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Christianity Study Guide

by: Winda Khor

Christianity Study Guide Reli1001

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Religion > Reli1001 > Christianity Study Guide
Winda Khor

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These notes cover all the chapters that will be on the exam
Religion: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Drew Craver
Study Guide
religion, christianity
50 ?




Popular in Religion: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

Popular in Religion

This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Winda Khor on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Reli1001 at University of Georgia taught by Drew Craver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Religion: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam in Religion at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Christianity Setting ● Roman Occupation (2nd Temple still standing) ○ Jesus at first would be seen as just another prophet of doom (like Jeremiah or Isaiah). Caesar Augustus calls for census. ● Zecharia ​ ○ Levite priest. Works in temple. Wife named Elizabeth. He performs incense ritual at alter in the temple and the angel Gabriel appears saying your prayers have been answered and you will have a son and his name will be John. Zecharia doubts this because his wife is old and he is struck “dumb” aka mute. ● Annunciation ​ ○ Angel Gabriel comes to Mary and says “blessed are you among women. You will conceive a child named Jesus” Mary is engaged to Joseph and never laid with a man. Joseph hears of her pregnancy and wants out of the engagement but changes his mind because Gabriel comes to him in a dream and tells him he will raise Jesus as his son. ● Visitations ​ ○ Jesus visits John in the womb (Mary and Elizabeth visit each other while pregnant). Stays for 3 months until Elizabeth births John. ● Nativity ​ ○ No room in the Inn so they stay in a manger. Easterns come and bring symbolic gifts of kingship, deity and depth. Shephards come. Herod sends out decree to kill every boy under 2 so Joseph and family move to Egypt. ● Simeon ​- The Presentation ​ ○ 40 days after birth. Presented him at temple. Simeon recognizes Jesus as Messiah. Simeon is Holy old righteous man. Anna also recognizes him as the Messiah. She is a widow, super holy prophet women. Gabriel comes and says to Joseph “Herod is dead, go back to Israel” Returned to Nazareth, Galilee. Life ● Born around 3 BCE; more likely summertime not winter ● Childhood ○ Jesus has bris 8 days after birth and presentation 40 days after birth. 12 years old- The family was on the way to the Passover and they couldn’t find Jesus but found him in the temple teaching and asking questions. ○ He had a miracle birth to an old baron women. Living in the Judean wilderness eating locust and wild honey. Wore camel hair and leather belt wrapped around him. He had tons of followers and people think he is Elijah reborn. Famous for teaching of Baptism in Jordan River. Tells everyone he’s not the Messiah and Jesus is and he baptizes Jesus and hears voice come down from the heavens. ● John the Baptist ○ Gets arrested by King Herod. ■ King Herod married his brother's’ wife. King Herod’s step-daughter is also his niece. Her name is Salome. King Herod says he wants John the Baptists head and does so that night. Gave his head on a platter. ● Baptism ○ Says that the heaven opens up the holy spirit descends as a dove. ● Temptation ​ ○ Goes into wilderness for 40 days after baptism. Allows devil to tempt him in the desert. ● Calling Apostles ​ ○ Returns to Galilee. Calls apostles. Andrew and Peter; brothers; were there when Jesus was baptized. James and John; also brothers. Jesus starts performing miracles and turns water to wine. Cures lepers. Performs exorcism and it brings contention right away. People say “He’s with the demons they are in it together” or “Look how powerful he is to overcome the demons” He cures peter’s mom of a fever. Calls next 8 apostles Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James, Thaddaeus, Simon, Judas (betrays Jesus) hangs himself and replaced by Matthias. Teachings ● Sermon on the Mount ​ ● Beatitudes ​ ○ 1. “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” ○ 2. “Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted.” ○ 3. “Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth.” ○ 4. “Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied.” ○ 