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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alicia Notetaker on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2040-001 at Clemson University taught by Hains in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 150 views.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Environment, Energy, and Society--Test 1 Study Guide Deceptions Hoaxes= Intentional deceptions Ex. Crop circles, ads, nonsense articles in respected journals, Raelians claimed to have created first human clones Romance/intimate relationships Everyone is susceptible to deceptions science is about avoiding deceptions Facts, truths and proofs o Elude us, sometimes we elude them o Tremendous room for self deception o Facts= often trivial (I am 5’2”, she uses glasses, etc), some are untrue (“the earth is the center of the universe”) “A fact is something that is currently under investigation” Capable of changing o Truths= Goal that we constantly try to achieve o Proof= something proved is unassailable and often considered to be fact Almost never found in science, there are too many variables usually used in math Conditional v Relative o Science relates to observations and understandings in conditional terms This is how science leaves options open while accepting a system that seems to work There’s always room for improvement What is Science? 1. Rational approach to understanding and explaining observable phenomena 2. Quest for knowledge 3. Willingness to critically examine 4. Acknowledgement of error 5. Willingness to consider alternatives 6. Self-correcting through the above properties these characteristics apply in a society that seeks to improve/prosper don’t necessarily apply to technology knowledge=info we employ with success. Changes as new facts are discovered and old ones are changes/discarded Should remain open to correction and improvement certainty= degree to which we think our knowledge is correct Should be employed with care as knowledge is almost never absolute be critical of every idea, even if it seems good. Ask questions. What is Technology? 1. Objects: tools, machines, etc. – the physical devices 2. Knowledge: what is learned (at a university) 3. Activities: what people do – their skills, methods, procedures, routines 4. Sociotechnical System: manufacture and use of objects these are all: Applications of science Practical use of knowledge produced by science He knowledge itself can be technology this relationship between science and technology is complex; science leads to tech, which enables observations supporting scientific inquiry What is Society? Organized group of people that share a common culture Territorial population speaking a language not generally understood by neighboring territorial populations Group of people who share common habitat who are dependent on each other for survival and well-being Abstraction of ways in which interaction among humans is patterned What is Energy? Energy= a fundamental entity of nature that’s transferred between parts of a system in the production of physical change within the system and usually regarded as the capacity for doing work o Can change the physical condition of something else o Measure it by its effects (temperature, etc) Gravity= applies to all matter in the universe (force carrier=graviton) o F=Gm1m2/r^2 Electromagnetism= acts between all particles that hold an electric charge. o Attractive for oppositely charges particles o Resistant for particles of the same charge. o Weaker with distance o F=Ke*(q1q2/r^2) Units of measure: o Joule= the amount of energy to perform: 1. Work done by a force of one newton traveling 1 meter 2. Work to move an electric charge of 1 coulomb through an electrical potential difference of 1V 3. Work to produce power of 1W continuously for 1 second 4. Kinetic energy of a 2kg mass moving at 1m/s o Calorie cal=amount of heat energy required to raise the temp of 1 gram of water by 1 degree C kcal=amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg water by 1 degree C (1000cal) used for nutrition o Heat Form of energy however more of a consequence of energy Intensity of molecular vibration Not the same as thermal energy Means of energy transfer o Watt o BTU o Horsepower o Work Thermodynamics Type 1 (physics and engineering) o Closed Systems exchange neither energy nor material across the system boundary Difficult to create a completely isolated system Theoretical constructs and don’t occur naturally Type 2 (ecology) o Intermediate systems exchange energy but not matter across system boundary Type 3 o Open Systems open to both the exchange of energy and material across system boundaries Almost all natural systems are open All of these are subject to the second law of thermodynamics 1 Law of Thermodynamics=conservation of energy o in a closed system, the internal energy of the system is the sum of all heat added or removed and the work done on or by the system 2nd Law of Thermodynamics=expression of the universal principle of increasing entropy. Entropy of an isolated system, which is not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a max value at equilibrium o any process involves degradation of energy contained in the system Entropy (S) S=klnΩ, where Ω is the probability of a given state Uniformitarianism Uniformitarianism=geologic processes and natural laws operating to modify the earth’s crust have acted in the same regular manner and with the same intensity throughout geologic time and that past geologic events can be explained by phenomena and forces observable today”present is key to the past” o Empirical science= objective observations are made and measurements used to quantify observations Ex. Dendrochronology, the study of tree rings Ex. Layers of sediment on lakes Radioisotopes=atoms that have unstable nuclei—they undergo radioactive decay. The rate of decay is measurable and often expressed as “half-life” o We use this for datingsystem of interdependent ideas Carbon Dating=Measure concentration accurately enough to be able to find changes over increments of time of about 50 yrs o correlation between tree ting dating and carbon dating Occam’s Razor= ”Law of Prsimony” don’t make things unnecessarily complicated o Everything should be made as simple as possible however remain rational, reasonable, and fit with