EXAM 1 study guide Bio 181
EXAM 1 study guide Bio 181 BIO 181
Popular in Introductory Biology: Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Huriyyah Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 181 at North Carolina State University taught by William Grant in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology: Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity in Biological Sciences at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
SUPPLEMENTAL STUDY EMPHASIS I, BIO 181001 Exam #1 NOTE: Suggestions are presented below for review of many, but not necessarily all, of the major topics. Be sure to use your lecture notes, textbook, and powerpoints (on the class web site) for ore definitive guide to review. Coverage: Chapter 1, Chapter 20 (pp. 399407 and pp. 410411), Chapter 21, and Chapter 22 (pp. 441453 and pp. 456457) Chapter 1. he Science of Biology Define or Identify: Biology: science of life living systems are most complex chemical systems on earth naturally life is limited by properties of chem. And physics Know Archaea, natural selection, Protista properties/characteristics of life 1. Cellular organization 2. Ordered complexity 3. Sensitivity 4. Growth, development, and reproduction 5. Energy utilization 6. Homeostasis 7. Evolutionary Adaption three domains of life archaea, bacteria, eukarya Describe/discuss the levels of biological organization. Living systems show hierarchical organization 1. Atoms 2. Molecules 3. Cells 4. Tissues 5. Organs 6. Organ systems 7. Organism 8. Population 9. community 10. ecosystem 11. Biosphere First hierarchical organization cellular level: atoms, molecules, organelles, cells = basic unit of life organismal level: tissues, organs organ systems Second hierarchical organization Populational level: population and community Ecosystem Biosphere: entire earth Emergent Properties: everything becomes more and more complex such as life and these can be results from many parts interacting, these properties/parts cannot be understood by only looking at them because they are highly complex List and discuss steps of the scientific method. Observation: becoming aware of the problem Hypothesis: possible explanation for an observation Often a testable theory which can be tested in many ways to determine if it is correct Iterative: hypothesis can be changed and new data can be collected Prediction: what you think will happen/hypothesis allow this to happen Experimentation: testing the hypothesis, and must be designed with boundaries and limitations, control experiment and test experiment with independent and dependent variables Conclusion: reveals if the hypothesis was correct or not and is backed up by data, analysis, and logical reasoning Deductive Reasoning: uses general principles to make certain predictions. Inductive Reasoning: uses specific observations to make generalizations which can be tested by an experiment Discuss Darwin’s observations and conclusions that were important in development of the theory of evolution by natural selection. ● Observed for 30 years ● His contribution was mechanism of evolution > natural selection ● Observed differences in related organisms and realized that the characteristics of the species were different in each place ● Galapagos finches: 14 similar species differ only slightly due to descent with modification or evolution ● Darwin studied Malthus essay… An Essay on the Principle of Population which said: ○ Populations of plants and animals increase geometrically ○ Humans can only increase food supply arithmetically ○ Populations of species remain constant because death creates limits for amount of population ● Darwin claimed that all organisms naturally have the ability to reproduce more offspring, but only a few number of those organisms can survive and reproduce to other factors Describe the relationship between variation and success in the process of natural selection. Give examples to illustrate your response. ● Variation decreases chances of extinction of population and is also required by natural selection b/c w/o it there wouldn’t be traits introduced into population List and describe several types of evidence that support the theory of evolution. ● Fossil record: remains have been found at predicted areas in time ● Earth’s age: earth is 4.5 billion years old ● Mechanism for heredity: Mendel’s laws of inheritance > Darwin didn’t know about them ● Comparative anatomy ○ Vertebrate limbs/arms share same type of bones ■ Homologous: same evolutionary origin but structure and functions are different ■ Analogous: structures come from different origin but are used for a similar purpose ● Molecular evidence: genomes/proteins can be compared of many diff. Organisms ○ Phylogenetic trees: trace origin of particular nucleotide changes to recreate/represent evolutionary history Compare the following paired terms: Prokaryotes: no membranebound nucleus, DNA in nucleoid, cell wall outside of plasma membrane, no membrane bound organelles like organelles, includes domains archaea and bacteria Eukaryotes: membranebound nucleus, more complex, has membranebound organelles, cytoskeleton for support and cellular structure Genomes: entire set of DNA instructions Proteomes: entire set of proteins artificial selection: selective pressure initiated by humans on organism populations in order to change or even yield desirable traits natural selection: characteristics of a population change over many generations as organisms survive and reproduce and then pass traits down to offspring, diversity within a species, situational Additional Key Resources: ∙ Review the lecture notes and powerpoints described in lecture. ∙ Study Chapter Review at the end of the chapter. ∙ Review Questions at the end of the chapter. Student’s Questions ∙ Write at least three (3) a dditional questions that you believe should be included for Chapter 1. ∙ Write the answers to the questions that you developed. 1. What are two characteristics of living system that exist in a nonequilibrium state? a. Open systems b. Constant supply of energy is needed 2. Why are cells known as informationprocessing systems? a. They have info in DNA which is used for cell synthesis or controlling gene expression b. Cells process environmental information 3. How does evolutionary conservation affect unity of living systems? a. Conservation shows that they have a fundamental role Chapter 20. Genes within Populations (pp. 399407 and pp. 410411 on Heterozygote Advantage) Be able to Define or Identify: Population HardyWeinberg Principle: natural selection: genetic drift gene bottleneck effect gene pool founder effect allele evolutionary fitness allele frequency mutation gene flow heterozygote advantage Compare the following paired terms: natural selection and inheritance of acquired characteristics founder effect and bottleneck effect phenotype and genotype artificial selection and natural selection vertical evolution and horizontal gene transfer : vertical is when it is passed down from ancestors or parents, but horizontal is when you gain attributes from organisms around you List and discuss five major agents of evolutionary change. 1. Natural Selection 2. Mutation 3. Genetic drift 4. Gene flow 5. Nonrandomized mating Compare the list of assumptions for HardyWeinberg equilibrium with the list of five major agents of evolutionary change that you identified in the previous question. 1. No mutation happens 2. No genes are moved to or from other sources (no immigration or emigration) 3. Mating is random 4. The population size is very large 5. No selection occurs Additional Key Resources: ∙ Review the lecture notes and powerpoints described in lecture. ∙ Study Chapter Review, p. 415. (Sections 20.1 through 20.4 and the portion of Section 20.5 on heterozygote advantage) ∙ Review Questions at the end of the chapter.
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