Topics: Research Methods & The Self
Week 2 (9/13 – 9/15)
Correlation Coefficient (r)
− The correlation coefficient measures some sort of dependence between 2+ random variables
− A negative correlation means that one variable decreases while the other decreases
− A positive coreelation means that both variable move in the same direction − We must remember that there could be a third invisible factor that could be effecting the correlation of these variables
− Whether negative or postive, the closer the number is to 1, the stronger the correlation (cannot be bigger than -1 or 1)
− We cannot make a causation statmenet merely based on corelation
In order to infer causation, we must have…
− Random variable assignment
− One directional flow from cause to affect. This can’t be reversed. − Control over the independent variable
− A predictor variable
The role of the self:
− Big picture - Helps us organize and understand the world in our own perspective
− Outer Self - Importance in relation to others, how we want others to see us − Inner Self - How we see ourselves
Social Self If you want to learn more check out What are the strategic ambitions and intentions?
− We act different in different situations and different social circles! − In this sense, we have many “selves”
− This is how we see ourselves
− The facts, no emotional connections
− Develops from self awawreness; understanding that you differ from others
Self Reference Effect
− Relating information back to yourself will help you retain information for longer as well as retrieve it faster!
− Example: At a coctail party, you can readily pick out when someone says you’re name around you
− How we organize ideas and information about our selves, and about how things are related
− Self Schemas are what we think is true, and the most important things about ourselves. These are are extreme characteristics, or what we know is absolutely not true.
− Working self concept depends on the moment. You may change the way you describe yourself based on the immediate environment that you are in.
Reflected Self Appraisals
− This is when how you think of yourself is influenced by what you think others are thinking We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of liberal arts?
Culture and the Self
− Independence is associated with Western, and interdependent is associated with Asia and Eastern countries (standing out is bad)
− Independent/interdependet are the terms used at the “self” level − Individualism/collectivism are the terms at the “cultural” level Don't forget about the age old question of What is the bond-line structural formula?
Social Comparison Theory
− We evaluate ourselves in comparison to others. We do this with anything that is hard to assess subjectively.
− Social Comparison Bias: people tend to act in ways so that others won’t surpass their own abilities
− Overall emotional evaluation, positive or negative, about your self concept − Trait Self Esteem: having a relatively stable self esteem over time, the average view of yourself If you want to learn more check out What are the seven aspects of the nature of science?
We also discuss several other topics like What is classified as a metal?
− State Self Esteem: influenced by immediate environment/situational − Cultural
o On average, people from individualistic cultures have higher self esteem than collectavist cultures
o Collectavist cultures are less invested in our self, and more of how to get better
What influences Self Worth?
− We have multiple domains that we care about, so in a protective sense, if we fail in one area, then we can ballence it in confidence in another area − Sociometer Hypothesis: like a rating, or the relational value of how much you think peole like you. Don't forget about the age old question of What is meant by an indeterminate form?
Why do we self evaluate?
− To feel good about ourselves
− To grow and improve
− The need to varify with the world what you think is true about yourself