Environmental Science&Sustainability Exam 1 Study Guide
Environmental Science&Sustainability Exam 1 Study Guide Geog 280
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayteeessbee on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geog 280 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. Leslie North in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Environmental Science and Sustainability in Geography at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/12/16
September 12, 2016 Geography 280 Exam 1 Study Guide 50 MC (mostly 1 point, some 2, one 3)=55 points, and Short Answer/Fill intheblank=70 points; TOTAL: 125 Points (so guesses=good.) Essay topics: o Environmental science as a discipline: Environmental science is the most interdisciplinary of the natural/social sciencesit overlaps with many different elements, and it is a total sciencemeaning it is inclusive. o What environmental science is and is not Environmental science is not a social movement. It is the study of How the natural world works, How the environment and humans affect each other, and How the different parts interact. o How does environmental science differentiate with ecology Ecology does not have the “human element” that environmental science is characterized by. o Understand demographic transition theory (draw, describe, answer Qs) o Describe a country based off of a DT graphic I.e. above, stage 1 would be remote places such as certain African tribes, stage 2 would describe India or Egypt, 3 would describe Brazil, and would transition into the U.S. or Japan; 4 would be Germany. o Characteristics of a (more developed) highconsumptionhigh waste economy (in regards to natural resources) Growth in HighConsumption Economic Growth, Pollution, and Wastes Inputs from Environment: HighQuality Matter & Energy Outputs back into Environment: LowQuality Matter & Energy Inputs>Society>Outputs o Assumptions of the scientific method: Four Assumptions: 1. What we perceive with our senses=objective reality 2. Objective reality functions according to basic, consistent principles/laws (i.e. law of gravity) 3. We discover/understand natural laws via observation/logic/experiments 4. All events occur due to causes, which in turn cause other events (cause >effect.) ***List AND Describe for Exam*** o Demographic Transition theory put forth that there is a link between what and a decline in death and birth rates Puts forth the theory that there is a link between modernization and a decline in death and birth rates o Why can we not get definitive answers from environmental science (/science in general) (characteristics) It is difficult to test complex phenomena, New observations arise continually, Different groups have different perspectives, some people profit from controversies, media bias. o What is an environment? Inclusive concept including all of our surroundings: All the things around us with which we interact, living and nonliving things, the natural world and the humanbuilt world, and all conditions (such as climate.) o What are the types of environmental impacts if you have a higher affluence or a higher population size (more wealth or more people) “Big Four” Human Activities w/Greatest Impact 1. Food Production/Consumption 2. Transportation 3. Home Energy Use 4. Resource Use (in general) o Why do we care about what is going on in poor regions of the world, from an environmental POV? The more developed a country becomes, the more waste they will produce, and the more deteriorated their environment will become. o Cumulative impacts vs. unintended consequences Unintended consequence: we don’t understand how an environmental system works when we start doing something; examplebringing a new species into an area hoping it will help, but it fails. Cumulative impacts: too many people doing something; example more people move into an already wellpopulated area—more people=more problems. o Any renewable resource can become a nonrenewable resourcewhat does this mean? This means that, if used too quickly, renewable resources can deplete (run out completely,) or degrade (lose its value.) Examples include coal and fossil fuels. o RandKselected species; why are humans so interesting in this regard? Why are we so damaging to the environment? Humans are interesting because we are both R and K species. We can improve survival rate, populations, and life spans (K characteristics); We carry our young for about 9 months which is not considered a long time to carry a fetus (Rcharacteristic). We are so damaging because we increase our population purposefully, and this leads to more development, which leads to higher levels of waste. o Describe the history of the environmental movement (slides on environmental beginnings; trends that stand out to you. Mo’ details=mo’ better; CCC, we began, and still are all about pollution, most important question.) st Late 1800’s, 1 national parks created from “useless” land; people begin to realize we must limit use of natural resources. The Dust Bowl, the Great Depression, and PostWWII mass use of pesticides harmful to environment and people. Silent Spring (1962). Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created by Nixon in 1970. Important Notes: Earth’s resources and services: finite, because resources are being used and waste is being generated all the time. “Big Six” Degradations & Depletions 1. Deforestation 2. Drought (not necessarily manmade issue) 3. Air Pollution (biggest source: manufacturing industry) 4. Soil Erosion (biggest source: livestock grazing, because no grass=no soil) 5. Water Quality/Quantity 6. Mass Extinction On exam: be able to draw a demographic transition theory model + describe what is going on in each of the phases, different kinds available on the powerpoint. Pollution: any substance that is in an environment that is degrading the quality of that environment. Precautionary Principle: use caution, and err on the side of not knowing, rather than using something and hoping for the best. Social Equity: All people need to be able to benefit equally from the resources we get from society and the environment The “Three E’s” Environment Economics Social Equity *Science is a process*
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