PSYC 341 Exam 1 Study Guide
PSYC 341 Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 341
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caru on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 341 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Amanda Perry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at California State University - Fullerton.
Reviews for PSYC 341 Exam 1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/12/16
Exam 1 Study Guide 1. What is a psychological disorder A psychological disorder is an abnormal behavior pattern that involves a disturbance of psychological behavior or functioning. 2. 6 criteria for determining abnormal behavior 1) Unusualness 2) Social deviance 3) Faulty perceptions/interpretations of reality 4) Significant personal distress 5) Maladaptive or selfdefeating behavior 6) Dangerousness 3. What is the demonological model The view that abnormal behavior reflects invasion by evil spirits or demons. People are possessed or God is punishing them. 4. Who is Hippocrates and what are ill humors Hippocrates set the origins for the medical model. He believed that abnormal behavior acted as a symptom of an underlying illness. 4 Bodily Humors: 1. yellow bile(summer); firetoo much made one choleric 2. black bile(autumn); earthtoo much made one melancholic 3. phlegm(winter); watertoo much made one phlegmatic 4. blood(spring); airtoo much made one sanguine Treatment(naturalistic): rebalance the humors: rest, diet, exercise 5. What are the four contemporary/modern perspectives on abnormal behavior 1. Biologicalabnormal behavior is rooted in diseases of the brain(Wilhelm Griesinger) 2. Psychologicalabnormal behavior is viewed as the product of clashing forces within the personality(Freud) 3. Socioculturalthe causes of abnormal behavior may be found in the failures of society rather than in the person 4. Biopsychosocialan integrative model for explaining abnormal in terms of the interactions of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors 6. Function of nervous system, neurons, and neurotransmitters Nervous System – made up of neurons(nerve cells that transmit signals or “messages”) 1. Central → spinal cord → brain • hindbrain: medulla, pons, cerebellum • midbrain: reticular activating system • forebrain: thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, basal ganglia, cerebrum 2. Peripheral 1. Automatic – involuntary actions 1. Sympathetic • mobilizes body systems during activity (fight or flight) • ex. time of threat = increased heart rate 2. Parasympathetic • conserves energy, promotes “housekeeping” functions during rest • ex. digestion 2. Somatic – voluntary actions ◦ relays messages from peripheral to brain to muscles Neurons: 1. Dendrites – short branches that receive stimuli and conduct impulses to the cell body 2. Axon terminals – release electrical impulses 3. Receptor Site – cell membrane of next neuron 4. Neurotransmitters – substance that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse 5. Cell body – center of metabolic activity in a neuron; location of nucleus and much of the cytoplasm 6. Synapse – space between two neurons; where neurotransmitters get released 7. Myelin sheath – layer of lipid rich cells Neurotransmitters: 1. acetylcholine(ACH) – memories 2. dopamine – regulation of muscle contractions 3. norepinephrine – learning and memory 4. serotonin – regulation of mood states 7. Psychological perspectives (psychodynamic, learning, humanistic, cognitive) Psychodynamic Model • psychoanalytical theory(Freud) – roots of psychological problems involves unconscious motives and conflicts that can be traced to childhood • Theorists ◦ Alfred Adler – struggle for superiority ◦ Carl Jung – archetypes ◦ Karen Horney – relationships ◦ Erik Erikson – psychosocial development • Psychosocial Stages of Development ◦ all activities that are physically pleasurable are, in essence, “sexual” ◦ developmental stages are psychosexual in nature because they correspond to the transfer of libidinal energy from one erogenous zone to another ▪ oral(018 months) → anal (13 years) → phallic (3 ½ – 6 years) → latency (613 years) → genital (13+) • Strengths: 1. many observations appear in everyday life(defense mechanisms) 2. many people with psychological problems do recollect childhood trauma 3. Freud “rehumanised” the distressed • Weaknesses: 1. lack of scientific evidence 2. tendency to ignore current problems and focus on past conflicts 3. tendency to give a lot of responsibility to parents 8. Learning Model • behaviorism – the school of psychology that defines psychology as the study of observable behavior that focuses on the role of learning in explaining behavior • Ivan Pavlov: Classical Conditioning ◦ conditioned response(salivation) ◦ unconditioned stimulus(food) ◦ unconditioned response(salivation) ◦ conditioned stimulus(bell) • B.F. Skinner: Operant Conditioning(acquired ◦ reinforcement – increases behavior ◦ positive reinforcers – add something to reinforce/punish; ex. praise ◦ negative reinforcers – take something away to reinforce/punish; ex. Annoying seat belt sound → put on seat belt to make sound stop ◦ punishment – removes a behavior 9. Humanistic Model • people are forward moving • humanists are concerned with the “here and now” and believe that people have an inborn tendency toward selfactualization • unconditional positive regard – accepting and respecting others as they are without judgment or evaluation • conditional positive regard – conditions of worth must be achieved to be successful; “do this and you'll get praise” • Strengths: 1. optimistic view of personality 2. regarded as ethical, focuses on the person 3. facilitates human capacity for selfcure • Weaknesses: 1. may neglect important social/cultural factors 2. disorders may go untreated due to reluctance to diagnose 3. highlights of individuality and freedom 10. Cognitive Model • study