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Get Full Access to UM - Psych 280 - Class Notes - Week 2
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UM / Psychology / PSYC 280 / What is the self reference effect and how can it help you study more e

# What is the self reference effect and how can it help you study more e Description

##### Description: Research Methods & The Self
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Topics: Research Methods & The Self

## What is the self reference effect and how can it help you study more effectively?

Week 2 (9/13 – 9/15)

Research Methods

Correlation Coefficient (r)

− The correlation coefficient measures some sort of dependence between 2+  random variables

− A negative correlation means that one variable decreases while the other  decreases

− A positive coreelation means that both variable move in the same direction − We must remember that there could be a third invisible factor that could be  effecting the correlation of these variables

− Whether negative or postive, the closer the number is to 1, the stronger the  correlation (cannot be bigger than -1 or 1)

− We cannot make a causation statmenet merely based on corelation

## How do you organize ideas and information?

In order to infer causation, we must have…

− Random variable assignment

− One directional flow from cause to affect. This can’t be reversed. − Control over the independent variable

− A predictor variable

The Self

The role of the self:

− Big picture - Helps us organize and understand the world in our own  perspective

− Outer Self - Importance in relation to others, how we want others to see us − Inner Self - How we see ourselves

Social Self If you want to learn more check out What are the strategic ambitions and intentions?

− We act different in different situations and different social circles! − In this sense, we have many “selves”

## How do we use self schemas to process information about ourselves?

Self Concept

− This is how we see ourselves

− The facts, no emotional connections

− Develops from self awawreness;  understanding that you differ from others

Self Reference Effect

− Relating information back to yourself will help you retain information for  longer as well as retrieve it faster!

− Example: At a coctail party, you can readily pick out when someone says  you’re name around you

Schemas

− How we organize ideas and information about our selves, and about how  things are related

− Self Schemas are what we think is true, and the most important things about  ourselves. These are are extreme characteristics, or what we know is  absolutely not true.

Distinctiveness

− Working self concept depends on the moment. You may change the way you  describe yourself based on the immediate environment that you are in.

Reflected Self Appraisals

− This is when how you think of yourself is influenced by what you think  others are thinking We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of liberal arts?

Culture and the Self

− Independence is associated with Western, and interdependent is associated  with Asia and Eastern countries (standing out is bad)

− Independent/interdependet are the terms used at the “self” level − Individualism/collectivism are the terms at the “cultural” level Don't forget about the age old question of What is the bond-line structural formula?

Social Comparison Theory

− We evaluate ourselves in comparison to others. We do this with anything  that is hard to assess subjectively.

− Social Comparison Bias: people tend to act in ways so that others won’t  surpass their own abilities

Self Esteem

− Overall emotional evaluation, positive or negative, about your self concept − Trait Self Esteem: having a relatively stable self esteem over time, the  average view of yourself  If you want to learn more check out What are the seven aspects of the nature of science?
We also discuss several other topics like What is classified as a metal?

− State Self Esteem: influenced by immediate environment/situational − Cultural

o On average, people from individualistic cultures have higher self  esteem than collectavist cultures

o Collectavist cultures are less invested in our self, and more of how to  get better

What influences Self Worth?

− We have multiple domains that we care about, so in a protective sense, if we  fail in one area, then we can ballence it in confidence in another area − Sociometer Hypothesis: like a rating, or the relational value of how much you  think peole like you. Don't forget about the age old question of What is meant by an indeterminate form?

Why do we self evaluate?

− To feel good about ourselves

− To grow and improve

− The need to varify with the world what you think is true about yourself

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