Psychology 100- Midterm 1- Chapters 1-3
Psychology 100- Midterm 1- Chapters 1-3 Psychology 100
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Psychology Midterm One (Chapters 13) Highlighting and Underlining Explained If a term is underlined and highlighted, it is a key term that you should know come exam day. If a term is just underlined it is an important person or concept that would be good to remember. Phrases in bold are key ideas. Concepts: Chapter OnePsychology and Scientific Thinking o Psychology and Levels of Analysis o What Makes Psychology Distinctive—and Fascinating o Why We Can’t Always Trust Our Common Sense o Psychology as a Science o Metaphysical Claims: The Boundaries of Science o Recognizing That We Might Be Wrong o Scientific Skepticism o The Basic Framework for Scientific Thinking o What is psychology? Chapter Two Research Methods o Why We Need Research Designs o How We Can Be Fooled: Two Modes of Thinking o Naturalistic Observation: Studying Humans “In the Wild” o Case Study Designs: Getting to Know You o SelfReport Measures and Surveys: Asking People about Themselves and Others o Correlational Designs o Experimental Designs o Placebos o Ethical Issues in Research Design o Descriptive Statistics: What’s What? o Inferential Statistics: Testing Hypotheses o How People Like with Statistics o Evaluating Psychological Research Chapter Three Biological Psychology o Neurons o Parts of neurons o Neurotransmitters o Electrical events in neurons Action potential Depolarization Neurotransmission o Chemical communications between neurons o Glial cells o Nodes o Neural plasticity Neural plasticity and learning Neural plasticity following injury and degeneration Adult neurogenesis o Stem cells o Parts of the Brain o How we come to be who we are o Behavioral genetics Chapter One Psychology and Scientific Thinking What is psychology? Psychology is the scientific study of the mind, brain and behavior. Psychological scientists study mind, brain, and behavior. Psychology spans many levels of analysis o These levels go from biological influences to social influences. The lower levels of analysis are more associated with the brain, while the higher levels of analysis are more associated with the mind. Mind vs Brain The mind is the brain in action The Levels of Psychological Analysis Molecular Level Neurochemical Level Neurological/ Physiological Level Mental Level Behavioral Level Social Level What makes psychology challenging and fascinating? All the challenges of psychology are what make psychology such a fascinating field of study. There are 5 key reasons why psychology is a fascinating discipline(a(1), b(2),c(3),d(4),e(5)). o Human behavior is unpredictable. Why? All behaviors are multiply determined(produced by many factors). All behavior roots from an agglomeration of various factors. o Psychological influences are almost always interdependent of one another. How is this a challenge? It is hard to identify what factor or factors are operating. o Individual differences( Thinking, emotion, personality, and behavior) Why? It is hard to formulate explanations of behavior that can be applied to everyone. o We influence one another’s behavior. Reciprocal Determinism We mutually influence each other’s behavior. This makes it hard to determine what is causing what. o One’s behavior is often shaped by his/her culture. Like our individual differences, our cultural differences limit the extent to which generalizations can be made about human nature. Social scientists who focus on crosscultural psychology use etic and emic approaches to attain a better understanding of the influence of culture on human behavior. Etic Approach Study a culture from the perspective of an outsider Emic Approach Study culture from the perspective of a native It is of the utmost importance that one develops a good understanding of these challenges. o Doing so will help us to better predict and understand behavior. Why can’t we always trust our common sense? Common Sense o An individual’s assumptions about the world We use common sense very often make assessments of others and their behavior. Our intuitive understanding of the world around us is often faulty. o We often fall victim to naive realism Naive Realism What is it? The belief that we see the world exactly how it is. Naive realism can trip us up when it comes to assessing ourselves and others. It serves us pretty well in the realworld. Example You see a bicyclist heading right in your direction, so you use common sense to make the decision to move out of the way. What should our big takeaway be from this? Even though our perceptions are often accurate, we cannot always trust them to provide us with a flawless picture of the world. Our tendencies towards naive realism can lead us to drawing faulty conclusions about human nature. Believing is seeing in many cases. Our beliefs shape our perceptions of the world , often in ways we do not realize. When is our common sense right? Our tuition can guide us to the truth. Common sense can be a helpful guide for generating hypotheses, that