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PSYC 341 Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Caru

PSYC 341 Exam 3 Study Guide PSYC 341

Cal State Fullerton

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About this Document

Professor Amanda Perry
Abnormal Psychology
Amanda Perry
Study Guide
Abnormal psychology
50 ?




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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caru on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 341 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Amanda Perry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at California State University - Fullerton.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
Exam 3 Study Guide    1. Substance Use Disorders  ● Substance​ ­ any chemical you put in your body that has any effect on  your brain(behavior)  ● Substance­induced​ ­ symptoms occur solely while under the  influence of the drug  ● Substance use​ ­ pattern of maladaptive use of a psychoactive  substance that results in significant level of functional or personal  distress  ● Substance dependence​ ­ physiological dependence, compulsiveness  ● Substance intoxication​ ­ pattern of repeated episodes of intoxication  ● Withdrawal syndrome​ ­ cluster of symptoms following the sudden  reduction or cessation of a substance after physiological dependence  has developed  ● Tolerance​ ­ physical habituation to a drug; need an increase of a  substance to achieve the desired feeling/effect  ● Diagnosis  ○ Substance use disorders occur on a  spectrum  ○ Doesn’t become abusive until they use more and more and use  it longer than intended  ○ Spend more and more time using/trying to acquire drug  ○ Decrease in level of activity and work  ○ Continued use despite having problems(ex. Health, behavior,  relationships)  ○ Failure to meet obligations  ○ Get themselves and/or others into dangerous situations(ex.  Drunk driving)  ○ Addiction​ ­ people who are compulsively using a drug and  don’t have control over their use; keep using despite problems  it causes  ● Depressants  ○ A drug that slows down or curbs the activity of the central  nervous system  ○ In high doses, depressants can arrest vital functions  ○ Alcohol ~ most widely abused  ○ Risk factors  ■ 1) gender ~ men are twice as likely  ■ 2) age ~ 20­40 young adulthood  ■ 3) antisocial personality disorder  ■ 4) family history  ■ 5) sociodemographic factors ~ low income and  educational status  ■ Heavy alcohol use is linked to increased risk of many  serious health concerns:  ● Liver disease  ● Increased risk of cancers  ● Coronary heart disease  ● Neurological disease  ○ Barbiturates  ■ Sedative drugs which are depressants with high  addictive potential  ■ Drowsiness, slurred speech, impaired cognitive  functioning, motor impairment  ■ Four times as powerful when combined with alcohol  ○ Opiates  ■ Narcotics​ ­ drugs that are used medically for pain relief  but that have strong addictive potential  ■ Natural and synthetic  ■ Euphoria, drowsiness, constricted pupils, nausea  ■ Overdose is prevalent all over US  ● Stimulants  ○ Increase the activity of the central nervous system, enhancing  alertness  ○ Effects vary with drug  ○ Cocaine, caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines  ○ Amphetamines  ■ Class of synthetic stimulants that activate the central  nervous system  ■ Amphetamine psychosis ​­ a psychotic state  characterized by hallucinations and delusions  ■ Most potent: meth  ■ Can still have effects on body(ex. hallucinations) and  delusions after they stop taking it  ● Hallucinogens(Psychedelics)  ○ Substances that cause hallucinations  ○ May also have: relaxation and euphoria, or, in some cases,  panic  ○ LCD, ketamine, etc  ● Theoretical Perspectives  ○ Biological  ■ Dopamine production(block reuptake)  ● Things that used to be pleasurable no long are  without the drug  ■ Genetic influence  ● alcoholism  ○ Learning  ■ Operant conditioning(shaping of behavior through  reinforcement and punishment)  ■ Alcohol and tension reduction(relief from tension)  ■ Negative reinforcement and withdrawal  ■ Conditioning model of craving(association)  ■ Observational learning(modeling)  ○ Cognitive  ■ Evidence supports the role of cognitive factors,  especially the role of expectancies  ● Self­efficacy expectations  ■ “One­drink­effect”​ ­ tendency to binge once they’ve  had one; all success or all failure  ○ Psychodynamic  ■ Alcoholism reflects an oral­dependent personality  ■ Excessive drinking/smoking in adulthood symbolizes  an individual’s effort to attain oral gratification  ○ Sociocultural  ■ Drinking is determined, in part, by where we live, whom  we worship with, and the social or cultural norms that  regulate our behavior  ■ Peer pressure  ■ exposure  ● Treatment  ○ Biological approaches  ■ Detox, meds  ○ Non professional support groups(AA)  ○ psychotherapy(childhood trauma/conflict)  ○ Social skills training  ○ Relapse prevention training    2. Eating Disorders  ● Disordered eating behaviors and maladaptive ways of controlling  body weight  ● Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder  ● Serious concern about how they look and gaining weight  ● People with anorexia are underweight, but people with bulimia  typically maintain their weight  ● Almost 50% of people with eating disorders meet criteria for  depression  ● 1/10 men and women with eating disorders receive treatment  ● Up to 24 million people suffer from an eating disorder  ● Have the highest mortality rate among mental illness  ● Anorexia Nervosa  ○ Restricting and binge­purge type  ○ Refusal to maintain weight  ○ Intense fear of weight gain  ○ Distorted body image  ● Bulimia Nervosa  ○ Purging and nonpurging types  ○ Binge eating  ○ Loss of control over food intake  ○ Compensatory behavior  ○ Behaviors occurring at least once a week for three months  ○ Concern with shape(weight)  ● Medical Complications  ○ Anorexia  ■ Anemia  ■ Dermatological problems  ■ Cardiovascular complications  ■ death  ○ Bulimia  ■ Skin irritation around mouth  ■ Tooth decay, cavities  ■ Damage taste receptors  ● Causes  ○ Involve complex interplay of factors  ○ Big factors are social factors/pressures  ○ ⅘ women go on a diet by 18    3. Paraphilias  ○ Unusual or atypical patterns of sexual attraction that involve sexual  arousal in response to atypical stimuli(people/children who  can’t/won’t consent, inhuman object, inflicting pain/humiliation  ○ Almost never diagnosed in women  ○ People typically seek help because it rarely causes them stress  ■ To be diagnosed, it must cause distress  ○ Exhibitionism​ ­ strong or recurrent urges to expose oneself to shock  or even arouse the person  ○ Fetishism​ ­ inanimate object is source of arousal(clothes, shoes, feet,  etc)  ○ Transvestic disorder​ ­ dressing like opposite sex; aroused by fabrics  and garments or thought of being that sex  ○ Voyeurism​ ­ sexual fantasies watching unsuspecting victims  ○ Pedophilia​ ­ urges for children 13 or below; person must be at least  16 and 5 or more years older than child  ■ Exclusive ­ only attracted to children  ■ Nonexclusive ­ can have sex with others but still fantasize  about children  ○ Sexual masochism ​­ sexual urges to receive pain/humiliation  ○ Sexual sadism​ ­ sexual urges to inflict pain or humiliation  ○ Theory and Treatment  ■ Psychodynamic theorists see many of the paraphilias as  defenses against leftover castration anxiety  ■ Biological ­ men with higher sex drive  ■ Learning  ■ Psychoanalysts attempt to bring childhood sexual conflicts into  awareness so they can be revealed  4. Gender  ○ Gender identity​ ­ one’s psychological sense of being male or female  ○ Gender dysphoria​ ­ characterized by significant stress as a result of  conflict between one’s anatomic sex and one’s gender identity  ○ Criteria  ■ Strong and persistent cross­gender identification  ■ Repeatedly stated desire to be, or insistence that they are the  opposite sex  ■ Preference for cross­sex roles in play  ■ Strong desire to participate in games/pastimes of the other sex  ■ Strong preference for playmates of the other sex  ■ Persistent discomfort with his or her sex  ■ Disturbance is not concurrent with a physical intersex con  ■ Causes clinically significant distress or impairment  ● More common in boys; “tomboy” girls are more  accepted  ○ Treatment  ■ Psychodynamic ­ parental relationship(ex. Close to one parent)  ■ behavioral/learning ­ parental relationship  ■ Biological ­ some parts of brain different and changes occur in  utero  5. Sexual Disorders  ○ Sexual dysfunctions​ ­ persistent or recurrent problems with sexual  interest, arousal, or response  ○ Sexual desire/arousal disorders  ○ Orgasm disorders  ○ Sexual pain disorders  ○ generalized(occurs in all situations) or acquired(happens in some  situations)  ○ Deficiencies in either sexual interest or arousal  ■ Female sexual interest/arousal disorders  ■ Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder  ■ Erectile disorder(ED)  ○ Orgasm Disorders  ■ Female orgasmic disorder​ ­ persistent delay of orgasm or  absence of  ■ Delayed ejaculation ​ ­ delay in reaching ejaculation  ■ Premature ejaculation​ ­ most common; occurs within a  minute of penetration or before penetration; not abnormal  ■ Sexual pain disorders​(females)  ● Vaginismus​ ­ involuntary spasm of the muscles  surrounding the vagina when vaginal penetration is  attempted  ○ Theory and Treatment  ■ Anxiety, lack of sexual skills, irrational beliefs, perceived  causes of events, and relationship problems can explain issues  related to sex  ■ Currently, specific techniques are often used in conjunction  with couples therapy allowing couples to improve  communication skills and negotiate differences  ● Self­stimulation, sensate­focus, step start   


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