Plant Bio Exam 1 Study Guide
Plant Bio Exam 1 Study Guide BZ 120-001
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Lewis on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BZ 120-001 at Colorado State University taught by Steingraeber, David A in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Principles of Plant Biology in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Doctorine of Signaturesfolklore that states if plant resembles part of human body, it can used as an ailment to treat that part of the body o Ex.) walnut looks like skull, so take it for a headache scientific name = genus species o Closely related speciesgrouped together in same genus o Closely related generagrouped together in same family 3 Domains: o Archaea o Bacteria o Eukarya (4 Kingdoms) K. Protista K. Plantae K. Fungi K. Animalia The Vacuole o Tonoplastflexible membrane that offers strength/support Water soluble colored pigments concentrate inside the vacuole o As H2O moves in, it expands o Starts small, slowly becomes the largest structure/characteristic of a plant cell o Accumulates waste products in form of crystals o Animal cells generally don’t have a large, central vacuole Plastids o Chloroplastcontains green chlorophyll necessary for photosynthesis Light gets trapped in photosynthetic membranes Has its own ribosomes to make its own protein Has its own loop of DNA o Chromoplastyellow or orange color Ex.) fruits/flowers contain this o Leucoplastcolorless/”white” Stores food inside plant cell as starch Ex.) white potato Cell Wall Chemicals o Cellulosemakes up bulk of cell wall; Fun Dates: glucose polymer 1450s printing press invented o Hemicellulose Late 15 century more direct observation of o Pectinglue-like gelatin that holds H2O o Proteins plants Early 1800s botanists/zoologists realized all Waxy Substanceshelps conserve H2O by plants/animals are made of cells making cell wall waterproof o Ligninmakes cell wall hard/dense & gives it rigidity Exam 1 Study Guide 1°and 2°cell wall o 1° (made of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, protein) As proplast grows, 1° stretches o 2° (made of cellulose fibers, hemicellulose fibers, lignin) forms after cell has stopped growing in size Often thick and rigid Doesn’t stretch, so turgor pressure won’t increase beyond this static cell wall About Water o Polar, one side + one side – Important People: Theophrastus: “father of Botany” o Moves from high potential to low potential o Talked about plant organs (Stem, leaf, roots) o To move water against Dioscorides: 1 century Roman army doctor o Wrote Materia Medicaprimary reference about normal flow, must apply pressure plant-based medicines for doctors for over 1500 o Dissolving other substances in H2O changes its water yrs potential Robert Hooke: first to use the word “cells” to describe tiny compartments into which living organisms are Pure H2O has the highest organized water potential Diffusion Rates Affected By o Temperature Short Hand: o Concentration Gradient (↑ conc. grad. = faster rate) o Molecular Size (smaller/lighter diffuses faster) Plant cell = protoplast + cell wall Plasma Membrane Protoplast = cytoplasm + nucleus o Contains: proteins, phospholipids o Transporter Proteins: Scientific name = genus + species Carrier Channel Facilitated Diffusion ↑ motion = ↑ higher temp = faster diffusion rate Pumps Active Transport Cell Division Steps: ↑ conc. grad. = faster o DNA Replication diffusion rate) o Mitosis o Cytokinesis Animals Plants Closed/determinate growth Open/indeterminate growth Diffuse (spread out) growth Localized growth (in meristems) Unitary (grows as one unit) Modular (repeated addition of similar parts)
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