New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

SCM/MKT 3323 Test 3 Review


SCM/MKT 3323 Test 3 Review MKT/SCM3323

Marketplace > University of Oklahoma > Marketing > MKT/SCM3323 > SCM MKT 3323 Test 3 Review

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

SCM/MKT 3323 Test 3 Review
Purchasing and Buyer Behavior
Elizabeth Kissick
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Purchasing and Buyer Behavior

Popular in Marketing

This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by EMOJI on Monday September 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MKT/SCM3323 at University of Oklahoma taught by Elizabeth Kissick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Purchasing and Buyer Behavior in Marketing at University of Oklahoma.


Reviews for SCM/MKT 3323 Test 3 Review


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/12/16
Test 3 Review Things to know 1. Perception is the process that begins with consumer exposure and attention to marketing stimuli and ends with consumer interpretations. Perception is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret these sensations. 2. information processing model Information processing is a series of activities by which stimuli are perceived, transformed into information and stored. 3. Perpetual defenses a) Individuals are not passive recipients of marketing messages. b) Consumers determine the messages they will encounter and notice as well as they will assign them. c) The fact that all aspects of the perception process are extremely selective is referred to as perceptual defenses. 4. Exposure a) Occurs when a stimulus is placed within a person’s environment and comes within range of their sensory receptor nerves. b) Provides consumers with the opportunity to pay attention to available information but no way guarantees it. c) Most of the stimuli to which individuals are exposed are “self-selected”. d) Consumers can be exposed to random stimuli through commercials, informercials(800-numbers), billboards and display ads. 5. Zipping, zapping Zipping – occurs when one fast-forwards through a commercial Zapping – involves switching channel when a commercial appears Muting – is turning the sound off during commercial breaks 6. Ad avoidance Selective Exposure (Ad avoidance) • DVRs in 40% of U.S. Households • DVR may increase ad avoidance although evidence is mixed • Strategies to adapt in a DVR world  Ad compression  Still-frame ads  Hybrid ads  Interactive ads  Dynamic ad placement 7. Infomercials 8. Attention a) Attention occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nerves, and the resulting sensations go to the brain for processing. b) Attention requires consumers to allocate limited mental resources toward the processing of incoming stimuli, such as packages seen on store selves or banner ads on the web. c) Three factors that determines attention Stimulus Factors • Are physical characteristics of the stimulus itself 1) Size a) Larger stimuli are more likely to be noticed. i) Larger banner ads ii) Larger ads on printed paper 2) Intensity a) Loudness, brightness, length b) The longer a scene is held on the screen, the more likely it will be noticed 3) Attractive Visuals a) More attracted to pleasant stimuli and repelled by unpleasant stimuli. 4) Color and movement attract attention. a) A brightly colored package or display is more likely to received attention. 5) Position is the placement of an object in physical space or time. 6) Consumers pay more attention to stimuli that contrast with their background. 7) Expectations drive perceptions of contrast. Ads that differ from expectations for a product category often motivate more attention. Individual Factors a) Are characteristics which distinguish one individual from another Situational Factors a. Include stimuli in the environment other than the focal stimulus and temporary characteristics of the individual that are induced by the environment i. -Program Involvement b. Program involvement refers to interest in the program or editorial content surrounding the ads. c. Attention generally decreases across repeated exposures, and repetition often increases recall. 9. Clutter-situational factor a. Represents the density of stimuli in the environment. b. Usually occurs when there is an all-out effort to achieve environmental prominence. c. Too many point-of-purchase displays decreases the attention consumers pay to a given display. 10. isolation 隔隔-one of stimulus factors a. Is separating a stimulus object from other objects. (Stand-alone Kiosks) b. The use of white on a page. Placing an ad in the center of the page. 11. Formatting-one of stimulus factor a. Refers to the manner in which the message is presented. b. Usually straightforward presentations receive more attention than complex presentations. 12. adaption level theory Adaptation level theory suggests that if a stimulus does not change over time we habituate to it and begin to notice it less. 13. Motivation-individual factor Motivation • The drive created by consumer interest and needs. • Interests are a reflection of overall lifestyle as well as a result of goals and needs. Ability-individual factors • Refers to the capacity of individuals to attend to and process information. • Ability to relate to knowledge and familiarity. • Product knowledge experts can attend to more information , more quickly and more effectively. 14. Situational factors Situational factors • Includes stimuli in the environment other than the focal stimulus and temporary characteristics of the individual that are induced by the environment. • Focal stimuli – ad or package • Temporary characteristics of the environment – time pressures or a crowed store.  Clutter  Product Involvement: Indicates motivation or interest in a specific product category, and it can be temporary or enduring 15. hemispheric lateralizationban 隔隔隔隔 a. Activity on each side of the brain. b. The idea behind is that different parts of our brain are better suited for focused versus non-focused attention. c. Left side i. Primarily responsible for verbal information, symbolic representation, sequential analysis ii. This side needs fairly frequent rest. d. Right side o Deals with pictorial, geometric, timeless, and nonverbal information without the individual being able to verbally report it. o Images and impressions. 16. Subliminal 隔隔隔 Subliminal Stimuli • A message presented so fast, softly or masked by other messages that one is not aware of seeing or hearing. • A subliminal ad “hides” key persuasive information within the ad by making it so weak that it is difficult or impossible for someone to physically detect. • Subliminal advertising has been the focus of intense study and public concern. 