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PSYC 341 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Caru

PSYC 341 Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC 341

Cal State Fullerton

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Professor Amanda Perry
Abnormal Psychology
Amanda Perry
Study Guide
Abnormal psychology
50 ?




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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caru on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 341 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Amanda Perry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at California State University - Fullerton.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Exam 2 Review    1. Know the different​ t ​ ypes of disorders covered in this section and the  disorders included in each category of disorders  ● Dissociative identity disorder   ○ two or more distinct, or alter personalities  ○ Host may be unaware of other personalities ~ different  personalities may be unaware of each other  ○ Different personalities may cross gender or sexual preference  ○ If personalities are unaware of each other, they don’t maintain  each other’s memories(they’re blacked out)  ○ *debated whether it’s real  ○ Whether the person is role­playing or really has it, they’ve  experienced severe emotional trauma  ● Dissociative amnesia  ○ memory loss without any identifiable organic cause  ○ Memory loss is reversible  ○ Dissociative fugue ­ sudden unexpected “flight”, assume a new  identity, and have amnesia for personal information  ○ Five Distinct Types:  ■ Localized ­ ex. Car accident; chunk of time  ■ Selective ­ ex. Remember accident ­ forgot friend died  ■ Generalized ­ ex. Forget who they are but keep habits  ■ Continuous ­ block things out from a certain point; no  new memories  ■ Systematized ­ specific to category(ex. person)    ● Depersonalization disorder  ○ persistent/recurrent episodes of depersonalization and/or  derealization  ○ Depersonalization ­ self; derealization ­ external world  2. Define stress  ○ Stress ­ a demand made on an organism to adapt or adjust  ○ Stressor ­ a source of stress  3. How does the body respond to stress, which systems are involved  ○ Psychoneuroimmunology ­ relations between psych and immune  system  ○ Endocrine system ­ secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream  ■ Hormones ­ substances that regulate body functions  ○ General Adaptation Syndrome  ■ GAS ­ body’s three­stage response to states of  prolonged/intense stress  ■ 1) Alarm Reaction ­ heightened arousal  ■ 2) Resistance States ­ adaptive, repair damage  ■ 3) Exhaustion Stage ­ lowers resistance and heightens arousal  again  ○ Stress  ■ Life changes ­ force us to adapt  ■ Acculturative stress ­ primary source of stress forced on  immigrant groups ­> forced to adapt to new culture  ■ Psychological factors ­ how we handle stress determines how  we’ll cope    ○ Coping with Stress  ■ Psychological hardiness(commitment, challenge, control)  ■ Optimism ­ positive correlation with health  ■ Social support ­ friends and family  ■ Ethnic identity ­ pride in one’s identity  4. Anxiety disorders include which disorders  ○ Class of psychological disorders characterized by maladaptive or  excessive anxiety  ○ Becomes abnormal when the anxiety becomes detrimental/excessive;  ex. Anxiety going into a supermarket  ○ Panic Disorder  ■ Presence of recurrent unexpected panic attacks followed by  concern of another panic attack  ■ Feel like they’ll die: heart palpitations, trembling, shortness of  breath  ■ Panic attacks may occur in isolation ­> to be diagnosed as panic  disorder, fear of recurrence must occur  ■ Can be diagnosed with/without agoraphobia(fear of going to a  certain place/space)  ■ Theory: Biology + Cognition  ● Biology ­ proneness to panic disorders and  environmental stressors  ● Cognitions ­ how they perceive threats  ■ Treatment  ● drugs(anti­anxiety) ­ can cause dependence ­>  withdrawal can kill you  ● CVT ­ combat unhealthy thought process and work on  coping skills  ○ Phobic Disorders  ■ Phobia ­ a fear of object or situation that is disproportionate  with the feat it truly possesses  ○ Generalized Anxiety  ■ Constant fear/anxiety in every situation  ■ Not triggered by anything  ■ “Free­floating” (Freud)  ■ Associated with 3+ symptoms  ■ Difficulty controlling anxiety  ○ Social Anxiety  ■ Excessive fear of negative evaluation in a social context  ■ Biological ­ different types of brain activity  ■ Treatment   ● Psychodynamic  ● Learning­break association  ● Ritual exposure  ● Medication (antidepressants)  ○ Obsessive­Compulsive Disorder  ■ Type of anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent  obsessions, compulsions, or both  ■ Obsession ­ a recurring thought or image that the individual  can’t control  ■ Compulsion ­ a repetitive or ritualistic behavior that