PSYC 341 Exam 2 Study Guide
PSYC 341 Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC 341
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caru on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 341 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Amanda Perry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Exam 2 Review 1. Know the different t ypes of disorders covered in this section and the disorders included in each category of disorders ● Dissociative identity disorder ○ two or more distinct, or alter personalities ○ Host may be unaware of other personalities ~ different personalities may be unaware of each other ○ Different personalities may cross gender or sexual preference ○ If personalities are unaware of each other, they don’t maintain each other’s memories(they’re blacked out) ○ *debated whether it’s real ○ Whether the person is roleplaying or really has it, they’ve experienced severe emotional trauma ● Dissociative amnesia ○ memory loss without any identifiable organic cause ○ Memory loss is reversible ○ Dissociative fugue sudden unexpected “flight”, assume a new identity, and have amnesia for personal information ○ Five Distinct Types: ■ Localized ex. Car accident; chunk of time ■ Selective ex. Remember accident forgot friend died ■ Generalized ex. Forget who they are but keep habits ■ Continuous block things out from a certain point; no new memories ■ Systematized specific to category(ex. person) ● Depersonalization disorder ○ persistent/recurrent episodes of depersonalization and/or derealization ○ Depersonalization self; derealization external world 2. Define stress ○ Stress a demand made on an organism to adapt or adjust ○ Stressor a source of stress 3. How does the body respond to stress, which systems are involved ○ Psychoneuroimmunology relations between psych and immune system ○ Endocrine system secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream ■ Hormones substances that regulate body functions ○ General Adaptation Syndrome ■ GAS body’s threestage response to states of prolonged/intense stress ■ 1) Alarm Reaction heightened arousal ■ 2) Resistance States adaptive, repair damage ■ 3) Exhaustion Stage lowers resistance and heightens arousal again ○ Stress ■ Life changes force us to adapt ■ Acculturative stress primary source of stress forced on immigrant groups > forced to adapt to new culture ■ Psychological factors how we handle stress determines how we’ll cope ○ Coping with Stress ■ Psychological hardiness(commitment, challenge, control) ■ Optimism positive correlation with health ■ Social support friends and family ■ Ethnic identity pride in one’s identity 4. Anxiety disorders include which disorders ○ Class of psychological disorders characterized by maladaptive or excessive anxiety ○ Becomes abnormal when the anxiety becomes detrimental/excessive; ex. Anxiety going into a supermarket ○ Panic Disorder ■ Presence of recurrent unexpected panic attacks followed by concern of another panic attack ■ Feel like they’ll die: heart palpitations, trembling, shortness of breath ■ Panic attacks may occur in isolation > to be diagnosed as panic disorder, fear of recurrence must occur ■ Can be diagnosed with/without agoraphobia(fear of going to a certain place/space) ■ Theory: Biology + Cognition ● Biology proneness to panic disorders and environmental stressors ● Cognitions how they perceive threats ■ Treatment ● drugs(antianxiety) can cause dependence > withdrawal can kill you ● CVT combat unhealthy thought process and work on coping skills ○ Phobic Disorders ■ Phobia a fear of object or situation that is disproportionate with the feat it truly possesses ○ Generalized Anxiety ■ Constant fear/anxiety in every situation ■ Not triggered by anything ■ “Freefloating” (Freud) ■ Associated with 3+ symptoms ■ Difficulty controlling anxiety ○ Social Anxiety ■ Excessive fear of negative evaluation in a social context ■ Biological different types of brain activity ■ Treatment ● Psychodynamic ● Learningbreak association ● Ritual exposure ● Medication (antidepressants) ○ ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder ■ Type of anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions, compulsions, or both ■ Obsession a recurring thought or image that the individual can’t control ■ Compulsion a repetitive or ritualistic behavior that the person feels compelled to perform ■ Treatment ● Exposure treatment with response prevention(ERP) ● antidepressants ■ Theoretical Perspectives ● Psychodynamic obsessions represent leakage of unconscious impulses and compulsions help keep these impulses