can later be tested by scientists in investigations. There are some everyday psychological notions that are correct. o Example Happy employees tend to be more productive than unhappy employees. What should we take away from this? o We must learn when and when not to use common sense, in order to think scientifically. What will this do? Make us better consumers of popular psychology Help us to make better realworld decisions The Science of Psychology What is a science? o Science is a systematic approach to evidence. Science consists of a set of attitudes and skills designed to prevent us fooling ourselves Science begins with empiricism. o Empiricism The premise that knowledge should initially be acquired through observation. What does science do? o Science refines our initial observations, by subjecting them to stringent tests to determine whether or not they are accurate. Observations that make it through rigorous examination are retained; those that don’t are revised or discarded. What is scientific theory? A scientific theory is an explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world(including the psychological world). o It provides an account that ties multiple findings together. God scientific theories generate predictions regarding new data that we have not yet observed. What must a theory be to be scientific? o A scientific theory must generate novel predictions that can be tested by researchers. Hypotheses are specific predictions derived from theories All scientific explanations of the world are theories. All scientific theories cannot be proven. o Why? There is always a better chance that a better explanation may appear one day. Consistency with numerous lines of evidence is essential in establishing the validity or credibility of a theory. Not all theories are created equally. o Why? Bias can influence our interpretation of data. Bias Science is a safeguard against bias. We are all prone to selfdeception. Confirmation Bias o The tendency to seek out evidence that supports our beliefs, and deny, dismiss or distort evidence that contradicts them. Our preconceptions often cause us to focus more on evidence that supports our beliefs, than evidence that does not. What does this result in? Psychological tunnel vision o To protect themselves from confirmation bias, good scientists adopt procedural safeguards against errors, especially errors that could work in their favor. o What are tools for overcoming confirmation bias? Scientific methods o What makes confirmation bias so important is that it extends to several areas of everyday life. Examples Friendship Romance Politics o We can think of confirmation bias as the mother of all biases. Why? It is the bias that can fool us the most easily into seeing what we want to see. o Confirmation bias is the most crucial bias that psychologists must counteract. Psychological Scientists vs. NonScientists Psychological scientists develop systematic safeguards to protect against confirmation bias. Belief Perseverance What is belief perseverance? o Belief perseverance is the tendency to stick to initial beliefs, even in the face of evidence that contradicts them. Confirmation bias predisposes us to belief perseverance. Metaphysical Claims What are metaphysical claims? o Metaphysical claims are assertions about the world that we cannot test. Scientific Claims vs Metaphysical claims o Scientific claims can be tested using scientific methods. This does not mean that metaphysical claims are all wrong or unimportant. It is not all questions that can be answered with science. Examples of metaphysical claims o The existence of God o The afterlife o The soul Science has its limits; thus, science must respect religion and other metaphysical domains. Recognizing That We Might Be Wrong Scientific information is almost always tentative and potentially open to revision “The fact that science is a process of continually revising and updating findings lends its strengths as a method of inquiry.” We usually acquire knowledge slowly and in small bits. Science forces us to: o Ferret out mistakes in our belief systems Attend to data that is not to our liking, both when we want to, and when we don’t want to. Scientific Thinking: Distinguishing Fact from Fiction The scientific skeptic evaluates all claims with an open mind but insists on persuasive Carl Sagan said that for one to be a scientific skeptic one must: o Be willing to keep an open mind to all claims o Be willing to accept all claims only after researchers have subjected them to careful scientific tests Another feature of scientific skepticism is an unwillingness to accept claims on the basis of authority alone. A Basic Framework for Scientific Thinking The hallmark of scientific skepticism o Critical thinking There are 6 scientific thinking principles o 1) Ruling out rival hypotheses Have important alternative explanations for the findings been excluded? o 2) Correlation vs Causation Can we be sure that A causes B? Correlation is not causation. o 3) Falsifiability Can the claim be disproved? o 4) Replicability Can the results