BOT 200 DR. Meier's Exam 1 Study Guide
BOT 200 DR. Meier's Exam 1 Study Guide 200
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Keely Egelhoff on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 200 at Western Illinois University taught by Dr. Meiers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Botany in Botany at Western Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
Botany 200, Meiers’ Sections, Exam 1 Study Guide Read ALL parts of the text that relate to ANY topic mentioned in lecture! For Exam 1, each student should be able to: Chapter 1: Introduction to Plant Biology AND Bickmore & grandy reading, and Dr. Bonnan’s “What is science and evolution website?”: 1. define the following terms (using the scientific definitions): Botany the scientific study of plants, including their physiology, structure, genetics, ecology, distribution, classification, and economic importance Hypothesis is the initial building block in the scientific method. Many describe it as an “educated guess,” based on prior knowledge and observation. Law A scientific law is a statement that describes an observable occurrence in nature that appears to always be true. Theory A wellsubstantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment Science the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment. 2. explain what the assumptions of science are, and why skepticism is important Defining what assumptions are made by scientists allow the general public to understand what base line their research is coming from. It is almost like a generic term that is universal and that everyone understands. Just like the color green is usually identified with being good, or okay to do whereas red is bad or the action should be stopped. It also explains why certain things cannot be tested and why scientists do not focus on them We make three major assumptions as practicing scientists: 1. There is a real physical universe that exists outside our bodies. 2. This physical world can be observed, tested, and explained using our five senses. 3. There are natural causes and effects in this physical world. 3. Explain how one can tell whether a given “theory”/experiment/etc. is really science or not If they times being tested or the theory being tested does not use any supernatural suggestions, it can be considered science. If there is a testable question posed it can be considered science. 4. List examples of hypotheses, laws, and theories in science Society uses the terms in a more literal sense of their definition. Whereas scientists are now finding that this is not always the case. Theories have been used as a broader term for hypothesizes and laws where are the latter is the next step in the discovery process. Chapter 2: Chemistry: 5. Explain how atoms, molecules, compounds, and organic compounds are inter related An atom is the smallest part of a molecule; atoms make up molecules. Molecules are a few atoms bonded together. A compound is two or more molecules coming together to form a new substance. Organic compounds are compounds that contain carbon. At each level the previous term is added. 6. State the particles that make up an atom and explain (in general terms) where they are located in that atom An atom is composed of neutrons, electron, and protons. The neutrons have a neutral charge and are located in the center of the atom. The protons have a positive charge and are also located in the center of the atom. The electrons have a negative charge and are located in the electron cloud surrounding the center of the atom. 7. Define what a chemical bond is and explain what part(s) of an atom allow them to occur A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between atoms with opposite charges, or through the sharing of electrons as in the covalent bonds. 8. Define what an acid, base, and buffer are; explain the pH scale is and what it measures Acid a molecule or other entity that can donate a proton or accept an electron pair in reactions. Base Any of a class of compounds that form hydroxyl ions (OH) when dissolved in water, and whose aqueous solutions react with acids to form salts. BufferIn chemistry, the components of a solution that can neutralize either an acid or a base and thus maintain a constant pH. The pH scale is a scale that measure how acidic or basic a substance is. Using a pH scale one is able to determine what is needed to add to a solution to make it more balanced. If there reading is over 7 then it is too acidic and needs a buffer added to it. If the reading is under 7 it may need some acid added to it 9. Explain what about a water molecule allows it to form hydrogen bonds Polar molecules, such as water molecules, have a weak, partial negative charge at one region of the molecule (the oxygen atom in water) and a partial positive charge elsewhere (the hydrogen atoms in water). 10. Explain what specific heat is, and what about water molecules causes it to be high for water It is the amount of head needed to raise the temperature one degree. Water's high heat capacity is a property caused by hydrogen bonding among water molecules. When heat is absorbed, hydrogen bonds are broken and water molecules can move freely. When the temperature of water decreases, the hydrogen bonds are formed and release a considerable amount of energy. 