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EXAM 1 study guide Bio 181

by: Huriyyah Notetaker

EXAM 1 study guide Bio 181 BIO 181

Huriyyah Notetaker

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Bio supplemental study guide
Introductory Biology: Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity
William Grant
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Huriyyah Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 181 at North Carolina State University taught by William Grant in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology: Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity in Biological Sciences at North Carolina State University.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
SUPPLEMENTAL STUDY EMPHASIS I,  BIO 181­001     Exam #1             NOTE:​  Suggestions are presented below for review of many, ​but not necessarily all​, of the  major topics.  Be sure to use ​your ​lecture notes​, textbook, and powerpoints​ (on the class web  site) ​for ​ ore definitive​ ​guide​ to review​.      Coverage:  Chapter 1, Chapter 20 (pp. 399­407 and pp. 410­411),  Chapter 21, and Chapter 22 (pp.  441­453 and pp. 456­457)     Chapter 1.​  ​ he Science of Biology     Define or Identify:  Biology: ​science of life     ­ living systems are most complex chemical systems on earth   ­ naturally life is limited by properties of chem. And physics     ­Know Archaea, natural selection, Protista  properties/characteristics of life  1. Cellular organization   2. Ordered complexity   3. Sensitivity  4. Growth, development, and reproduction   5. Energy utilization   6. Homeostasis   7. Evolutionary Adaption   three domains of life   ​­archaea, bacteria, eukarya   Describe/discuss the levels of biological organization.  ­ Living systems show hierarchical organization  1. Atoms  2. Molecules  3. Cells   4. Tissues  5. Organs  6. Organ systems   7. Organism   8. Population   9. community   10. ecosystem   11. Biosphere    First hierarchical organization   ­cellular level: atoms, molecules, organelles, cells = basic unit of life   ­ organismal level: tissues, organs organ systems     Second hierarchical organization   ­ Populational level: population and community   ­ Ecosystem   ­ Biosphere: entire earth     ­ Emergent Properties: everything becomes more and more complex such as life and these  can be results from many parts interacting, these properties/parts cannot be understood by  only looking at them because they are highly complex             List and discuss steps of the scientific method.  ­ Observation: becoming aware of the problem   ­ Hypothesis: possible explanation for an observation   ­ Often a testable theory which can be tested in many ways to determine if it is  correct  ­ Iterative: hypothesis can be changed and new data can be collected  ­ Prediction: what you think will happen/hypothesis allow this to happen  ­ Experimentation: testing the hypothesis, and must be designed with boundaries and  limitations, control experiment and test experiment with independent and dependent  variables  ­ Conclusion: reveals if the hypothesis was correct or not and is backed up by data,  analysis, and logical reasoning     Deductive Reasoning: uses general principles to make certain predictions.   Inductive Reasoning: uses specific observations to make generalizations which can be tested by  an experiment      Discuss Darwin’s observations and conclusions that were important in development of the theory  of evolution by natural selection.  ● Observed for 30 years   ● His contribution was mechanism of evolution > natural selection  ● Observed differences in related organisms and realized that the characteristics of the  species were different in each place   ● Galapagos finches: 14 similar species differ only slightly due to descent with  modification or evolution   ● Darwin studied Malthus essay… An Essay on the Principle of Population which said:   ○ Populations of plants and animals increase geometrically  ○ Humans can only increase food supply arithmetically  ○ Populations of species remain constant because death creates limits for amount of  population  ● Darwin claimed that all organisms naturally have the ability to reproduce more offspring,  but only a few number of those organisms can survive and reproduce to other factors     Describe the relationship between variation and success in the process of natural selection.  Give  examples to illustrate your response.  ● Variation decreases chances of extinction of population and is also required by natural  selection b/c w/o it there wouldn’t be traits introduced into population  List and describe several types of evidence that support the theory of evolution.  ● Fossil record: remains have been found at predicted areas in time  ●  Earth’s age: earth is 4.5 billion years old   ● Mechanism for heredity: Mendel’s laws of inheritance > Darwin didn’t know about them  ● Comparative anatomy  ○ Vertebrate limbs/arms share same type of bones   ■ Homologous: same evolutionary origin but structure and functions are  different   ■ Analogous: structures come from different origin but are used for a similar  purpose  ● Molecular evidence: genomes/proteins can be compared of many diff. Organisms  ○ Phylogenetic trees: trace origin of particular nucleotide changes to  recreate/represent evolutionary history     Compare the following paired terms​:  Prokaryotes: ​no membrane­bound nucleus, DNA in nucleoid, cell wall outside of plasma  membrane, no membrane bound organelles like organelles, includes domains archaea and  bacteria    Eukaryotes: ​membrane­bound nucleus, more complex, has membrane­bound organelles,  cytoskeleton for support and cellular structure  Genomes: ​entire set of DNA instructions  Proteomes: ​entire set of proteins   artificial selection:  ​selective pressure initiated by humans on organism populations in order to  change or even yield desirable traits   natural selection: ​characteristics of a population change over many generations as organisms  survive and reproduce and then pass traits down to offspring, diversity within a species,  situational  Additional Key Resources: ​   ∙  Review the lecture notes and powerpoints described in lecture.  ∙  Study Chapter Review at the end of the chapter.  ∙  Review Questions at the end of the chapter.     Student’s Questions  ​ ∙  Write at least three (3) a ​ dditional questions that you believe should be included for  Chapter 1.  ∙  Write the answers to the questions that ​you​ developed.  1. What are two characteristics of living system that exist in a nonequilibrium state?   a. Open systems   b. Constant supply of energy is needed   2. Why are cells known as information­processing systems?   a. They have info in DNA which is used for cell synthesis or controlling gene  expression  b. Cells process environmental information  3. How does evolutionary conservation affect unity of living systems?   a. Conservation shows that they have a fundamental role              Chapter 20​.  Genes within Populations    (pp. 399­407 and pp. 410­411 on Heterozygote Advantage)     Be able to Define or Identify:   Population    Hardy­Weinberg Principle:   natural selection: ​      genetic drift  gene      bottleneck effect  gene pool    founder effect  allele    evolutionary fitness  allele frequency    mutation  gene flow    heterozygote advantage       Compare the following paired terms​:  natural selection and inheritance of acquired characteristics  founder effect and bottleneck effect  phenotype and genotype  artificial selection and natural selection  vertical evolution and horizontal gene transfer​ : vertical is when it is passed down from ancestors  or parents, but horizontal is when you gain attributes from organisms around you     List and discuss five major agents of evolutionary change.  1. Natural Selection   2. Mutation  3. Genetic drift   4. Gene flow   5. Non­randomized mating      Compare the list of assumptions for Hardy­Weinberg equilibrium with the list of five major  agents of evolutionary change that you identified in the previous question.  1. No mutation happens   2. No genes are moved to or from other sources (no immigration or emigration)   3. Mating is random  4. The population size is very large  5. No selection occurs      Additional Key Resources: ​   ∙  Review the lecture notes and powerpoints described in lecture.  ∙  Study Chapter Review, p. 415. (Sections 20.1 through 20.4 and the portion of Section  20.5 on heterozygote advantage)  ∙  Review Questions at the end of the chapter.            


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