be duplicated in other studies? The finding should not be due to chance. o 5) Extraordinary Claims Is the evidence as strong as the claim? The evidence must be as extraordinary as the the claim. o 6) Occam’s Razor Does a simpler explanation fit the data as well? Scientists of a romantic persuasion refer to this ideas as the principle of KISS(Keep It Simple Stupid). Chapter Two: Research Methods Why do we need research designs? We need research designs to conquer naive realism and prevent confirmation bias. o What are naive realism and confirmation bias? Naive Realism The belief that we see the world precisely as it is. Confirmation Bias The tendency to seek out evidence that supports our beliefs, and deny, dismiss, or distort evidence that contradicts them. Even the smartest of people can be fooled by the absence of research designs. o Examples Facilitated Communication(FC) Was put into use in the early 1990s The aides who worked with Jenny Storch were so sure that FC worked. Their naive realism led them to see children’s abuse allegations “with their own eyes”, while their confirma on bias created for them a selffulfilling prophesy, causing them to see what they wanted to see. Prefrontal Lobotomy It was believed to be an effective treatment for schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders. Surgeons would severe the neural fibers that connect the brain’s frontal lobes to the underlying thalamus. Scientists all around the world took lobotomy as a breakthrough, and awarded its developer. Egaz Moniz He received a Nobel Peace Prize for the development of lobotomy in 1949. Astonishing reports of effectiveness were based almost entirely upon subjective reports. Lobotomy may have been effective, but it failed to target specific behaviors associated with schizophrenia Deception by naive realism and confirmation bias Lobotomy has been replaced with medications and other treatments that have firmer groundings in science. These are alternatives that have been systematically tested, and have the backup of experimental design. How We Can Be Fooled:Two Modes of Thinking “The same psychological processes that serve us well in most situations also predispose us to errors in thinking.” Mode One o Intuitive Thinking Mode Our brains for the most part are on autopilot We use this when we meet someone new and form an immediate impression of him or her. Relies a lot on heuristics What are heuristics A heuristic is a mental shortcut or rule of thumb. When we move out of the way of a moving car headed right in our direction, and decide to move out of its way We need intuitive thinking. Why? Without it we would be in serious trouble, because much of everyday life requires snap decisions. Mode Two o Analytical Thinking Mode Slow and analytical We engage in analytical thinking whenever we try to reason through a problem. In some cases, thinking analytically helps us to override intuitive thinking Does not rely on heuristics What are research designs? Systematic techniques developed by psychologists and other scientists to harness the power of analytical thinking. o Why? “Research designs force us to consider alternative explanations for findings that our intuitive thinking overlooks(pg.47).” Research designs can help us to avoid the pitfalls that can result from an overdependence on intuitive thinking and using heuristics. The Scientific Method The scientific method is a myth. o Why? The techniques that psychologists use are very different from those that are used by physicists, chemists, and biologists. The scientific method is a toolbox of skills designed to counteract our tendency t ofool ourselves. Advantages and Disadvantages of Research Designs ∙ Case Studies o What is a case study? § When researchers examine one person or a small body of people o Advantages of case studies § Allows us to study rare phenomena § Can offer insights for later systematic testing § Can prove existence proofs ∙ What is an existence proof? o An existence proof is a demonstration that a given psychological phenomenon can occur o Disadvantages of case studies § Are usually anecdotal § Do not allow us to infer causation § Case studies almost never lend themselves to systematic tests of hypotheses about why a phenomenon occurred. ∙ Why? o Even though case studies can be helpful in generating hypotheses, they tend to be pretty limited when it comes to being tested. o There is no recipe for a case study. § One can simply: ∙ Observe a person overtime ∙ Administer questionnaires ∙ Conduct repeated interviews ∙ Naturalistic Observation o What is naturalistic observation? § Naturalistic observation is the act of watching participants’ behavior in real world settings without trying to manipulate their actions o What can one gain from doing naturalistic observation? § By doing naturalistic observation, we can come to a better understanding of the range of behaviors displayed by individuals in the real world. o Advantage(s) of naturalistic observation § High in external validity External Validity o Relevance to the real world o Disadvantages of naturalistic