repressed ● Learning reinforcement ○ Theory ■ Psychodynamic internal conflict ■ Learning association that becomes generalized ■ Cognitive negative perceptions ■ Biological neurotransmitters 5. What is the difference between acute stress and posttraumatic stress ○ Traumatic Stress Disorder ■ Acute ● Maladaptive pattern of behavior after trauma ● Lasts a few days after trauma up to a month ■ Symptoms ● Avoidance internal or external reminders ● reexperiencing/intrusion seeing things, nightmares, play(kids) ● Negative cognition inability to remember, excessive blame, loss of interest ● Arousal irritable, reckless, hypervigilant, sleep disturbances ■ Trauma exposure to an actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence ● Can be persona, witnessed, heard about(happened to a close individual), or repeatedly exposed to the details of an event ■ Predictive Factors ● Degree of exposure ● Gender ● History of trauma ● Lack of support system ● Coping skills(how you manage stress/negative feelings) ■ Theoretical Perspective Learning ● Reactions are conditioned responses ● Ex. sights/sounds were once neutral, but now it’s associated with the trauma ■ Treatment ● CVT “uncondition” response ● challenge/alter negative thoughts ● Ex. car accident > virtual car 6. What is the difference between a panic attack and panic disorder ○ Panic attacks may occur in isolation > to be diagnosed as panic disorder, fear of recurrence must occur 7. Describe learning theory as it applies to explaining phobias and other anxiety disorders 8. Disorders that involve a disruption or a “splitting off” of the functions of identity, memory, or consciousness that normally make us whole are known as: 9. What is the difference between dissociative amnesia and dementia 10.What are somatic symptoms ○ Somatic Symptom Disorder ■ Somatoform disorders characterized by complaints of physical problems or symptoms that cannot be explained by physical causes ■ Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) troubling physical symptoms and excessive concern ■ Illness anxiety disorder(IAD) complain of minor/mild symptoms taken to be signs of a serious illness ● Two types: care seeking and care avoidant ■ Functional neurological symptom disorder ~ conversion disorder symptoms affect ability to control voluntary movements ■ Factitious disorder intentional fabrication of symptoms with no apparent gain ■ Theoretical Views ● Psychodynamic theory symptoms are functional; kept at bay with repression ● Learning theory reinforcing properties ● Cognitive theory selfhandicapping strategy; cognitive distortions ~ “I can’t _____ because of this” ■ Treatment ● Psychoanalysis seeks to uncover and bring unconscious conflicts into conscious awareness ● Behavioral approach focuses on removing sources of reinforcement ● CBT focuses on cognitive distortions, unrealistic believes, worry, and behaviors 11.Mood disorders include which disorders ○ Persistent Depressive Disorder ■ Depressed mood for at least two years ■ Have not been without symptoms for more than two months ■ No mania ■ Biochemical factors: ● 1) low activity of epinephrine and serotonin ● 2)endocrine system cortisol ○ Major Depressive Disorder ■ Symptoms: ● Depressed mood ● Diminished interest or pleasure ● Weight loss or gain; change in appetite ● Insomnia or hypersomnia ● Psychomotor agitation or retardation ● Loss of energy ● Feelings of worthlessness, guilt ● Difficulty concentrating, indecisiveness ● Thoughts of death ● * never experience manic/hypomanic episode ● Must have 1 or 2; must have at least 5 symptoms in a 2 week period ■ Prevalence 7% ■ 1829 years old, 3x higher than 60+ ■ Women ~ 1.53x higher rate ■ Suicide risk exists at all times ● Completed attempts increase if male, living alone or single, hopelessness ■ Risk factors: ● Stressful life events ● Adverse childhood experiences ● Gender ● genetics ■ Grief vs. MDD ● Grief emptiness and loss ● MDD persistent depressed mood and inability to experience happiness or pleasure ● With grief, your selfesteem stays intact ○ Treatment ■ Antidepressants ■ Electroconvulsive Therapy(ECT) ■ Cognitive Behavioral Therapy(CBT) ● Get them up and doing things even though it’s difficult; elevate activity/mood ● Challenge automatic thoughts ● Identify negative thinking ● Changing primary attitudes ○ Psychological Views of Depression ■ Psychodynamic ● Feelings of sadness “reprojected”; ex. College student gets bad grade > “If I don’t do well, I’ll lost my parent’s love”; symbolic loss ■ Behavioral ● As we get older, fewer rewards and more punishment; ex. College student gets many