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BIO 342 Study Guide 1

by: Madison West

BIO 342 Study Guide 1 BIO 342

Marketplace > Eastern Kentucky University > Biology > BIO 342 > BIO 342 Study Guide 1
Madison West

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About this Document

Covers what to know for the exam
Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
Andrew Wigginton
Study Guide
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Popular in Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison West on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 342 at Eastern Kentucky University taught by Andrew Wigginton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy in Biology at Eastern Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
BIO 342 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1:  Homology: Features in two or more organisms derived from common ancestors.  Analogy: features if two or more organisms that perform a similar function; common function.  Homoplasty: Features in two or more organisms that look alike; similar in appearance.  Haeckel’s Phylogeny o Good Points o Bad Points o Other ways to express the relationships that addresses the issues:  Most Diverse Taxa of Vertebrates  Phylogenetic Tree: a hypothesis of the different methods of placing phylogenies into a tree relating traits. o Monophyletic group: a clade, in all organisms in a lineage plus the ancestor that they all have in common. o Paraphyletic group: an incomplete clade resulting from removal of one or more component lineages. o Polyphyletic group: an artificial group characterized by features that are not homologous. o Sister taxon: the particular outgroup most closely related to the in group. o Node: the branching point on a cladogram representing a speciation event. o Tip o Plesiomorphy: an ancestral trait present at the base of a clade. o Apomorphy  Autapopmorphy  Synapomorphy o Branch Order o Branch Length o Primitive trait: denoting an organisms or species that appeared early within its phylogenetic lineage. o Derived trait: a species that evolved late in is phylogenetic linage. o Crown Groups: the smallest clade encompassing the living members of a group and the extinct taxa nested within. o Stem Groups: a paraphyletic assemblage of extinct taxa related to but not part of the crown group.  Divergent Evolution: The independent evolution of structural or functional similarity in two or functional similarity in two or more unrelated or distantly related lineages or forms that is not based on genotypic similarity.  Convergent Evolution: The independent evolution of dissimilar characters or trains by related organisms. Chapter 2  Protostomes: An animal whose mouth forms from or near the embryonic blastopore. BIO 342 Exam 1 Study Guide  Deuterostomes: An animal whose anus forms from or near the embryonic blastopore; the mouth forms at the opposite end of the embryo.  Five chordate characteristics: o Notochord o Pharyngeal slit in pharynx o Endostyle o Dorsal hollow nerve cord o Post anal tail  Hemichordates general features  Ancestor of chordates  Cephalochordates  Urochordates  Three classes of Urochordates  Theories of chordate origins Chapter 3  Two major innovations of the vertebrate body plan  How old are the chordates and the vertebrates?  What is an amniotic egg? o Membranes/Functions?  Anapsid  Diapsid  Synapsid  Where were turtle’s places taxonomically in the past? o Why?  What about now? o Why?  What are two Euryapsid groups?  Two broad categories of dinosaurs? o How are they distinguished?  Where are the birds taxonomically placed? o Why?  What are the major mammal characteristics?  What distinguishes the three major groups of mammals?  Zygote  Morula  Blastula  Gastrula  Neurula  Cleavage  Processes of: o Blastulation o Gastrulation o Neurulation  Three primordial germ cell layers  Neural crest cells BIO 342 Exam 1 Study Guide o How are they important  Somites Chapter 6  Why is skin a composite organ?  What are the functions of skin?  What are the major layers of skin?  What are the major derivative of skin in vertebrates?  Layers of the epidermis  Structures found in the dermis  Scales  Unique features of amphibian skin  Reptile skin unique features  Dermal scales  Epidermal scales  What organisms has both scales?  Special skin glands in birds o What are they for?  Two basic types of feathers  Mammal skin specialized gland  Horns vs. Antlers


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