observation § Low in internal validity § Have no control of variables § If your subject knows that they are being watched, that could cause some problems. What is internal validity? o The extent to which we can draw cause and effect inferences. § The ability to assert cause and effect Wellconducted laboratory experiments are high in internal validity, because one can manipulate the key variables him or herself. Correlational Designs o What happens in a correlational study? Psychologists examine the extent to which two variables are associated. What is a variable? A variable is anything that can vary amongst individuals, like impulsivity, creativity o When we think of the word correlate, we should think about how two variables relate to each other statistically, not interpersonally. o Advantages of correlational designs Can lead us to predict behavior o Disadvantage(s) of correlational designs Do not allow us to infer causation Knowing one variable tells us nothing about the other variable. Lack in internal validity o Conclusions from correlational research are limited. Why? One cannot be sure why predicted relationships exist. o The strength of a correlation is dependent upon the strength of the absolute value of the correlation coefficient. o What is the correlation coefficient? Correlation coefficients are the statistics that psychologists use use to measure correlation. They range from 1 to +1. Values lower than +1 or 1 indicate an imperfect correlation coefficient The strength of a correlation coefficient is dependent upon its absolute value. What is the absolute value? The absolute value is the size of the coefficient without the plus or minus sign. o Correlational designs use scatterplots. What is a scatterplot? A scatterplot is a grouping of points on a twodimensional graph. o Illusory Correlation(s) What is an illusory correlation? The perception of a statistical association between two variables where none exists. A statistical mirage Illusory correlations forms the basis of many superstitions. Why do we fall victim to illusory correlation? We’re not too good at remembering nonevents. “The phenomenon of illusory correlation explains why we can’t rely on our subjective impressions to tell us whether two variables are associated, and why we need correlational designs.” o Correlation vs Causation Even though a correlation can sometimes result from a causal relationship, we cannot tell from a correlational study alone whether or not the relationship is causal. SelfReport Measures and Surveys: Asking People about Themselves and Others o Advantage(s) of selfreport measures and surveys They are really easy to administer. o Disadvantage(s) of selfreport measures and surveys We make the poor assumption that the respondents possess enough insight into their personality characteristics to report them accurately. Selfreport questions usually assume that participants are honest in their responses. Some respondents engage in response sets. What are response sets? Response sets are tendencies of respondents to distort their answers to questions, often in a way that paints them out in Some respondents engage in malingering What is malingering? Malingering is the tendency to make ourselves seem psychologically disturbed with the aim of achieving a clear cut personal goal. o Random selection is crucial if we want to generalize to a broader population What happens in random selection? Every person in the population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate. o Obtaining a random sample is usually more important than having a large sample, if we want to generalize our results to a grander population. Nonrandom selection can lead to misleading conclusions o Evaluating measures Reliability What is reliability? Consistency of measurement A reliable questionnaire yields similar results This type of reliability is called test reliability Reliability also applies to interviews and observational data. Interrater Reliability The extent to which different people who conduct an interview , or make behavioral observations, agree on characteristics they are measuring. Validity The extent to which a measure assesses what it purports. Reliability is needed for validity. We need to measure something consistently before we can measure it well. Reliability does not guarantee validity A reliable test can be completely invalid We should not assume that people responding to survey questions even understand the questions they are being asked. Rating Data ∙ Another way to ask people about themselves is to ask others who know them to give you ratings on them. o Why? § Observers may not have the same blindspots as the people they are rating. ∙ What is the drawback of data rating? o The halo effect § The tendency of ratings of one positive characteristic to influence the ratings of other positive characteristics. Experimental Designs o In experimental designs, researchers manipulate variables to see whether these manipulations produce differences in participant’s behavior. In correlational designs, the differences among participants