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Environmental Science&Sustainability Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Kayteeessbee

Environmental Science&Sustainability Exam 1 Study Guide Geog 280

Marketplace > Western Kentucky University > Geography > Geog 280 > Environmental Science Sustainability Exam 1 Study Guide
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About this Document

This study guide features answers to the provided short answer questions that will be on the exam. It also features the most important information and emphasized information from the past few weeks...
Environmental Science and Sustainability
Dr. Leslie North
Study Guide
Environment, geography, Science, sustainability, population, demographics
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayteeessbee on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geog 280 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. Leslie North in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Environmental Science and Sustainability in Geography at Western Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 09/12/16
September 12, 2016 Geography 280 Exam 1 Study Guide  50 MC (mostly 1 point, some 2, one 3)=55 points, and Short Answer/Fill­ in­the­blank=70 points; TOTAL: 125 Points (so guesses=good.)  Essay topics:  o Environmental science as a discipline: Environmental science is the most interdisciplinary of the natural/social sciences­­it overlaps with many different elements, and it is a total  science­meaning it is inclusive. o What environmental science is and is not Environmental science is not a social movement. It is the study of  How the natural world works, How the environment and humans  affect each other, and How the different parts interact. o How does environmental science differentiate with ecology  Ecology does not have the “human element” that environmental  science is characterized by. o Understand demographic transition theory (draw, describe,  answer Qs) o Describe a country based off of a DT graphic I.e. above, stage 1 would be remote places such as certain African  tribes, stage 2 would describe India or Egypt, 3 would describe  Brazil, and would transition into the U.S. or Japan; 4 would be  Germany. o Characteristics of a (more developed) high­consumption­high­ waste economy (in regards to natural resources) Growth in High­Consumption Economic Growth, Pollution, and  Wastes  Inputs from Environment: High­Quality Matter & Energy  Outputs back into Environment: Low­Quality Matter & Energy Inputs­­­­>Society­­­­>Outputs o Assumptions of the scientific method: Four Assumptions: 1. What we perceive with our senses=objective reality 2. Objective reality functions according to basic, consistent principles/laws  (i.e. law of gravity) 3. We discover/understand natural laws via observation/logic/experiments 4. All events occur due to causes, which in turn cause other events (cause­­ >effect.) ***List AND Describe for Exam*** o Demographic Transition theory put forth that there is a link  between what and a decline in death and birth rates Puts forth the theory that there is a link between modernization and a decline in death and birth rates o Why can we not get definitive answers from environmental  science (/science in general) (characteristics) It is difficult to test complex phenomena, New observations arise continually,  Different groups have different perspectives, some people profit from  controversies, media bias. o What is an environment?  Inclusive concept including all of our surroundings: All the things around  us with which we interact, living and non­living things, the natural world  and the human­built world, and all conditions (such as climate.) o What are the types of environmental impacts if you have a  higher affluence or a higher population size (more wealth or  more people)  “Big Four” Human Activities w/Greatest Impact 1. Food Production/Consumption 2. Transportation 3. Home Energy Use 4. Resource Use (in general) o Why do we care about what is going on in poor regions of the  world, from an environmental POV? The more developed a country becomes, the more waste they will  produce, and the more deteriorated their environment will become.  o Cumulative impacts vs. unintended consequences Unintended consequence: we don’t understand how an  environmental system works when we start doing something;  example­bringing a new species into an area hoping it will help, but it fails. Cumulative impacts: too many people doing something; example­ more people move into an already well­populated area—more  people=more problems. o Any renewable resource can become a non­renewable  resource­­what does this mean?  This means that, if used too quickly, renewable resources can  deplete (run out completely,) or degrade (lose its value.) Examples  include coal and fossil fuels. o R­and­K­selected species; why are humans so interesting in  this regard? Why are we so damaging to the environment?  Humans are interesting because we are both R and K species. We  can improve survival rate, populations, and life spans (K­ characteristics); We carry our young for about 9 months which is  not considered a long time to carry a fetus (R­characteristic). We  are so damaging because we increase our population purposefully, and this leads to more development, which leads to higher levels of waste.  o Describe the history of the environmental movement (slides on environmental beginnings; trends that stand out to you. Mo’  details=mo’ better; CCC, we began, and still are all about  pollution, most important question.) st Late 1800’s, 1  national parks created from “useless” land; people  begin to realize we must limit use of natural resources. The Dust  Bowl, the Great Depression, and Post­WWII mass use of  pesticides harmful to environment and people. Silent Spring (1962). Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created by Nixon in 1970.  Important Notes: Earth’s resources and services: finite, because resources are being used and  waste is being generated all the time.  “Big Six” Degradations & Depletions 1. Deforestation 2. Drought (not necessarily man­made issue) 3. Air Pollution (biggest source: manufacturing industry) 4. Soil Erosion (biggest source: livestock grazing, because no grass=no  soil) 5. Water Quality/Quantity 6. Mass Extinction On exam: be able to draw a demographic transition theory model +  describe what is going on in each of the phases, different kinds  available on the powerpoint.  Pollution: any substance that is in an environment that is degrading  the quality of that environment.  Precautionary Principle: use caution, and err on the side of not  knowing, rather than using something and hoping for the best. Social Equity: All people need to be able to benefit equally from the resources  we get from society and the environment The “Three E’s”  Environment  Economics  Social Equity *Science is a process*


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