the observations Energy on Earth Earth reflects some sun energy and emits it’s own energy and emits it’s own energy—or else it would heat up Wien displacement=radiation curve for different temperatures peaks at a wavelength inversely proportional to the temperature Composition of the earth’s atmosphere: o Major: N2 (78%), O2 (21% o Active Minor: H2O, CO2, O3, CH4, NO2, CFCs, H2O liquid & ice, aerosols o Inactive Minor: Ar, Ne, He, Kr o **know: methane, carbon dioxide, argon, nitrogen, oxygen Evaporation= process where liquid water is transformed into a gaseous state, humidity of atmosphere must be less than the evaporating surface o requires lots of energy 1g H2O=540cal thermal energy Transpiration=Process of water loss from from plants through stomata (openings on the bottom of leaves) Evapotranspiration= composite term as it’s hard to distinguish between evaporation and transpiration o Rate controlled by: i. Energy availability ii. Humidity gradient away from surface. The rate & quantity of water vapor entering atmosphere both become higher in drier air iii. Wind speed immediately above surface wind increases potential for evapotranspiration iv. Water availability Climate Weather=meteorological conditions Climate=ling term description of weather Climatic variations= daily and seasonal cycles, large scale cycles over years/decades Long term climate change=result of changes in the intensity and distribution of solar radiation Sun= ultimate source of energy that drives global climate Energy gains= from solar radiation must be offset by energy losses if earth’s temperature is to remain the same o much that is absorbed from the sun is emitted back into the atmosphere as infrared radiation latent heat flux= amount of energy necessary to change 1g of a material from one phase to another Specific heat=amount of energy necessary to raise a certain quantity of material by a certain temperature Conduction=kinetic energy is transferred by molecules in direct contact with one another Convection=energy transfer by movement of air and water currents Sensible heat flux=energy transfer from the warm air immediately above the surface to the cooler atmosphere by convection and conduction The atmosphere contains radiation active (greenhouse) gases that absorb and reradiate the infrared radiation emitted by the earth o Include: H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O o Without them earth’s atmosphere would be 33 decrees C cooler Infrared light is radiated but the some gets trapped in the atmosphere Air temperatures over land show greater seasonal variations than those over the oceans Elevation influences air temperature (because it’s lower pressure) Proximity to oceans, mountains, regional topography influence regional vegetationvegetation which, in turn affects regional climate Atmospheric Radiation The winds and ocean’s currents result from differences in solar radiation across the surface of the earth Uplift=Solar radiation heats surfacesurface warms then emits infrared radiation to atmosphere warms the airair rises because it’s less dense than cool airair expands and cools Suring this process, water vapor condenses into clouds Tropopause= boundary for clouds between the troposphere and stratosphere Forces clouds north or south Subsidence=air descends when cooled and forms a high pressure zone at 30 degrees N & S reason for major deserts Equatorial Uplift= large scale pattern of atmospheric circulation called the Hadley Cell Circulation Cells: Hadley cell: equatorial uplift (taller and skinnier) Ferrell Cell: mid latitude uplift zone Polar cell: high pressure zones with little precipitation at the N & S poles “polar deserts” (flatter and wider) They result in the climate zones in each hemisphere Tropical, temperate, polar] Prevailing Winds=air movements caused by areas of high/low pressure created by the circulation cells Coriolis Effect= winds are deflected clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the southern hemisphere (can be seen in image on bottom) Albedo= capacity of a land surface to reflect radiation Influenced by vegetation types, soils, topography Heat Capacity= ability to absorb and store energy Oceanic Radiation Upwelling=deep ocean water rises to surface o Occurs where prevailing winds blow, parallel to coastlines o This causes surface waters to blow away from coast and deeper, colder waters to rise in its place o Brings nutrients from sediments to photic zone, where phytoplankton proliferate Ocean currents affect climate Great ocean conveyer belt= interconnected system of ocean currents that link the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans. o Transfers heat from tropics to the poles o Influence global climactic patterns and relative distribution of land masses. Maritime Climate= costal areas, little daily& seasonal variation in temperature, high humidity Continental Climate= in center of large continents, much greater variation in daily & seasonal temperatures Rain Shadow= slope facing prevailing winds receives high precipitation, while leeward slope gets little precipitation o Orographic Effect Energy in the World Most energy used is from fossil fuels o By using it so quickly, we change our environment o They wont last forever KNOW THE PREFIXES FOR MULTIPLIERS o Deka- 10, mega- 10^6, etc. Global use of energy is increasing o RATE OF GROWTH is increasing as well Strong correlation between country’s GDP and energy consumption o One doesn’t necessarily CAUSE the other o Interdependent 1760-1850—Industrial Revolution o began using coal and other fossil fuels o produced food differently o Beginning of mechanization of agriculture, textiles, invention of steam engine, hydropower, & use of coal 6,000-9,000 years agobegan producing food rather than collecting o settled communities o specializations o Expansion (world population began to grow) Word’s greatest empires began simultaneous to changes in technology o Sumeria o Egypt o Mesopotamia o Roman o Greek, etc. eventually they used animal labor in the production of food *****These notes are my interpretation of the lectures and the lecture notes. If there happens to be something that is incomplete or incorrect, it is my fault, the professor has nothing to do with the taking and distribution of my notes.******
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