are measured. In experimental designs, they are created. o What makes an experiment and experiment? Random assignment of participants to conditions Manipulation of an independent variable What is the independent variable? The variable that an experiment manipulates o What do experimental designs have? Experimental group The group that receives the manipulation Control group The group that does not receive the manipulation Independent variable(IV) Variable that an experiment manipulates Dependent variable(DV) Variable that an experimenter measures to see whether the manipulation has an effect. Operational definition(OD) A working definition of what a researcher is measuring We define this when we define our IVs and DVs. Confounds: A Source of False Conclusions For an experiment to have internal validity, the level of the IV must be the only difference between the experimental group and the control group. Confounding Variable(Confound) o The difference between the EG and the CG that is not the IV. The Placebo Effect o Improvement caused by the mere expectation of improvement. To control this effect, experiment administrators should make sure that participants do not know which supplement they are getting, the placebo or the real supplement. The Nocebo Effect o Harm caused by the mere expectation of harm The Experimenter Expectancy Effect o Phenomenon in which researchers hypotheses lead to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study. The DoubleBlind Procedure o When neither researchers nor participants are aware of who is in the experimental group Demand Characteristics o Cues that participants pick up from a study that allow them to generate guesses about the researcher’s hypotheses. This can prevent researchers from getting an unbiased view of the participants’ thoughts and behaviors. To combat this, researchers may disguise the purpose of their study, and maybe add some distracting fillers Ethical Issues in Research Design Protection of the rights of human subjects Every major American research college and university has at least one institutional review board. o What do institutional review boards do? § They review research carefully with the hope of protecting participants from abuse. The Tuskegee Experiment o No informed consent(The participant being informed about what he or she is getting him or herself into) § 128 out of the 399 subjects died. Some researchers use deception o They deliberately mislead participants about the study’s design or purpose. § This prevents the generation of obvious demand characteristics. The APA says that deception is only justified when: o Researchers could not have performed the study without deception o The scientific knowledge to be gained from the study outweighs its cost Debriefing: Educating Participants o Institutional review boards may request that this be done at the end of research sessions. o What is debriefing? § Debriefing is a process in which researchers inform participants about what the study was about. By debriefing, the study becomes a learning experience for both the investigator and the subject. Ethical Issues in Animal Research It is invasive research. o Researchers cause harm to animals. The goal of animal research is to generate ideas about how the brain relates to behavior in animals, and how those findings generalize to humans, without inflicting harm on people. Without animal research, we would know little about the physiology of the brain. There are no good alternatives to using animals. o Without animals, we’d be unable to test the safety of drugs Statistics: The Language of Psychological Research Descriptive Statistics o What are descriptive statistics? Descriptive statistics are numerical descriptions that describe data. o There are two major types of descriptive statistics. Central Tendency What is central tendency? Central tendency is the measure of the central scores in a data set, or where the group tends to cluster. There are 3 measures of central tendency. Mean: Average Mean is the best statistic to report when a set of data forms a bellshaped or “normal” distribution Median: The middle score in a set of data Mode: The most frequent score in a set of data Median and mode are the best statistics to report when the data is skewed to one side or another. Why? Median and mode are less affected by extreme scores on both sides of the graph. Outlier § A score that is outside of the range of the rest of the scores Variability Gives us a sense of how loose or tight the scores are Range is the simplest measure of variability. Range can be deceptive. Two data sets with the same range can display a very different distribution of scores across the range. This is why standard deviation is used. Standard deviation is less likely to be deceptive, because it takes into account how far each point is from the mean, rather than how widely scattered the most extreme scores are. Inferential Statistics o Allow us to determine how much we can generalize findings from a sample to the full population o Statistical Significance 0.05 level of chance 5 