11. State the 4 types of biomolecules are, state what the monomers and polymers are called, provide examples, and state what a cell uses each type of biomolecule for. Biomolecule Name of Monomer Name of Polymer Specific examples in plants Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Polysaccharides Glucose/fructose Fats and lipids N/A N/A Triglycerides/Phospholipids Nucleic Acids Nucleotides Polynucletides DNA/RNA Proteins Amino Acids Polypeptides Primary, secondary, Tertiary Structure 12. Explain what an enzyme is, what it is composed of, and why it is so important to life A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction. Enzymes are made from amino acids, and they are proteins. When an enzyme is formed, it is made by stringing together between 100 and 1,000 amino acids in a very specific and unique order. The chain of amino acids then folds into a unique shape. Enzymes are proteins that control the speed of chemical reactions in your body. Without enzymes, these reactions would take place too slowly to keep you alive. Some enzymes, like the ones in your gut, break down large molecules into smaller ones. 13. Define/explain: activation energy, active site Activation Energy the minimum quantity of energy that the reacting species must possess in order to undergo a specified reaction. Active Site refers to the specific region of an enzyme where a substrate binds and catalysis takes place or where chemical reaction occurs. It is a structural element of protein that determines whether the protein is functional when undergoing a reaction from an enzyme. 14. Explain how you can tell if a given nucleic acid is DNA or RNA RNA length is less than one hundred nucleotides DNA can be as long as several hundred million nucleotides RNA’s pentose is ribose DNA’s pentose is deoxyribose DNA carries thymine RNA carries uracil Chapter 3: Cells: know the following terms: cell, plasma membrane, lipid bilayer, cytoplasm, organelle, cell theory, selectively permeable, fluid mosaic model, intrinsic/extrinsic proteins, vesicle, facilitated transport, exo/endocytosis, molecular pumps, active transport, diffusion, transport proteins, enzymes, osmosis, hyper/hypo/isotonic, domain, nucleoid, ribosome, cell wall, flagellum, pilus, prokaryotic/eukaryotic cells, cell wall, hemicellulose, middle lamella, primary/secondary cell walls, chloroplasts, stroma, chlorophyll, thylakoids, grana, amyloplasts, leucoplasts, cheomoplasts, central vacuole, tonoplast, chitin, plasmodesmata, symplast, intercullular space, apoplast, USE NOTECARDS ON STUDY SOUP ALREADY You are responsible for knowing the functions of the following organelles: Prokaryotic Cells Cells with genetic material and cell chemicals all enclosed within a cell wall, and having no defined organelles or nucleus, are called prokaryotes. Organisms in this group are small in size and are mainly bacteria. Eukaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus, which means the cell's DNA is surrounded by a membrane. Therefore, the nucleus houses the cell's DNA and directs the synthesis of proteins and ribosomes, the cellular organelles responsible for protein synthesis. Protoplasm Protoplasm is composed of a mixture of small molecules such as ions, amino acids, monosaccharides and water, and macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and polysaccharides. In eukaryotes the protoplasm surrounding the cell nucleus is known as the cytoplasm and that inside the nucleus as the nucleoplasm. Nucleus The nucleus is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Inside its fully enclosed nuclear membrane, it contains the majority of the cell's genetic material. This material is organized as DNA molecules, along with a variety of proteins, to form chromosomes. Mitochondria The most prominent roles of mitochondriaare to produce the energy currency of the cell, ATP (i.e., phosphorylation of ADP), through respiration, and to regulate cellular metabolism. The central set of reactions involved in ATP production are collectively known as the citric acid cycle, or the Krebs cycle. Dictysome/Golgi Body The Golgi apparatus is an organelle present in most eukaryotic cells. It is made up of membranebound sacs, and is also called a Golgi body, Golgi complex, or dictyosome. The job of the Golgi apparatus is to process and bundle macromolecules like proteins and lipids as they are synthesized within the cell. Ribosome Ribosomes are a cell structure that makes protein. Protein is needed for many cell functions such as repairing damage or directing chemical processes. Ribosomes can be found floating within the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. ER (smooth) Smooth ER also regulates and releases calcium ions and processes toxins. ER (Rough) Rough ER is found throughout the cell but the density is higher near the nucleus and the Golgi apparatus. Ribosomes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum are called 'membrane bound' and are responsible for the assembly of many proteins. This process is called translation. Cytosol The cytosol has no single function and is instead the site of multiple cell processes. Examples of these processes include signal transduction from the cell membrane to sites within the cell, such as the cell nucleus, or organelles. Microtubules Microtubules are conveyer belts inside the cells. They move vesicles, granules, organelles like mitochondria, and chromosomes via special attachment proteins. Microfilaments Microfilaments, or actin filaments, are the thinnest filaments of the cytoskeleton and are found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. The polymers of these linear filaments are flexible but still strong, resisting crushing and buckling while providing support to the cell. be able to identify all the organelles in a diagram similar to Figure 3. 