve fibers which send sensory info. to  CNS and motor fibers which protect skeletal muscle / voluntary movement ex. Scratch  head  ○ Autonomic nervous system: involuntary survival behavior/ fight or flight   ■ Sympathetic nervous system: emergency action  ■ Parasympathetic nervous system: normal relaxed action  ■ Enteric nervous system  ● Central nervous system (CNS): brain and spinal cord and controls sensory and motor movement  Three Major Divisions of the Brain  ● Forebrain: complex behaviors develop, advanced  ○ Thalamus: all of senses go through this for further processing except smell (cerebral  cortex  ○ Hypothalamus: gives you location, located below thalamus, associated w/ regulating  behavior like eating, drinking, arousal, temperature control, etc. or being able to start or  stop  ○ Limbic System:   ■ Hippocampus: memory formation   ■ AmygdALA: regulating aggressive behavior   ■ Septum: regulating fear   ● Midbrain: “relay station”, ½ auditory information, ½ visual information, send for further  processing to forebrain (a lot of differentiation between species)   ● Hindbrain: provides ability to breathe/life support   ○ Reticular activating system: arousal, sends signal to brain, basic form of learning such as  sleeping in a loud area, very basic level of staying attentive (habituation)   ○ Cerebellum: motor coordination ex. Alcohol and touching finger to nose  ○ Pons: transition from waking to sleeping (bottom of pons controls sleep and top controls  being awake)   ○ Medulla: physical connection between spine and brain, different areas control Blood  pressure, heart rate etc.   ● Hindbrain+midbrain = brain stem   Brain Structures and the associated function  ● Dura mater: serves as protection/hard  ● Arachnoid: has vessels that deliver oxygen via blood   ● Pia Mater: cushioning for brain   *Invaginations/creases or folds in brain: increase surface area of brain and deep folds are sulfy*    ● Two Hemispheres of Cerebral Cortex   ○ Left hemisphere associate w/ language  ○ Right hemisphere associated w/ visual­spatial information  ○ Connected to each other by corpus callosum which allows them to communicate   ○ Contralaterality ­ left hemisphere controls right side of body and vice versa   ● 4 lobes of cerebral cortex  ○ Occipital (vision)   ■ Agnosia from damage (inability to process visual information)  ○ Parietal (body perceptions): touching cold hot   ■ Agraphia: damage > lateral effects   ○ Temporal (audition)/ right ­ localization   ■ Wernicke’s aphasia: difficulty producing speech/ difficulty lies in  comprehending speech (cognitive effect)   ○ Frontal (motor activity, higher cognitive function, emotion)   ■ Damage ex. Paralysis   ■ Broca’s aphasia: inability to communicate/ difficulty lies in body not cooperating  or coordination (motor)   *Ex. Phineas Gage: huge piece of metal hit his skull, went about his business, but people said his  personality was changed and he had difficulty with emotion*    Structure of a neuron  ● Axon ­ messages are sent by this to other neurons  ● Soma ­ cell body   ● Dendrites­ these receive the messages and then deliver it to the soma  ● Types of neurons  ○ Sensory neurons: messages from body to CNS  ○ Motor Neurons­ action messages from CNS to muscles and glands  ○ Interneurons ­ how the motor and sensory neurons communicate together  ○ Synapse ­ these are spaces or gaps between the axon of the neuron that is sending and the  dendrites which is receiving the neurons  ■ Electrical becomes chemical   ○ Lock and key mechanism   ■ Axon release neurotransmitter chemical from axon   ■ Bind to receptors on postsynaptic   Neurotransmitters and their function  ● Over 40 neurotransmitters are identified   ● Focus on 3 main ones   ○ Acetylcholine ­ help in learning and memory   ○ Dopamine ­ help in movement, attention, and memory   ○ Serotonin ­ help in arousal, sleep, mood, appetite, sensitivity to pain  ■ Ex. Prozac is a drug which is an Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor   ○ Body naturally creates these neurotransmitters   You should be able to:  Identify independent, dependent, and confounding variables  Interpret scatterplots of correlations  Calculate measures of central tendency  Calculate measures of variance  Label diagrams of the brain and associated structures    Match a behavioral disorder to damaged brain regions and specific neurotransmitters        Brain Structure   Function   Damages  Hindbrain   1. Reticular Activating  1. Arousal,  1. Can’t stay  System   attention   alert  2. Cerebellum  2. Balance,  2. Difficulty  3. Pons  coordination   standing and  4. Medulla   3. Dreaming,  walking   sleeping  3. Can't sleep or  4. Heart rate,  stay awake   breathing,  4. death  blood  pressure   Midbrain  1. Midbrain  1. Process visual and  1. Can’t pass  auditory  information  comprehension  between parts  of the brain  Forebrain  1. Thalamus  1. Telephone  1. Synesthesia,  2. Hypothalamus  switchboard  Visual    for sensory/  information  vision,  processed as  audition,  auditory vice  touch, taste   versa  2. Eating and  2. Can’t regulate  drinking  these  behaviors   Limbic  1. Hippocampus   1. New  1. Can’t learn  System  2. Amygdala   memories  new  3. Septum  created   information   2. Aggression   2. Can’t control  3. Regulates  anger  fears   3. No fear,  controlling  fear  Cerebral  1. Occipital   1. seeing/vision  1. Difficulty in  Cortex (two  2. Parietal   2. Touch  processing  hemispheres  3. Temporal   3. Auditory  visual  connected by  4. Frontal   processing   information/  corpus    4. Motor  agrasia   callosum)  function,  2. Laterality  emotion,  effects, left:  higher­order  agraphia/  procession  writing, right:  drawing  pictures   3. Wernicke's  aphasia on  left and  difficulty in  localization on  right  4. Left frontal  cortex,  Broca’s  asphasia   


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