in 100: The finding occurred by chance. If it is less than 0.05, then the finding probably did not occur by chance. Sample set in this case is very important The larger the sample size, the greater the odds will be that the result will be statistically significant. o Practical Significance Realworld importance Evaluating Psychology in the Media Sharpening o The tendency to exaggerate the gist, or central message of a study Leveling o The tendency to minimize the less central details of a study Balanced coverage sometimes creates pseudo symmetry (The appearance of a scientific controversy where none exists). Chapter Three Biological Psychology Neurons (Source:https://askabiologist.asu.edu/neuronanatomy) What is a neuron? o A neuron is a nerve cell specialized for communication. The functioning of our brains depends heavily on the communication that occurs between neurons. Our brain has about 85 billion neurons How are neurons different from other cells? o Neurons have long extensions that help them respond to stimulation from other neurons and communicate with them.. Parts of the neuron o The cell body(a.k.a. soma) Materials needed by the neuron are produced here. Contains nucleus Makes proteins o Dendrites Receives signals from other neurons Projection that picks up impulses from other neurons o Axon Sends signals to other neurons o Synapse The terminal point of the axon branch, which releases neurotransmitters Space between two connecting neurons through which messages are transmitted chemically Surrounds the neuron o Synaptic Vesicle Spherical sack containing neurotransmitters o Synaptic Cleft A gap into which neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminal o Myelin Sheath The fatty coat that insulates the axons of some nerve cell It is made from glial cells It speeds up the the transmission of impulses Surrounds the neuron Neurotransmitters What is a neurotransmitter? o A substance in the body that carries a signal from one nerve cell to another Electrical Events in Neurons (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_potential) Action Potential: Voltage Change Overtime Threshold: Membrane potential that is necessary to trigger an action potential Absolute Refractory Period: The time when another action potential is impossible. o This limits the maximal firing rate. Resting Potential o Electrical charge difference(60 millivolts) across the neuronal membrane. o When the neuron is not being stimulated or inhibited Receptor Site o Location along the neuron that uniquely recognizes a neurotransmitter Positive and negative ions(particles) float around inside and outside of a neuron. Neurons are polarized at rest. o What does this mean? This means that there are more negative ions on the inside of an ion than there are on the outside of an ion. This state is referred to as resting potential 70 millivolts Positive ions want to get into the neuron. o They are stopped by the cell membrane. Channels(a.k.a. gates) in the cell can open to let in positive ions. When a cell receives a signal from an adjacent neuron, channels open and positive ions flood in. This is depolarization Neurons become less negative . This causes nearby voltagegated channels to open. If enough positive ions enter the soma, the neuron will fire. This phenomenon is known as action potential(Electrical impulses travel down the axon to the next synapse. It’s an all or none response.) When the action potential reaches the axon terminal, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse. Refractory Period o Reuptake Neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the synaptic vesicle. Is one of nature’s recycling mechanisms o Happens after action potential o It is a short period during which another action potential is not possible o Positive ions are pumped out of the neuron. Chemical Communication: Neurotransmission o When action potential reaches axon terminal, neurotransmitters . Neurotransmitters bind to iongated channels on the next neuron’s dendrites. This opens iongated channels and depolarizes the next neuron. Different receptor sites recognize different types of neurotransmitters. Types of Neurotransmitters Different neurotransmitters communicate different types of messages. Some neurotransmitters excite neurons and increase firing. By doing so, they excite the nervous system, and increase brain activity. o These are excitatory Some neurotransmitters are inhibitory, and decrease the brain’s activity, and in doing so, inhibit the nervous system Some neurotransmitters play a role in movement and pain perception, while others play important roles in thinking and emotion. Examples of Neurotransmitters and Their Effects Acetylcholine( ACh) o Function Excitatory Produces muscle contractions Is found in motor neurons In the hippocampus, it is involved in memory formation, learning, and general intellectual function o Effects of Deficit Paralysis A factor that is associated with Alzheimer’s disease Levels of acetylcholine are severely reduced This is associated with memory impairment o Effects of Surplus Violent muscle