15. Explain why a cell can be too large to survive If the cells were larger they wouldn't be able to diffuse through the body. If a cell gets larger than the demand of nutrients and supply of waste increases compared to the surface area. Cells are so little, so they can maximize their ratio of surface area to volume 16. State the 4 tenets of the Cell Theory The generally accepted parts of modern cell theory include: All known living things are made up of one or more cells. All living cells arise from pre existing cells by division. The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms. 17. Explain (in general) why humans use microscopes To be able to see things that the naked eye cannot see. It also allows us to see and understand more about the world on a much smaller level. 18. Explain why a cell membrane is more complicated than just a phospholipid bilayer, and how this complexity helps it do its “job”. A biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. The cell membrane is selectively to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. It consists of the phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. Cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signaling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall 19. Explain how the various ways a cell can transport things around in/into/ out of the cell; be able to recognize examples. Diffusion is the net movement of a substance (liquid or gas) from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration. Hypertonic solutions are those in which more solute (and hence lower water potential) is present. Hypotonic solutions are those with less solute (again read as higher water potential).Isotonic solutions have equal (iso) concentrations of substances. Water potentials are thus equal, although there will still be equal amounts of water movement in and out of the cell, the net flow is zero. 20. Explain how a cell would react if placed in the following solutions: isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic Hypertonic solutions are those in which more solute (and hence lower water potential) is present. Hypotonic solutions are those with less solute (again read as higher water potential).Isotonic solutions have equal (iso) concentrations of substances. Water potentials are thus equal, although there will still be equal amounts of water movement in and out of the cell, the net flow is zero. 21. Explain how prokaryotic cells are different from eukaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells contain membranebound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Differences in cellular structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes include the presence of mitochondria and chloroplasts, the cell wall, and the structure of chromosomal DNA. 22. Correctly draw the Tree of Life (showing the relationships among Archaea, Eubacteria, and Eukarya Eukary a Archae Bacteri 23. Explain the functions for the following organelles: cell wall The major function of the cell wall is to provide rigidity, tensile strength, structural support, protection against mechanical stress and infection. It also aids in diffusion of gases in and out of the cell. central vacuole is a cellular organelle found in plant cells. It is often the largest organelle in the cell. It is surrounded by a membrane and functions to hold materials and wastes. It also functions to maintain the proper pressure within the plant cells to provide structure and support for the growing plant. Chloroplast Chloroplasts work to convert light energy of the Sun into sugars that can be used by cells. The entire process is called photosynthesis and it all depends on the little green chlorophyll molecules in each chloroplast. Plasmodesmata are microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cells and some algal cells, enabling transport and communication between them. 24. Explain what a primary cell wall is composed of. The composition of cell walls varies between species and may depend on cell type and developmental stage. The primary cell wall of land plants is composed of the polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. In bacteria, the cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan. 25. Explain where the following structures in a chloroplast are located: Stroma refers to the colorless fluid surrounding the grana within the chloroplast. Grana Within the stroma are grana, stacks of thylakoids, the suborganelles, the daughter cells, where photosynthesis is commenced before the chemical changes are completed in the stroma outer membrane The outer membrane is permeable to small organic molecules chlorophyll The green pigment chlorophyll is located within the thylakoid membrane, and the space between the thylakoid and the chloroplast membranes is called the stroma 26. Explain what the functions of the different types of plastids are for: Chloroplast Chloroplasts work to convert light energy of the Sun into sugars that can be used by cells. Amyloplast Amyloplasts are nonpigmented organelles found in some plant cells. They are responsible for the synthesis and storage of starch granules, through the polymerization of glucose. Amyloplasts also convert this starch back into sugar when the plant needs energy. Leucoplast A leucoplast may also perform biosynthetic functions such as the synthesis of fatty acids, amino acids, and various other compounds. Chromoplast Chromoplasts are found in fruits, flowers, roots, and stressed and aging leaves, and are responsible for their distinctive colors 27. Explain what substances you might find in the central vacuole Vacuoles are essentially enclosed compartments which are filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecules including enzymes in solution, though in certain cases they may contain solids which have been engulfed. 