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ESCI 1101- Test 2 Review

by: Julia Wenger

ESCI 1101- Test 2 Review ESCI 1101

Julia Wenger


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Test 2 Review for the ESCI 1101 class with Prof. Shirley. Study guide was provided in class and then filled out in class. These are what he went over in class before the exam. Test 2 Review covers ...
Introduction to Earth Science
Prof. Shirley
Study Guide
Science, Earth Science, weather and climate
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Wenger on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ESCI 1101 at University of North Carolina at Charlotte taught by Prof. Shirley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Earth Science in Earth Science at University of North Carolina at Charlotte.

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Date Created: 09/12/16
.Earth Science Test 2 Review    Chapter 9  1. *What are the primary differences between cold and warm fronts (precipitation,  steepness, vertical structure, cloud types)?*  ● Picture*    2. What do midlatitude storms look like in terms of structure?   ● Not on exam    3. What is warm/cold advection? Where are they found?  ● Cold advection­ found with cold fronts. Warm fronts­ found with warm fronts.*    4. What are updrafts and downdrafts?  ● Updrafts­ *  ● Downdrafts­    ● zx    5. What regions of the US see the most thunderstorm days per year and why?  ● Florida​ and gulf coast states, because its warm and there’s a lot of moisture there    6. **Understand the three basic stages to thunderstorm development and why each  occurs**  ● 1. Cumulus, all updrafts > air keeps moving upward and gets to the top of the  atmosphere and spreads out which is called m ​ ature stage​ > drops of water start to form  and get lifted up and accumulate in the top of the cloud which is calle​ recipitation  loading,​ up and down drafts > Falls out and evaporates and air gets cooler then slams  into the ground and splashes which is called ​ icroburst ​> all air moves downward which  is calle​ issilation​, all down drafts.*    7. What is a mesocyclone?  ● Tiny rotations of wind moving upward    8. Understand the basics of tornado development   ●   9. What role does wind shear play in forming tornados?   ● Wind shear­ when the wind is changing. Wind moving different ways causes wind  rotation that moves upward which gets high enough and fast enough and creates a  tornado.    10. What is flash flooding?  ● Flooding that thunderstorms produce    11. What is a stationary storm? Training?  ● Stationary­ stays put   ● Training­ one moves in then moves out and another one moves in and moves out. Line  of storms.     12. How is hail formed?  ● Air goes up into the storm. At the top of the cloud they freeze and falls and then gets  caught in the updraft and freezes at the top again. Eventually it falls out and creates hail.     13. What is precipitation loading?  ● Build up of precip at the top of the cloud     14. Understand how precipitation loading leads to microbursts.  ● Precip is held up by wind and eventually falls out???*    15. How does evaporation strengthen a microburst?  ●   16. How is microburst damage different from tornado damage?  ●   17. What conditions need to be met for hurricanes to develop?  ● Warm water/sea surface temp­ 80 degrees, low wind shear, moisture in air, away from  the equator    18. Do hurricanes form at the equator?  ● No, there’s no rotational force* ​ oriolis force    19. What SST’s are needed for hurricanes?  ● 79  20. What is latent heat?  ● Heat generated from condensation­ causes air to get warmer    21. What is sensible heat?  ● Heat given off by the ocean    22. What are the four stages of hurricane development?  ● 1.​ Disturbance  ● 2. Depression  ● 3. Tropical Storm  ● 4. Hurricane    23. What is the eye of the storm?  ● Center of the storm. It’s calm, the sky is clear, pressure is lowest, temperatures are the  highest.    24. What is the eyewall? Rainbands?  ● Spinning around the eye. Heaviest rain, highest winds, worst, most destructive.   ● Everything else around that is rotating, still bad but better than they eyewall    25. When does a tropical system receive a name?  ● Tropical storm    26. What is storm surge? What types of areas are more vulnerable to it?  ● Water being pushed onshore by the force of the wind  ● Areas that are closest to the beach and sea level    27. What is fresh water flooding?   ● Flooding from rivers and rain, number one cause of fatality in the US     28. Why do hurricanes often spawn tornadoes?  ● Not on exam    29. What part of a hurricane causes the most fatalities in the US? The world?  ● Flooding from rainfall  ● Storm surge     30. **Which region of a hurricane receives the worst weather upon landfall?**  ● Picture  ● Right front quadrant ​because of flooding and increased wind speed    31. Which months of the year see the most hurricanes in the Atlantic and why?  ● September/August  ● Ocean is the warmest    Chapter 10  34. What is climate?  ● The average weather properties    35. What is climate region?  ● Areas that have similar weather and climate  36. What are the primary components that dictate the climate of a region?  ● Latitude, how close you are to the ocean, topography (altitude)    37. What are internal vs external climate forces?  ● Things that can change the weather  ● External­ not apart of eather atmosphere but changes the weather (sun, volcanoes,  people, cars)  ● Internal­ Things apart of the weather (clouds)    38. What are primary things are control global precipitation?  ● How close you are to a body of water, topography, Hadley Cell     39. Know the 6 primary climate regions and their differences  ●     40. What region do we live in and why?  ● Mesothermal ​humid subtropical. Rains all year long, summers are hot and winters are  mild.    41. Know the different tropical climate  (rainforest/monsoon/savanna)  ● Rainforest­ rains all year long  ● Monsoon­ rains majority of the year (8/9 months)   ● Savanna­ rains less than 6 months     42. What is the difference between tundra, icecap, and icesheet climates?  ● Tundra­ below freezing for majority of the year (10 months)   ● Icecap­ always below freezing­ tops of mountains (Mt. Everest)  ● Icesheet­ always below freezing­Antarctica, Greenland     43. How is a desert and steppe defined?  ● Defined by total precipitation  ● Desert­ less than 10 inches of rain a year  ● Steppe­ between 10 and 20 inches of rain a year    Chapter 11  44. What are the two primary pathways for surface water?  ● Overflow or movement into the ground­ infiltration and percolation     45. What is infiltration? Percolation?   ● Infiltration­ first goes into the soil  ● Percolation­ working its way down into the soil    46. What are the three types of soil moisture and how are they different? (Hygroscopic,  Capillary, Gravitational)  ● Hygroscopic­ ​thin water molecule layer of water tightly bound to soil (not available to  plants)  ● Capillary­ water held to soil by surface by tension (available to plants)  ● Gravitational water­ after soil is saturated some water percolates downward (deepwater)  systems  47. What is the zone of aeration? Saturation?  ●   48. What is permeable/impermeable layer?  ●   49. What is aquifer? Aquiclude?  ●   50. What is the water table? How does well water work?  ●   51. What is an effluent stream? Influent?  ●   52. What is instream vs nonconsumptive vs consumptive water usage?   ● Instream­ using it where it is (fishing, boating, swimming)  ● Noncomsumptive­ use water and put it back (factories)  ● Consumptive­ use water and don’t put it back (drink)    5​3. What sector uses the most water in the US? The world?  ● Industry and manufacturing   ● Agriculture    Chapter 12  54. What is hydrology? What is a fluvial process?  ● Study of water  ● River process     55. What is ultimate base level?  ● Sea level. Base​ level­ how deep and stream or river will erode downward.    56. What is watershed/drainage divide?  ● Drainage divide­ mountain, seperate which ways precipitation is going to go   ● Watershed­ Where the water ends up going. Water goes into drain in cities and ends up  in a body of water.     57. What is internal drainage?   ● When the water in our river leaves, evaporate or soak into the ground.      58. What is stream ordering? Understand how to do it.  ● Picture     59. What is base flow and bankfull? Floodstage?   ● Base flow­ at its normal flow level ­ sea level  ● Bankfull­ maximum water it can hold  ● Floodstage­ too full  60. Perennial vs Ephemeral streams?  ● Perennial­ always have water  ● Ephemeral­ have water only parts of the year]    61. What are the sources of stream water?  ● Precipitation, groundwater (springs), snowmelt    62. Dissolved/suspended/bed load, what are they?  ● Dissolved­ carry dissolved downstream  ● Suspended­ carried down the stream   ● Bed load­ large objects, sinks to the bottom and slides.     63. Braided, straight, meandering rivers, what are they?  ● Braided­ ​multiple channels, lots of sediment   ● Straight­ one channel­ topography is steep    ● Meandering­ one channel but weaves back and forth­ topography is flat   64. What is a nickpoint?  ● Edge of cliff/land, topography makes an abrupt downward movement    65. What does urbanization do to flooding?  ● When a city gets bigger the flooding get more i​ ntense and occurs faster         Chapter 13    66. ​ hat is uniformitarianism?   ● Assumes that the same physical processes active in the environment today have been  operating throughout geologic time. (Whatever is happening now is going to continue  happening and has happened in the past.)      67. ​ *Structure of earth's layers**   ● ~Picture~     68. ​What are the properties of earth’s core?  ● A third of earth’s entire mass, but only 1/6th of the volume  ● Temperature range from 5400 to 12000 F  ● Solid iron inner core  ● Outer­ molten, metallic iron     69. ​How can the ​inner core be solid​ at such high temperatures?  ● High pressure  ​ ​ ​ 78. ​What is a plate?   ● The pieces of the crust that are moving in the same direction across the earth.   ● 14 plates on the planet, 7 are big and the other 7 are small     79. ​What is the difference between divergent, convergent, and transform boundaries  between plates?  ● Divergent­​ plates that are spreading out. Example: new sea floor.  ● Convergent­ Collision zones, zones of compression and crustal loss  ● Transform­ plates are sliding parallel to each other.     80. ​What is a hot spot? How did the Hawaiian islands form?   ● Hotspot­ Individual sites  of upwelling material which arrives at the surface.   ● ~Picture~     


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