contractions Dopamine o Function Excitatory Voluntary muscle movement, attention, learning, memory,emotional arousal, and rewarding sensations o Effects of Deficit Muscle rigidity A factor associated with Parkinson’s disease The degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra The substantia nigra produces dopamine. o Effects of Surplus One factor associated with schizophrenialike symptoms, such as hallucinations, perceptual disorders, and addiction o 2Dopa is used to treat Parkinson’s disease 2Dopa increases the amount of dopamine that is produced. o Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat schizophrenia. Antipsychotic drugs block dopamine action Serotonin o Function Inhibitory or excitatory Involved in: Mood Sexual behavior Pain perception Sleep Eating behavior Maintaining normal temperature and hormonal state o Effects of Deficit Anxiety Mood disorders Insomnia Serotonin deficit is one of the factors that is associated with obsessive compulsive disorder and depression o Effects of Surplus Autism Endorphins o Function Inhibitory Regulates pain perception Is involved in sexuality, pregnancy, labor, and positive emotions associated with aerobic exercise( the brain’s natural opiates) o Effects of Deficit Body experiences pain o Effects of Surplus Body may not provide adequate warning for pain o Narcotic drugs help to reduce pain and produce euphoria Codeine Morphine Heroin Norepinephrine o Function Excitatory and inhibitory Involved in: increasing heartbeat Arousal Learning Memory Hunger o Effects of Deficit Is a factor that is associated with depression o Effect of Surplus Anxiety o Amphetamine and methamphetamine increase norepinephrine. GABA( Gamma aminobutyric acid) o This is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. o Functions Inhibitory Communicates messages to other neurons Helps to balance and offset excitatory messages It is involved in allergies o Effects of Deficit Destruction of GABA producing neurons Huntington’s disease Produces tremors, loss of motor control, and personality changes o Effects of Surplus Sleep and eating disorders o Alcohol and antianxiety drugs increase GABA activity. Glutamate o This is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system o Role Participates in sensory information and learning Acetylcholine(ACh) o Roles Muscle contraction(PNS) Cortical arousal(CNS) o Nicotine stimulates ACh receptors o Memory enhancers increase ACh Anandamide o Roles Pain reduction Increase in appetite o THC, an ingredient found in marijuana, produces euphoria Glial Cells What is a glial cell? o A cell in the nervous system that plays a big role in the formation of myelin and the bloodbrain barrier. It responds to injury Removes debris Act as the brain’s cellular garbage disposal Enhances learning and memory They are plentiful in the nervous system. Treatments that target glial cells may one day be able to assist in the treatment of a variety of conditions related to the number and activity of them. o Depression o Schizophrenia o Inflammation o Chronic pain o Alzheimer’s Disease The most abundant type of glial cells are astrocytes. o Astrocytes interact with about 300,0001,000,000 neurons Astrocytes o Communicate closely with neurons o Increase the reliability of their transmission o Control blood flow into the brain o Play a critical role in the development of embryos Astrocytes, when working with other glial cells, are involved in thought, memory, and the immune system. Astrocytes can be found in abundant supply in the bloodbrain barrier . o The bloodbrain barrier is a protective shield that insulates the brain from infection by bacteria and other intruders. Do not block fat from entering the brain Another type of glial cell is an oligodendrocyte. o They promote new connections among nerve cells and releases chemicals to aid in healing o They produce the myelin sheath Nodes Nodes o Gaps along the axon Help the neuron to conduct electricity more efficiently Neural signals jump from node to node, speeding up the transmission of neural messages Neural Plasticity Scientists use plasticity to describe the the nervous system’s ability to change. Very few human behaviors are hardwired. o The nervous system is continually changing. Unfortunately, the nervous system often does not change enough to after injury or stroke. o This can lead to permanent paralysis and disability. Our brain is more flexible during early development. o This is the time when our nervous system has yet to be set in stone. Our brains don’t fully mature until late adolescence/ early adulthood. Some brain structures mature more rapidly than others . o Some brain structures remain plastic throughout childhood, while others lose their extreme plasticity in infancy. The network of neurons in the brain changes over the course of development in 4 primary ways: o Growth of dendrites o Synaptogenesis(The formation of new synapses) o Pruning( The death of certain neurons and the retraction of axons to remove connections that are not useful) 70% of all neurons die off This process is helpful It streamlines