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Plant Bio Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Samantha Lewis

Plant Bio Exam 1 Study Guide BZ 120-001

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Biology > BZ 120-001 > Plant Bio Exam 1 Study Guide
Samantha Lewis

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About this Document

An outline of important concepts we have gone over thus far. (It does not contain definitions, those are uploaded as a set of flashcards!)
Principles of Plant Biology
Steingraeber, David A
Study Guide
botany, plants, Osmosis, Diffusion, cells, cellular biology, orangelles
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Lewis on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BZ 120-001 at Colorado State University taught by Steingraeber, David A in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Principles of Plant Biology in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
Exam 1 Study Guide  Doctorine of Signaturesfolklore that states if plant resembles part of human body, it can used as an ailment to treat that part of the body o Ex.) walnut looks like skull, so take it for a headache  scientific name = genus species o Closely related speciesgrouped together in same genus o Closely related generagrouped together in same family  3 Domains: o Archaea o Bacteria o Eukarya (4 Kingdoms)  K. Protista  K. Plantae  K. Fungi  K. Animalia  The Vacuole o Tonoplastflexible membrane that offers strength/support  Water soluble colored pigments concentrate inside the vacuole o As H2O moves in, it expands o Starts small, slowly becomes the largest structure/characteristic of a plant cell o Accumulates waste products in form of crystals o Animal cells generally don’t have a large, central vacuole  Plastids o Chloroplastcontains green chlorophyll necessary for photosynthesis  Light gets trapped in photosynthetic membranes  Has its own ribosomes to make its own protein  Has its own loop of DNA o Chromoplastyellow or orange color  Ex.) fruits/flowers contain this o Leucoplastcolorless/”white”  Stores food inside plant cell as starch  Ex.) white potato  Cell Wall Chemicals o Cellulosemakes up bulk of cell wall; Fun Dates: glucose polymer  1450s printing press invented o Hemicellulose  Late 15 century more direct observation of o Pectinglue-like gelatin that holds H2O o Proteins plants  Early 1800s botanists/zoologists realized all Waxy Substanceshelps conserve H2O by plants/animals are made of cells making cell wall waterproof o Ligninmakes cell wall hard/dense & gives it rigidity Exam 1 Study Guide  1°and 2°cell wall o 1° (made of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, protein)  As proplast grows, 1° stretches o 2° (made of cellulose fibers, hemicellulose fibers, lignin)  forms after cell has stopped growing in size  Often thick and rigid  Doesn’t stretch, so turgor pressure won’t increase beyond this static cell wall  About Water o Polar, one side + one side – Important People:  Theophrastus: “father of Botany” o Moves from high potential to low potential o Talked about plant organs (Stem, leaf, roots) o To move water against  Dioscorides: 1 century Roman army doctor o Wrote Materia Medicaprimary reference about normal flow, must apply pressure plant-based medicines for doctors for over 1500 o Dissolving other substances in H2O changes its water yrs potential  Robert Hooke: first to use the word “cells” to describe tiny compartments into which living organisms are  Pure H2O has the highest organized water potential  Diffusion Rates Affected By o Temperature Short Hand: o Concentration Gradient (↑ conc. grad. = faster rate) o Molecular Size (smaller/lighter diffuses faster) Plant cell = protoplast + cell wall  Plasma Membrane Protoplast = cytoplasm + nucleus o Contains: proteins, phospholipids o Transporter Proteins: Scientific name = genus + species  Carrier  Channel Facilitated Diffusion ↑ motion = ↑ higher temp = faster diffusion rate  Pumps Active Transport  Cell Division Steps: ↑ conc. grad. = faster o DNA Replication diffusion rate) o Mitosis o Cytokinesis Animals Plants Closed/determinate growth Open/indeterminate growth Diffuse (spread out) growth Localized growth (in meristems) Unitary (grows as one unit) Modular (repeated addition of similar parts)


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