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anatomy and physiology exam 1 study guide

by: Jessica Mears

anatomy and physiology exam 1 study guide Human anatomy and physiology 1

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Jessica Mears


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chapters 1-4
Human Anatomy and Physiology 1
Study Guide
Intro to anatomy, Chemistry, cells, Integumentary
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This 45 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Mears on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Human anatomy and physiology 1 at College of the Albemarle taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
anatomy body structures and relationships    physiology the science of body functions    dissection the careful cutting apart of body structures to study their relationships    embryology study of the first eight weeks of development after the fertilization of a  human egg    developmental biology the complete development of an individual from fertilization to death    cell biology the study of cellular structures and functions    gross anatomy the study of tissues that can be studied without a microscope    histology study of the microscopic structure of tissues    systemic anatomy study of the specific systems of the body such as the nervous or respiratory systems    regional anatomy study of the specific regions of the body such as the head or chest    surface anatomy study of surface markings of the body to understand internal anatomy  through visualization and palpation    radiography visualized with x­rays    pathological anatomy structural changes associated with disease    neurophysiology study of the functional properties of nerve cells    endocrinology study of hormones and how they control body functions    cardiovascular physiology functions of the heart and blood vessels    immunology study of the body's defenses against disease­causing agents    respiratory physiology study of the functions of the air passageways and lungs    renal physiology study of the functions of the kidneys    exercise physiology study of the changes in cell and organ functions due to muscular activity    pathophysiology study of functional changes associated with disease and aging    palpation gentle touch    1. chemical level2. cellular level3. tissue level4. organ level5. system  level6. organism level what are the six levels of the body's structural organization?    chemical level most basic structural level, includes atoms and molecules    organ level structural level that includes different types of tissues joined together    organism level structural level that includes any living individual    cellular level structural level that includes the basic structural and functional units of an  organism that are composed of chemicals    tissue level structural level that includes groups of cells and the materials surrounding  them that work together to perform a specific function.    system level structural level that consists of related organs with a common function    noninvasive diagnostic technique a médical technique that does not involve insertion of an instrument or  device through the skin or body opening    inspection examination of the body for changes that deviate from normal    auscultation the examiner listens to body sounds to evaluate the function of certain  organs    percussion the examiner taps on the body surface with the fingertips and listens to the  resulting echo    atom the smallest unit of matter    molecule a combination of two or more atoms that share electrons    cell the basic structural and functional units of an organism    tissue groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to  perform a particular function    organ structure composed of two or more different types of tissues, having a  specific function and usually having a recognizable shape    system related organs with a common function    organism any living individual    all the levels At what levels of organization would an exercise physiologist study the  human body?    integumentary systemskeletal systemmuscular systemnervous system endocrine systemcardiovascular systemlymphatic system and immunity digestive systemurinary systemreproductive systems List the 11 body systems    skin and associated structures what organs are part of the integumentary system?    protects bodyregulates temperatureeliminates some wasteshelps make  vitamin Ddetects sensations List the five functions of the integumentary system    supports the bodyprotects the bodyprovides places for muscle  attachmentaids body movementproduces blood cellsstores minerals stores lipids (fats) List the seven functions of the skeletal system    bones, joints, cartilages What organs are part of the skeletal system?    muscle tissuetendonsligaments what organs are part of the muscular system?    body movementmaintains postureproduces heat List the three functions of the muscular system    1. generates action potential that regulates body activities2. detects  changes in internal and external environment3. cause muscular  contraction or glandular secretion List the three functions of the nervous system    brainspinal cordnervesspecial sensory organs ­ ears, eyes What organs are part of the nervous system?    hormone producing glands hormone producing cells in several other  organs What organs are part of the endocrine system?    regulation of body activities by chemical messenger What is the function of the endocrine system?    transport of bloodtransport of oxygentransport of nutrientstransport of  cellsregulation of acid/base balanceregulation of temperatureregulation  of water level of fluidsrepair of damaged blood vessels List the eight functions of the cardiovascular system.    bloodheartblood vessels What organs are part of the cardiovascular system?    lymphatic fluidlymphatic vesselsspleenthymuslymph nodestonsils What organs are part of the lymphatic system?    returns protein and fluid to the bloodcarries lipids from the  gastrointestinal tract to the bloodsites for maturation and proliferation of  B and T cellsdefense against disease­causing microbes What are the four functions of the lymphatic system    transfers oxygen from inhaled air to the bloodtransfers carbon dioxide  from the blood to exhaled airhelps regulate acid/base balance of body  fluidsvocal sounds List the four functions of the respiratory system.    lungsair passageways (trachea, pharynx, etc.) What organs are part of the respiratory system?    gastrointestinal tract long tube that stretches from the mouth to the anus    mouthpharynxesophagusstomachsmall intestinelarge intestinerectum anus List the organs that are part of the gastrointestinal tract    salivary glandslivergallbladderpancreas List the accessory organs of the digestive system.    physical and chemical breakdown of foodabsorb nutrientseliminate  waste List three functions of the digestive system    produces, stores, eliminates urineeliminates wastesregulates volume and  composition of bloodhelps maintain acid/base balance of body fluids maintains body's mineral balancehelps regulation production of red  blood cells List six functions of the urinary system    kidneysuretersurinary bladderurethra What organs are part of the urinary system?    gonads (testes or ovaries)associated organs (uterine tubes, seminal  vesicles, etc.) What organs are part of the reproductive system?    