cognitions(thoughts, beliefs, expectations, attitudes) that accompany and may underlie abnormal behavior • cognitive theorists believe that our interpretations of the events in our lives, and not the events themselves, determine our emotional states • Albert Ellis “That's irrational!” • Aaron Beck – cognitive distortions ◦ selective abstraction ◦ overgeneralization ◦ magnification ◦ absolutist thinking • Strengths: 1. maladaptive thought processes in people with psych disorders 2. promotes psychological wellbeing • Weaknesses: 1. disordered cognitions may be result of disorder 2. focus on individual can ignore social or cultural conditions/causes 11. Structure of the mind, structure of the personality, and defense mechanisms Mind 1. Conscious – present thought, aware 2. Preconscious – memories ready to be recalled at a given time 3. Unconscious – things we're unaware of (symptoms, dreams, Freudian slips) Personality 1. Id – simplistic, thinks only in primitive 2. Ego – more logical, able to withhold gratification 3. Superego – incorporates morals of parents; becomes conscience Defense Mechanisms(*unconscious part of ego) The realitydistorting strategies used by the ego to shield the self from awareness of anxietyprovoking impulses 1. Repression – hold back threatening thoughts from becoming conscious 2. Regression – movement back in psychological time when one is faced with stress; going back to acting as a child 3. Displacement – satisfying an impulse(ex. Aggression) with a substitute object 4. Denial – claiming/believing that what is true to be actually false 5. Reaction Formation – overacting in the opposite way due to fear 6. Rationalization – creating false, but credible justifications 7. Projection – attributing own unacceptable thoughts, feelings, and motives to another person 8. Sublimation – satisfying an impulse(ex. Aggression) with a substitute object in a socially acceptable way 12. What is humanistic therapy (philosophy, methods, and goals) • personcentered therapy – establishment of a warm, accepting therapeutic relationship that frees client to engage in selfexploration and achieve selfacceptance • reflection – reflect client's feelings back at them • unconditional positive regard – care no matter what • empathy – feeling what they feel too • genuineness – recognizing/expressing true feelings 13. Which perspective says that people’s problems come from what they tell themselves Cognitive – change though = change feelings = change behavior 14. What is the ABC approach ◦ A(event) → B(beliefs) → C(consequences) 15. Basic understanding of research methods (How we conduct research, what are ethics) • Ethics: ◦ research committees(IRBS) review proposed research studies; must have informed consent and patient confidentiality • The Scientific Method ◦ formulate research question → frame the research question in a hypothesis → test the hypothesis → draw conclusions from the hypothesis ◦ naturalistic observation – observe in natural environment; no influence ◦ correlational method – see if two things are linked ◦ epidemiological – looking at rates/occurrences of a disease ◦ kinship – hereditary influence ◦ case study – intense study on an individual ◦ experimental method – independent(controlled), dependent(results), experimental groups(gets treatment), control(gets no treatment) 16. What is the DSM (how and why do we use it) • introduced in 1952 • descriptive, not explanatory • must demonstrate reliability and validity ◦ reliability – same results over multiple tests; internal consistency, testretest, interrater ◦ validity – is what we're testing related to the given behavior; content, criterion, construct, 17. What is assessment (different types, tools) • Clinical Interview 1. Identifying data 2. Description of the presenting problem(s) 3. Psychosocial history 4. Medical/Psychiatric history 5. Medical • Formats 1. Unstructured 2. Structured 3. Semistructured 4. Computerized 18. What is the difference between an objective test and a projective test • Objective: ◦ selfreported personality traits that can be scored objectively and that are based on a research foundation • Projective: ◦ psychological tests that present ambiguous stimuli onto which the examinee is thought to project his or her personality and unconscious motives 19. What is the Rorschach and what do different responses imply • inkblot test that was used to reveal a person's personality 20. How do we treat psychological disorders • Biomedical Therapies ◦ psychopharmacology – the field of study that examines the effect of psychiatric drugs ◦ antianxiety drugs – combat anxiety and reduce muscle tension ▪ tolerance – get used to drug and keep needing to take more ▪ rebound anxiety – high anxiety after coming off anxiety ◦ antipsychotic – treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders ▪ side effects: muscle and motor control ◦ antidepressants – treat depression that affects the availability of neurotransmitters in the brain ◦ SSRIs • Psychotherapy ◦ a structured form of treatment that consists of one or more verbal interactions between a client and a therapist ◦ Features: 1. Systematic interaction 2. psychological principles 3. behavior, thoughts, and feelings 4. abnormal behavior, personal growth, and problem solving • Psychodynamic Therapy ◦ free association – say whatever comes out ◦ dream analysis – tie to unconscious desires ◦ transference – reliving feelings → direct feelings to therapist ◦ interpretation – link unconscious to conscious ◦ clarification – asking questions ◦ confrontation – pointing out inconsistencies • Behavioral Therapy ◦ systematic desensitization – exposure technique ◦ modeling – imitate what we see ◦ token economy – reinforcement; ex. For every page you read, you get a cookie 21. What is eclectic therapy • an approach to psychotherapy that incorporates principles or techniques from various systems or theories 22.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'