Psychology of Gender Exam 1 Review
Psychology of Gender Exam 1 Review PSY 216
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mina Sezan on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 216 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Heidi A. Hamann in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Psych of Gender in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Psychology of Gender EXAM 1 REVIEW Sex vs Gender Sex refers to biological categories of male and female o Features such as genes, chromosomes, hormones o Relatively stable, not easily changed Gender refers to social categories of male and female o Psychological features and role attributes o More fluid category: influenced by society, culture, time Clicker question: Intrarole conflict occurs when? A. The expectations of one role contradict the expectations of another role B. Two people filling the same social role disagree on how it should be enacted C. Society expects the masculine behaviors but the individual prefers feminine behaviors D. Two expectations of the same social role contradict each other So, what are “gender roles” Role: social position accompanied by set of norms or expectations Gender role: expectations that accompany being male or female o Expect men to be strong, not show emotion, i.e., masculine o Expect women to caring, emotionally expressive, i.e., feminine Types of Role Conflict Intrarole conflict: expectations within a role conflict o Ex: women should express own feelings and be sensitive to others’ needs Interrole conflict: expectations of one role conflict with expectations of another role o Ex: expectations of work role conflict with expectations for gender role Gender Identity Gender identity: perception of self psychologically Transgendered: biological sex does not match gender identity o Transgendered individuals may not identify with their assigned sex at birth or the binary gender system o Remember Caitlyn Jenner interview as example Clicker question: The American psychological association still allows writers of scientific research reports to use the generic “he” with the understanding that it refers to both men and women. True or False A. True B. False Other Important points What is the definition of feminism? o A little bit about the different types of feminism o Women and men having equal value in society What is a minimalist v. maximalist in the context of gender studies? o Minimalist: in general, there aren’t many gender differences, and when we do they tend to be very small with not much meaning o Maximalist: men and women are fundamentally different, isn’t saying one is better than the other they are just different Clicker Question: When a researcher manipulates one variable and observes the effect on another variable, what kind of study are they conducting? A. A correlational study B. A longitudinal study C. An experimental study D. An observational study Types of Research Designs Experimental Study o Method in which the investigator manipulates one variable and observes its effect to another variable o Independent variable (IV) is the manipulated variable (cause) o Dependent variable (DV) is the variable expected to be influenced by the manipulated variable (effect) o Random assignment of participants is key feature Correlational Study o Observe relation between two variables, often at a single point in time o Could do through surveys and/or behavioral observation Friendship length and sex combination of dyads o Examine whether there is a significant relationship between variables for variety of participants Strive for random selection of participants Use caution when generalizing findings (doing a longitudinal study can help) Clicker question: One of the weaknesses of experimental studies is their __________ validity. A. Internal B. Random C. Target D. External Experimental Methods vs. Correlational Methods Experimental Correlational Strength Internal validity External validity Weakness External validity Internal validity Clicker Question: Which of the following is an example of potential experimenter effect in a research study? A. Social desirability B. Cohort effects C. Data interpretation D. Meta-analysis Experimenter Effects Ways in which the experimenter can intentionally or unintentionally influence the results of a study o Questions asked and study design o Study design: participants o Study design: variables manipulated and measured o Data collection o Data interpretation o Communication of results o Remedy: replication by multiple groups Also Remember Participants effects (esp. social desirability) The importance of setting in assessing gender comparisons Early approaches to the psychology of gender (brain size, importance of book by Terman and Miles) 1936-1954: Masculinity-Femininity as a Global Personality Trait Notion of gender roles introduced Construct of masculinity-femininity (M/F) studied o Attitude Interest Analysis Survey (Terman & Miles, 1936) First comprehensive measure of M/F M/F opposite ends of a single continuum Masculine men and feminine women seen as “healthy” 1954-1982: Sex typing and Androgyny Innovation in conceptualization and measurement of gender: M/F not bipolar opposites Masculinity/ femininity as separate dimensions o Instrumental vs. expressive distinction o Linked to gender roles in two widely used measures: Bem Sex-role inventory Personal Attributes Questionnaire 1982-Present: Gender as a social category Two important shifts in thinking about gender o Gender role as multifaceted, multidimensional: two dimensions are not enough o Emphasis on social context in which gender occurs Consideration of strain arising from norms associated with gender roles Clicker question: Stereotypes can be difficult to change because: A. Most of them are true B. People do not like to discuss them openly C. We tend to notice information that confirms our stereotypes and ignore information that disconfirms them D. Our cognitive system cannot tolerate widespread changes Cognitive Component: Gender-role Stereotypes Stereotype: Organized, widely shared sets of beliefs about the characteristics and behaviors of men and women Can be “good” or “bad” What are the consequences? We make errors in judgment or start attributing features to the already- formed stereotypes We start developing negative attitudes toward people based on our stereotypes of their group Stereotypes in the Media Remember video of commercial and their representation of men Review the general information in the Killing Us Softly Video about common portrayals of women Clicker Question: “I believe women are purse and should be protected” is an example of: A. Hostile sexism B. Benevolent sexism C. Self-fulfilling prophecy D. Antisocial orientation Complexity of Sexism Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glicke & Friske) o Focuses on: Hostile sexism: Idea that women should be subservient to men Benevolent sexism: Idea that women have special niceness and purity Sex Discrimination Refers to the differential treatment of individuals based on their sex Both men and women can be victims of sex discrimination o More likely when individual is unique in a given category o More likely when group to which person belongs is incongruent with the person’s role The example of Ann Hopkins Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins: Supreme Court case in 1989 o Established that gender stereotyping is actionable as sex discrimination o Research and testimony from Dr. Susan Fiske played a role in the decision So, what can we do about addressing stereotypes? Training and education about biases o Remember the focus of the Facebook training video More transparent hiring and evaluation practices o Remember the “resume” study Increased representation of gender-role inconsistent individuals o Ads o Personal experience
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