28. Explain how fungal cells are similar to plant cells; how they are different Both plants and fungi are in the Eukarya domain, meaning they are made of eukaryotic cells that have a nucleus and membranebound organelles. Another similarity is that they both evolved from protists. Plants, which are capable of photosynthesis, evolved from plantlike protists 29. Explain why cells might need to interact with each other The cells of multicelled organisms must communicate with one another to coordinate the activities of the organism as a whole. Most multicelled organisms can utilize junctions between cells for direct intercellular signaling. 30. List examples of how cells interact with each other Endocrine: this is the most common type of cell signaling and involves sending a signal throughout the whole body by secreting hormones into the bloodstream of animals or the sap in plants Paracrine: signaling molecules are released from paracrine cells and diffuse locally through the extracellular fluid, targeting cells that are nearby, thus acting as local mediators Neuronal: Nerve cells (neurons) are specialized cells with a unique structure that can send signals very quickly, over long distances and to specific target cells. 31. Explain where in a plant cell you would find plasmodesmata Plasmodesmata are intercellular junctions between plant cells that enable the transportation of materials between cells. 32. Explain what the symplast and apoplast of a plant are The apoplastic (nonliving) pathway provides a route toward the vascular stele through free spaces and cell walls of the epidermis and cortex. An additional apoplastic route that allows direct access to the xylem and phloem is along the margins of secondary roots. Secondary roots develop from the pericycle, a cell layer just inside the endodermis. The endodermis is characterized by the Casparian strip, a suberized layer that forces all herbicides to move in the symplast in order to enter the vascular system. Since secondary roots grow through the endodermis, a direct pathway to the xylem and phloem is available that bypasses the Casparian strip and allows herbicides to enter the vascular system without moving into the symplast (living tissue). The symplastic (living) route to the vascular stele involves cell to cell transport by plasmodesmata. Plasmodesmata are channels of cytoplasm lined by plasma membrane that transverse cell walls. These channels allow herbicides to move from cell to cell without passing through the cell wall. Plasmodesmata represent direct cytoplasmic connections from one cell to the next. Chapter 4: Cell Growth & Cell Division: 33. Explain how and why plants might reproduce sexually versus asexually Asexual reproduction produces new individuals without the fusion of gametes, genetically identical to the parent plants and each other, except when mutations occur. In seed plants, the offspring can be packaged in a protective seed, which is used as an agent of dispersal. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves the production of male and female gametes, the transfer of the male gametes to the female ovules in a process called pollination. After pollination occurs, fertilization happens and the ovules grow into seeds within a fruit. 34. Describe and be able to recognize the stages of mitosis: Prophase is a stage of mitosis in which the chromatin condenses into double rodshaped structures called chromosomes in which the chromatin becomes visible. This process, called chromatin condensation, is involved with the condense in complex. Metaphase At this stage, the condensed chromosomes have aligned along the metaphase (or equatorial) plate, an imaginary plane located between the poles of a dividing cell, while the microtubules formed during prophase would then attach themselves to kinetochores. A stage in nuclear Division occurring once in mitosis and twice in meiosis, where chromosomes become polarised at the equator of the spindle fibres. Anaphase the third stage of mitosis, during which the chromatids separate andmigrate towards oppo site ends of the spindle Telophase the final phase of cell division, between anaphase and interphase, in which the chromatids or chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed. Cytokinesis is the physical process of cell division, which divides the cytoplasm of a parental cell into two daughter cells. It occurs concurrently with two types of nuclear division called mitosis and meiosis, which occur in animal cells. 35. Explain how mitochondria and chloroplasts divide during the life of a cell Mitochondria and chloroplasts divide by simple fission, splitting in two just as bacterial cells do, and although the DNA replication strategies are a little different, forming displacement or Dloop structures, they partition their circular DNA in much the same way as do bacteria. 36. Explain what the purpose of mitosis and meiosis are for an organism, and how this changes (or doesn’t) the chromosome complement of a cell The purpose of mitosis is cell regeneration, growth, and asexual reproduction, while the purpose of meiosis is the production of gametes for sexual reproduction. Mitosis is a single nuclear division that results in two nuclei that are usually partitioned into two new Meiosis I Meiosis II How many cells start with 1 2 How many cells end with 2 4 Haploid or Diploid start Diploid Haploid Haploid or Diploid end Haploid Haploid Duplicated Chromosomes Yes Yes Unduplicated Chromosomes No Yes daughter cells. 37. Explain what the status of the chromosomes is (un/duplicated?), whether cells are haploid or diploid, and how many cells start/end Meiosis I and Meiosis II
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