neural organization This enhances the communication between brain structures Our brains can process more information more efficiently with fewer neurons o Myelination( The insulation of axons with a myelin sheath Neural Plasticity and Learning Our brains change as we learn. o These changes can result from: The formation of new synapses This generates increased connections and communication among neurons The strengthening of existing synaptic connections. The neurotransmitters released into synapses produce a stronger more prolonged response from neighboring neurons. Researchers call this phenomenon potentiation o Researchers believe that structural placidity ( change in the shape of neurons) plays a critical part in learning. o Exposure to enriched environments also results in structural enhancements to the dendrites. Neural Plasticity Following Injury and Degeneration The brain and spinal cord are limited in their ability to regenerate after an injury or serious illness. Some brain regions can take over the functions previously performed by other regions of the brain. Scientists are trying to find ways to enhance the brain and spinal cord’s abilities to repair themselves after experiencing an injury. o Why? Degenerative disorders, like Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease pose a serious threat to society, as people are now starting to live longer, and are more prone to these diseases because of this trend. Formulating ways to help the brain to heal itself could really help to combat Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Adult Neurogenesis Neurogenesis o The creation of new neurons in the adult brain By triggering neurogenesis, scientists may one day gain the ability to induce the the adult nervous system into healing itself. Neurogenesis plays a useful role in learning Stem Cells Stem cells have not committed themselves to a specific function yet. o When directly implanted into a host’s nervous system, they can grow to replace damaged cells. Researchers can can genetically engineer stem cells to provide gene therapy. o This could provide patients with replacement genes. Stem cell research has come under fire , and has been labeled as unethical for metaphysical reasons. o Stem cell research requires investigators to create and then extract labcreated balls of cells that are four or five days old. Opposers of stem cell research consider these balls to be early forms of life. The Central Nervous System: The Command Center Cerebral Vertices o Pockets in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), that provide the brain with nutrients and cushion against injury The Central Nervous System(CNS) o The part of the nervous system containing the brain and spinal cord that contros the mind and behavior The Organization of the Central Nervous System (source:http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=4d1bf63a1b934ed99422 a11130d2615d) (Source:http://www.biologypages.info/C/CNS.html) Cortex(Cerebrum): o What is the cortex? The largest part of the brain that is associated with higher brain function, such as thought and action. It is divided into 4 sections. o Frontal Lobe Controls Language Memory Motor functions Planning and inhibition Damage to the frontal lobe can affect speech, memory, and personality. o Parietal Lobe Controls Sensory functions Perception Spatial awareness Damage to the parietal lobe can affect one’s ability to make sense of surroundings. Broca’s Area Important for speech production Broca’s Aphasia Problems with speech production Is located near the front of the brain o Temporal Lobe Controls Hearing and language Memory storage Face recognition Damage to temporal lobe affects one’s ability to understand speech and recognize faces. Wernicke’s Area Important for language comprehension Wernicke’s aphasia Problems with language comprehension Trouble putting language together in a logical and meaningful way. o Occipital Lobe The occipital lobe is important for vision. It processes visual information Basal Ganglia o Process rewards o Movement initiation o Damage to the basal ganglia can result in one having difficulty initiating and controlling movement. Parkinson’s disease The death of basal ganglia neurons Less dopamine means that that these neurons cannot communicate to control movement (Source:http://www.yalescientific.org/2014/12/unchartedwatersindyslexiaresearch/) (Source:http://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/limbicsystem/) The Limbic System Limbic System( Responsible for our emotional lives , and our higher mental functions( learning and memory formation) o Thalamus Conveys sensory information to cortex Is the gateway from the sense organs to the primary sensory cortex o Hypothalamus Oversees endocrine and autonomic nervous system Is the part of the brain that is responsible for maintaining a constant internal state o Amygdala Regulates arousal and fear Part of the limbic system that plays a key role in: Fear Excitement Arousal o Hippocampus Processes memory for spati
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