the person  feels compelled to perform  ■ Treatment  ● Exposure treatment with response prevention(ERP)  ● antidepressants  ■ Theoretical Perspectives  ● Psychodynamic ­ obsessions represent leakage of  unconscious impulses and compulsions help keep these  impulses repressed  ● Learning ­ reinforcement  ○ Theory  ■ Psychodynamic ­ internal conflict  ■ Learning ­ association that becomes generalized  ■ Cognitive ­ negative perceptions  ■ Biological ­ neurotransmitters  5. What is the difference between acute stress and posttraumatic stress  ○ Traumatic Stress Disorder  ■ Acute  ● Maladaptive pattern of behavior after trauma  ● Lasts a few days after trauma up to a month  ■ Symptoms  ● Avoidance ­ internal or external reminders  ● re­experiencing/intrusion ­ seeing things, nightmares,  play(kids)  ● Negative cognition ­ inability to remember, excessive  blame, loss of interest  ● Arousal ­ irritable, reckless, hypervigilant, sleep  disturbances  ■ Trauma ­ exposure to an actual or threatened death, serious  injury, or sexual violence  ● Can be persona, witnessed, heard about(happened to a  close individual), or repeatedly exposed to the details of  an event  ■ Predictive Factors  ● Degree of exposure  ● Gender  ● History of trauma  ● Lack of support system  ● Coping skills(how you manage stress/negative feelings)  ■ Theoretical Perspective ­ Learning  ● Reactions are conditioned responses  ● Ex. sights/sounds were once neutral, but now it’s  associated with the trauma  ■ Treatment  ● CVT ­ “uncondition” response  ● challenge/alter negative thoughts  ● Ex. car accident ­> virtual car  6. What is the difference between a panic attack and panic disorder  ○ Panic attacks may occur in isolation ­> to be diagnosed as panic  disorder, fear of recurrence must occur  7. Describe learning theory as it applies to explaining phobias and other  anxiety disorders  8. Disorders that involve a disruption or a “splitting off” of the functions of  identity, memory, or consciousness that normally make us whole are  known as:   9. What is the difference between dissociative amnesia and dementia  10.What are somatic symptoms  ○ Somatic Symptom Disorder  ■ Somatoform disorders ­ characterized by complaints of  physical problems or symptoms that cannot be explained by  physical causes  ■ Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) ­ troubling physical  symptoms and excessive concern  ■ Illness anxiety disorder(IAD) ­ complain of minor/mild  symptoms taken to be signs of a serious illness  ● Two types: care seeking and care avoidant  ■ Functional neurological symptom disorder ~ conversion  disorder ­ symptoms affect ability to control voluntary  movements  ■ Factitious disorder ­ intentional fabrication of symptoms with  no apparent gain  ■ Theoretical Views  ● Psychodynamic theory ­ symptoms are functional; kept  at bay with repression  ● Learning theory ­ reinforcing properties   ● Cognitive theory ­ self­handicapping strategy; cognitive  distortions ~ “I can’t _____ because of this”  ■ Treatment  ● Psychoanalysis seeks to uncover and bring unconscious  conflicts into conscious awareness  ● Behavioral approach focuses on removing sources of  reinforcement  ● CBT focuses on cognitive distortions, unrealistic  believes, worry, and behaviors  11.Mood disorders include which disorders  ○ Persistent Depressive Disorder  ■ Depressed mood for at least two years  ■ Have not been without symptoms for more than two months  ■ No mania  ■ Biochemical factors:  ● 1) low activity of epinephrine and serotonin  ● 2)endocrine system ­ cortisol  ○ Major Depressive Disorder  ■ Symptoms:  ● Depressed mood  ● Diminished interest or pleasure  ● Weight loss or gain; change in appetite  ● Insomnia or hypersomnia  ● Psychomotor agitation or retardation  ● Loss of energy  ● Feelings of worthlessness, guilt  ● Difficulty concentrating, indecisiveness  ● Thoughts of death  ● * never experience manic/hypomanic episode  ● Must have 1 or 2; must have at least 5 symptoms in a 2  week period  ■ Prevalence 7%  ■ 18­29 years old, 3x higher than 60+  ■ Women ~ 1.5­3x higher rate  ■ Suicide risk ­ exists at all times  ● Completed attempts increase if male, living alone or  single, hopelessness  ■ Risk factors:  ● Stressful life events  ● Adverse childhood experiences  ● Gender  ● genetics  ■ Grief vs. MDD  ● Grief ­ emptiness and loss  ● MDD ­ persistent depressed mood and inability to  experience happiness or pleasure  ● With grief, your self­esteem stays intact  ○ Treatment  ■ Antidepressants  ■ Electroconvulsive Therapy(ECT)  ■ Cognitive Behavioral Therapy(CBT)  ● Get them up and doing things even though it’s difficult;  elevate activity/mood  ● Challenge automatic thoughts  ● Identify negative thinking  ● Changing primary attitudes  ○ Psychological Views of Depression  ■ Psychodynamic  ● Feelings of sadness “reprojected”; ex. College student  gets bad grade ­> “If I don’t do well, I’ll lost my