produce gametes (sperm or oocytes)release hormones that regulate  reproductionrelease hormones that regulate other body processes associated organs store and transport gametesproduction of milk in the  female List the five functions of the reproductive system    cartilage    tendon    ligament    pineal gland    hypothalamus    pituitary gland    thyroid gland    parathyroid gland    adrenal gland    pancreas    ovary C    testis    metabolismresponsivenessmovementgrowthdifferentiationreproduction List the six most important life processes in the human body.    metabolism the sum of all the chemical processes that occur in the body    catabolism breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler components    anabolism the buildup of complex chemical substances from smaller, simpler  components    responsiveness the body's ability to detect and respond to changes    growth increase in body size that results from an increase in the size and/or  number of cells    differentiation the development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state.    1. the formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair, or replacement2.  the production of a new individual What two things does reproduction refer to?    stem cell precursor cell that can divide and give rise to cells that undergo  differentiation    homeostasis condition of equilibrium in the body's internal environment due to the  constant interaction of the body's many regulatory processes    intracellular fluid (ICF) fluid within cells    extracellular fluid (ECF) fluid outside body cells    interstitial fluid ECF that fills the narrow spaces between cells of tissues    blood plasma ECF within blood vessels    lymph ECF within the lymphatic system    cerebrospinal fluid ECF around the brain and spinal cord    synovial fluid ECF within a joint    aqueous humorvitreous body ECF within the eye    interstitial fluidproper function of the body depends on precise  regulation of the composition of the interstitial fluid surrounding the  cells. What is called the internal environment of the body?Why?    blood capillaries where does exchange of materials between the blood plasma and the  interstitial fluid occur?    physical environment (extremely hot day)internal environment (skipping breakfast ­> low sugar)psychological stress (demands of school) What three things can disrupt homeostasis?Give an example of each.    nervous system and endocrine systems What two body systems most often provide the regulatory measures to  return the body to homeostasis?    feedback system (loop) cycle of events in which the status of a body condition is monitored,  evaluated, changed, remonitored, reevaluated, and so on    controlled condition a monitored body variable that has a recommended value, such as blood  pressure, temperature, etc.    stimulus any disruption that changes a controlled condition    receptor a body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends  input to a control center    afferent flowing towards    nerve impulses and chemical signals What are the most common inputs in feedback systems?    control center In feedback systems, this is the place that sets the range of values within  which a controlled system is maintained, evaluates input, and outputs  commands    nerve impulses, hormones, and other chemical signals What are the most common outputs in feedback systems?    efferent flowing away from    effector a body structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response that changes the controlled condition.    nearly every tissue or organ in the body What body parts can be effectors?    receptorcontrol centereffector List the three basic components of a feedback system.    1. stimulus disrupts homeostasis2. a controlled condition increases or  decreases3. receptor responds by sending input to the control center4.  control center, receives, evaluates, provides output5. output activates an  effector6. effector responds in a way to alter the controlled condition7.  there is a return to homeostasis8. the receptor responds to the new  condition What are the eight steps of a feedback system?    Positive feedback systems strengthen or reinforce a change in controlled  condition.Change that activated the receptor is INCREASED by the  effectorNegative feedback systems reverses a change in a controlled  condition.Change that activated the receptor is REVERSED by the  effector. Explain how a positive and negative feedback system are different.    negative feedback When blood pressure increases baroreceptors detect it and send impulses to the brain. The brain responds by sending output to the effectors (heart and  blood vessels) causing the heart rate to decrease and blood vessels to dilate. The result is a drop in the blood pressure. What kind of system is this?    positive feedback Stretching of the cervix causes stretch sensitive receptors to release more  oxytocin. Oxytocin causes more stretching of the cervix. What kind of  system is this?    environmentbehaviorgenetic makeupair foodthoughts What kinds of things factor in the homeostatic balance of a human body?    disorder abnormality of structure or function    disease illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms    disease Which is more specific, disease or disorder?    local disease disease affecting one part or a limited region of the body    systemic disease disease affecting the entire body or several parts of it.    symptoms subjective changes in body functions that are not apparent to an observer    headache, nausea, anxiety give some examples of symptoms    signs changes that a clinician can observe and measure    swelling, rash, fever, high blood pressure give some examples of signs    epidemiology the study of why, when, and where diseases occur and how they are  transmitted    pharmacology the study of the effects and uses of drugs in the treatment of disease    diagnosis the science and skill of distinguishing one disorder or disease from another    a symptom is a subjective change that is not apparent to an observera  sign is an objective change that a clinician can observe and measure What is the difference between a symptom and a sign of a disease?    headache, nausea, anxiety give two examples of a symptom    swelling, rash, fever, high blood pressure, paralysis give two examples of a sign    anatomical positions descriptions of any region or part of the human body include standard  position of references called ________________.    standing erect facing the observer, with the head level, the eyes facing  directly forward. The feet are flat on the floor and directed forward and  the upper limbs are at the sides with the palms turned forward. Describe the standard position of a body when it is used for reference.    prone the body is lying face down    supine the body is lying face up    headnecktrunkupper limbslower limbs Name the five major regions of the body    skull and face What are the two parts of the head    skull encloses and protects the brain    face front position of the head that includes eyes, nose, mouth, forehead,  cheeks, and chin    trunk the chest, abdomen, and pelvis    shoulderarmpitarmforearmwristhand List the parts that are included in the upper limbs    buttockthighleganklefoot List the parts that are included in the lower limbs.    arm portion of the limb from the shoulder to the elbow    forearm portion of the limb from the elbow to the wrist    leg portion of the limb from the knee to the ankle    thigh portion of the limb from the buttock to the knee    groin area on the front surface of the body marked by a crease on each side,  where the trunk attaches to the thighs    gluteal region if you receive a tetanus shot in your buttock, in what region did you get the  shot?


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