rewards/good grades > graduates > can’t find job, loses rewards, etc ■ Cognitive ● Persistent negative thoughts ● Form maladaptive schemas as a child; ex. Must do well to get parents love ■ Sociocultural ● Decreased rewards because you don’t interact with others ■ Biological ● Can be genetically predisposed ● Women have increased life stressors 12.Difference between manic and hypomanic episodes ○ Manic Episode ■ Inflated selfesteem or grandiosity ■ Decreased need for speed ■ More talkative than usual ■ Flight of ideas ■ Distractibility ■ Increase in goal directed activity ■ Excessive involvement in pleasurable activity ■ mania ○ Hypomanic Episode 13.Difference between bipolar I and II ○ Bipolar I full manic episode ○ Bipolar II hypomanic + depressive disorder 14.Suicide risk and prevention ○ 10th most common cause of death in the US; 38,364 per year; more than car accidents ○ Among 1524 years old, 2nd or 3rd highest cause of death ~ more impulsive ○ Risk Factors ■ Serious illness ■ Abuse ■ Stress ■ Hopelessness ■ alcohol/drug use ■ Mental disorders ■ Social isolation ■ Marital problems ■ Prior attempts(self or other) ■ Lethal means ○ Underlying Causes ■ Psychodynamic view ~ results from depression and anger at others redirected towards oneself ■ Sociocultural ~ connectedness to others ■ Biological ~ low serotonin ○ Antidepressants and Suicide ■ Can increase chance of suicide ■ Can give the person the energy/motivation to actually hurt themself 15.How do we assess for suicide ○ Assessing Risk ■ Active vs. passive thoughts ■ Ideation ■ Plan ■ Means ■ Lethality ■ Coping skills ■ Subjective rating scale ■ Social support ■ Suicide history ○ Other Warning Signs ■ Sudden happiness ■ Loss of interest ■ Saying goodbye ■ Setting affairs in order ■ Giving things away ○ Taking Action ■ Be direct ■ 24 hour assistance # ■ Increased session ■ Increase structure in schedule ■ Strengthen barriers to suicide ■ Refer for medication if necessary ■ Limit access to means ■ Hospitalization ■ Create a plan ■ Loss of privilege ■ Document ■ Realize you can only do so much 16.Personality disorders include which disorders, how many clusters ○ Excessively rigid behavior patterns, or ways of relation to others, that ultimately becomes selfdefeating ○ Theoretical Perspectives ■ Psychodynamic not a healthy revolution of psychosexual development ■ Learning identify behavior that influenced this ■ Family ■ biological ○ Three clusters: A(odd or eccentric), B(overly dramatic, emotional, or erratic, C(anxious or fearful) ○ A ~ odd or eccentric ■ Paranoid ● Undue suspiciousness of others’ motives, but not to the point of delusion ● Preoccupied with doubts of loyalty ● Overly sensitive to criticism ● Suspect exploitation ● Reluctant to confide ● Unforgiving ● Perceived attacks ● *clinicians must be aware of cultural/social factors ■ Schizoid ● Persistent lack of interest in social relationships ● No close relationships ● Solitude ● No sexual interest ● Appears indifferent to praise/criticism ● Flat affect(cold/detached) ■ Schizotypal ● Eccentricities of thought/behavior ● Ideas of reference ● Odd beliefs ● Unusual perception ● Affect ● Social anxiety ○ B ~ overly dramatic, emotional, or erratic ■ Antisocial ● Antisocial and irresponsible behavior ● Failure to conform ● Irresponsible ● Impulsive ● Aggressive ● Not synonymous with criminality ■ Borderline ● Abrupt shifts in mood, lack of a coherent sense of self, and unpredictable, impulsive behavior ● Avoid abandonment ● Unstable relationships ● Suicidal behavior ● Feel empty(chronic) ● intense/uncontrollable anger ■ Histrionic ● Excessive need for attention, praise, reassurance, and approval ● Center of attention ● Inappropriate affection ● Dramatic ● Suggestible ● Demand their needs be met ■ Narcissistic ● Inflated selfimage and demands for attention and admiration ● Selfabsorbed and lack empathy for others ● Grandiose sense of self ● “Special” ● Sense of entitlement/arrogance ● Lack empathy ○ C ~ anxious or fearful ■ Avoidant ● Avoidance of social relationships due to fears of rejection ● Unwilling unless liked ● Restraint in intimate relationsfear of ridicule ● Preoccupied with criticism ■ Dependent ● Difficulty making independent decisions and overly dependent behavior ● submissive/clingy ● Difficulty expressing disagreement ● Uncomfortable when alone ■ ObsessiveCompulsive(OCPD) ● Rigid ways of relating to others, perfectionism, lack of spontaneity, and excessive attention to detail ● Preoccupied with details ● Overconscientious ● Inflexible ● Reluctant to delegate
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