parent’s  love”; symbolic loss  ■ Behavioral  ● As we get older, fewer rewards and more punishment;  ex. College student gets many rewards/good grades ­>  graduates ­> can’t find job, loses rewards, etc  ■ Cognitive  ● Persistent negative thoughts  ● Form maladaptive schemas as a child; ex. Must do well  to get parents love  ■ Sociocultural  ● Decreased rewards because you don’t interact with  others  ■ Biological  ● Can be genetically predisposed  ● Women have increased life stressors  12.Difference between manic and hypomanic episodes  ○ Manic Episode  ■ Inflated self­esteem or grandiosity  ■ Decreased need for speed  ■ More talkative than usual  ■ Flight of ideas  ■ Distractibility  ■ Increase in goal directed activity  ■ Excessive involvement in pleasurable activity  ■ mania  ○ Hypomanic Episode  13.Difference between bipolar I and II  ○ Bipolar I ­ full manic episode  ○ Bipolar II ­ hypomanic + depressive disorder  14.Suicide risk and prevention  ○ 10th most common cause of death in the US; 38,364 per year; more  than car accidents  ○ Among 15­24 years old, 2nd or 3rd highest cause of death ~ more  impulsive  ○ Risk Factors  ■ Serious illness  ■ Abuse  ■ Stress  ■ Hopelessness  ■ alcohol/drug use  ■ Mental disorders  ■ Social isolation  ■ Marital problems  ■ Prior attempts(self or other)  ■ Lethal means  ○ Underlying Causes  ■ Psychodynamic view ~ results from depression and anger at  others redirected towards oneself  ■ Sociocultural ~ connectedness to others  ■ Biological ~ low serotonin  ○ Antidepressants and Suicide  ■ Can increase chance of suicide  ■ Can give the person the energy/motivation to actually hurt  themself    15.How do we assess for suicide  ○ Assessing Risk  ■ Active vs. passive thoughts  ■ Ideation  ■ Plan  ■ Means  ■ Lethality  ■ Coping skills  ■ Subjective rating scale  ■ Social support  ■ Suicide history  ○ Other Warning Signs  ■ Sudden happiness  ■ Loss of interest  ■ Saying goodbye  ■ Setting affairs in order  ■ Giving things away  ○ Taking Action  ■ Be direct  ■ 24 hour assistance #  ■ Increased session  ■ Increase structure in schedule  ■ Strengthen barriers to suicide  ■ Refer for medication if necessary  ■ Limit access to means  ■ Hospitalization  ■ Create a plan  ■ Loss of privilege  ■ Document  ■ Realize you can only do so much  16.Personality disorders include which disorders, how many clusters  ○ Excessively rigid behavior patterns, or ways of relation to others, that  ultimately becomes self­defeating  ○ Theoretical Perspectives  ■ Psychodynamic ­ not a healthy revolution of psychosexual  development  ■ Learning ­ identify behavior that influenced this  ■ Family  ■ biological  ○ Three clusters: A(odd or eccentric), B(overly dramatic, emotional, or  erratic, C(anxious or fearful)  ○ A ~ odd or eccentric  ■ Paranoid  ● Undue suspiciousness of others’ motives, but not to the  point of delusion  ● Preoccupied with doubts of loyalty  ● Overly sensitive to criticism  ● Suspect exploitation  ● Reluctant to confide  ● Unforgiving  ● Perceived attacks  ● *clinicians must be aware of cultural/social factors  ■ Schizoid  ● Persistent lack of interest in social relationships  ● No close relationships  ● Solitude  ● No sexual interest  ● Appears indifferent to praise/criticism  ● Flat affect(cold/detached)  ■ Schizotypal  ● Eccentricities of thought/behavior  ● Ideas of reference  ● Odd beliefs  ● Unusual perception  ● Affect  ● Social anxiety  ○ B ~ overly dramatic, emotional, or erratic  ■ Antisocial  ● Antisocial and irresponsible behavior  ● Failure to conform  ● Irresponsible  ● Impulsive  ● Aggressive  ● Not synonymous with criminality  ■ Borderline  ● Abrupt shifts in mood, lack of a coherent sense of self,  and unpredictable, impulsive behavior  ● Avoid abandonment  ● Unstable relationships  ● Suicidal behavior  ● Feel empty(chronic)  ● intense/uncontrollable anger  ■ Histrionic  ● Excessive need for attention, praise, reassurance, and  approval  ● Center of attention  ● Inappropriate affection  ● Dramatic  ● Suggestible  ● Demand their needs be met  ■ Narcissistic  ● Inflated self­image and demands for attention and  admiration  ● Self­absorbed and lack empathy for others  ● Grandiose sense of self  ● “Special”  ● Sense of entitlement/arrogance  ● Lack empathy  ○ C ~ anxious or fearful  ■ Avoidant  ● Avoidance of social relationships due to fears of  rejection  ● Unwilling unless liked  ● Restraint in intimate relations­fear of ridicule  ● Preoccupied with criticism  ■ Dependent  ● Difficulty making independent decisions and overly  dependent behavior  ● submissive/clingy  ● Difficulty expressing disagreement  ● Uncomfortable when alone  ■ Obsessive­Compulsive(OCPD)  ● Rigid ways of relating to others, perfectionism, lack of  spontaneity, and excessive attention to detail  ● Preoccupied with details  ● Over­conscientious  ● Inflexible  ● Reluctant to delegate 


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