17. Interpretation 隔隔 i. Is the assignment of meaning to sensations. ii. How we comprehend and make sense of incoming information based on characteristics of the stimulus, the individual and the situation. iii. It can be a cognitive “thinking” process or an affective “emotional” process. b. Cognitive interpretation is a process whereby stimuli are placed into existing categories of meaning. c. Affective interpretation is the emotional or feeling response triggered by a stimulus such as an advertisement. Consumers will show higher emotional reactions to these advertisements. d. Interpretation is determined by three Characteristics : • Individual Characteristics-  Learning and Knowledge -The meanings attached to such “natural” things as time, space, relationships, and colors are learned and vary widely across cultures. -Consumers also learn about marketer-created stimuli like brands and promotions through their experiences with them. Expectations -Interpretations tend to be consistent with expectations, an effect referred to as the expectation bias. -Consumers often evaluate the performance of a well-known brand as higher than that of an identical product with an unknown brand name. • Situational Characteristics -The situation provides a context within which the focal stimulus is interpreted. -Represents factors beyond the stimulus itself -The contextual cues (color and the nature of programming) presented in the situation play a role in consumer interpretation independent of the actual stimulus. Coke will not advertise during the news, because of bad news could affect the interpretation of their products • Stimulus Characteristics 18. Attitude a) An attitude is an enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual, and cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of our environment. b) An attitude is a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable with respect to a given object c) An attitude is the way one thinks, feels, acts toward some aspect of his or her environment. Changing Three components a. Change the Cognitive Component – involves shifting beliefs about the performance of the brand on one or more attributes. - Change beliefs – try to change your image - Shift importance – move the importance of the attention to your strongest attribute - Add beliefs – add new beliefs to the consumer’s belief structure - Change ideal – change the perception of the ideal brand or situation b. Change the Affective Component – to influence consumers’ liking of their brands without directly inflencing either beliefs or behavior. - Classical Conditioning – add a stiulus the audience likes, such as music, and consistenly pair it with the brand name - Affect toward the ad or website – Using humor or emotional appeals increases attitudes toward the ad (Aad) and the Brand (Abr) - Mere Exposure – presenting a brand to an individual on a large number of occasions. - classical conditioning, Aad and mere exposure can alter affect directly and by altering affect, alter purchase behavior. c. Change the Behavioral Component - someone has you try a diet drink that you didn’t like, but to be nice you taste it. After a while you start liking the drink. 19. aesthetic appeal a. Aesthetic appeal (appearance, sensory experience) 20. SAM- Self Assessment Mannequin- SAM - provides visual representations of 232 emotional (affective) adjectives underlying a) Marketers looked for a way to measure the affective component. b) SAM measures these three parts – the PAD • Pleasure • Arousal • Dominance c) Very effective across different cultures and languages because the pictorial representations don’t require translation or alteration. 21. Hedonic a. Hedonic – functional benefits (something that might be fun to use) 22. Operant conditioning 23. ELM- Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) a) Looks at the theory about how attitudes are formed and changed under varying conditions of involvement. b) Suggests that involvement is a key determinant of information processed and attitudes changed c) High Involvement – results in central route to attitude change. d) Low Involvement – results in a peripheral route to attitude change. e) Low Involvement – consumers form impressions of the brand based on exposure to readily available cues. 24. Central route a. Central Cues (CCs) influence persuasion under HIGH INVOLVEMENT but not LOW INVOLVEMENT b. Compared to attitudes formed under the peripheral route, attitudes formed under the central route tend to be i. stronger ii. more resistant to counter-persuasion attempts iii. more accessible from memory, and iv. more predictive of behaviors 25. Peripheral route a. Peripheral Cues (PCs) influence persuasion under LOW INVOLVEMENT but not HIGH INVOLVEMENT 26. Discrediting/discounting Consumers will Resist Brand Attacks: • Discrediting – is the first strategy a loyal consumer will use. • Discounting – reduce the importance of the actions of the other products attributes. • Containment – consumers seal off their negative information, as a way to quarantine it and avoid having it spoil their positive attitudes. 27. Spokescharaters- Spokescharacters can be animated animals, people, products, or other objects 28. Fear appeals a. Use the threat of negative consequences and can be both physical and social. ---Factors that may account for inconsistencies: • Lack of Need • Lack of Ability • Failure to Consider Relative Attitudes • Attitude Ambivalence (holding mixed beliefs about an attitude object) • Weakly Held Beliefs and Affect • Failure to Consider Interpersonal Influence Four stages of information processes -Exposure occurs when a stimulus such as a banner ad comes within range of person’s sensory receptor nerves – vision. -Attention occurs when the stimulus is seen -Interpretation is the assignment of meaning to the received sensations. -Memory is te short-term use of the meaning for immediate decision making. Attention is determined by three factors: • Stimulus Factors  Are physical characteristics of the stimulus itself  Individual Factors  Are characteristics which distinguish one individual from another  Ability – the capacity of individuals to attend to and process information • Situational Factors  Include stimuli in the environment other than the focal stimulus and temporary characteristics of the individual that are induced by the environment


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.