5. “Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy.” ○ 6. “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.” ○ 7. “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called children of God.” ○ 8. “Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness’ sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” Miracles ● Jesus is a miracle worker. Climbs the Sermon Mount. Everyone follows him; both for and against him. ● Cures ○ Most common are curing blindness and deafness. Because of Matthew 10:8, he does not receive nor accepts any forms of payment. ○ There was a woman who was bleeding for years and when she TOUCHES Jesus, he heals her. However, he said that it is her faith that heals her, not him. The woman is very apologetic to Jesus. ○ Senterium, an officer, is sick and Jesus SAYS he will be healed and the officer mysteriously is healed. No one in Israel has this much faith. ● Exorcisms ○ In the sabbath synagogue, there is this man who hurts himself and Jesus goes to him. Jesus casts the legions (evil spirits) to go into the pigs that are near them. Pigs drown themselves in the lake. ● Resurrections ○ Before Jesus goes to Jerusalem, Lazarus is sick and in his grave for days. Jesus takes pity and unravels Lazarus and he awakes. ○ Jesus takes the little girl by the hand and she wakes up. ○ A sick little boy has a widowed mom and realizes if he passes, the mom will be homeless. Jesus takes pity over the mom and walks to the casket and tells him to wake up and he does. ● Control over Nature ○ Jesus walks on water and calms the storm. He feeds 5000 people by 2 fish and 5 loaves of bread and multiplies later on. ● Transfiguration ○ Goes up on the mountain. ○ Peter, James, and John sees him and they say that the Messiah is Jesus. ○ Elijah come and meets with Jesus to mark the coming of the Messiah and Moses is there to witness this. Passion (Crucifixion and the events leading up to it) ● Jerusalem ○ Psalm Sunday: when Jesus comes in Jerusalem, riding on an ass, it fulfilled a prophecy. ○ “Laying out the red carpet”: coming for the passover and everyone attends. ○ Jesus teaches for the day and gets questioned and upsets a few people. He goes back to Bethlehem, eats a rotten fruit and curses the tree. Returns to the city, starts throwing tables and goes back to the tree to find it withered and dead. ● Passover (Last Supper) ​ ○ On Wednesday, Judas has a meeting to discuss where the ritual will be. ○ Jesus distributes bread and wine to the table, says it is his blood and body. This begins the eucharist (has a spiritual presence). Abraham, Moses, and John the Baptist are the convents. Gives wine and bread to Judas and he runs away. Peter speaks up and says that he will not betray them. ● Garden ○ Jesus takes the apostles to the Gethsemane garden and tells them to guard him as he prays, but they continue to fall asleep. Jesus prays and asks God to take this burden away from him. ○ Judas comes in with the parises and soldiers begin to arrest them. ■ Judas identifies Jesus by kissing him. ○ Peter cuts one of the soldier’s ears off, arrests him, and begins to question him, but he stays silent. ○ Pilots gives him 2 choices ■ To release parabolas ■ Jesus’s death ● Questioning and Torture ○ Jesus lost 25% of his blood ​ ● Crucifixion ○ Jesus carries his own cross. Goes to Golgotha (skulls) ​and Jesus was sentenced to death. A person on each side of jesus. As they were going to break his legs, they realized that he was already dead. Soldier pierces his heart and lungs and water and blood comes out. They put Jesus in a tomb to keep “cleanliness”. The tomb is reopened. Resurrection ● Apostle to the Apostles - Mary Magdalene ○ Mary Magdalene is Jesus’s mother. She tells the apostles that Jesus is resurrected. Jesus shows himself to Paul, Steven and meets the apostles in a room. ○ 40 days period appears to different people. ● Ascension ○ 40 days after Easter. Jesus rides on a cloud in flesh and blood into heaven but will return. ○ 10 days later, the apostles and women are hiding and lock themselves up when a big gust of wind opens all the windows, a spark is on them and the Holy Spirit enters them. They can now understand 7 languages. ● Pentecost ​- 50th ○ Known as the SHAVUOT in Judaism. ○ 10 days later ○ Birth of the Church ○ Speaking in different tongues. Everyone is locked up and hiding. A gust of wind opens the doors and windows and they are filled with the Holy Spirit. Goes out and talks to everyone, and they suddenly understand each other. ○ Thousands of people become “Christians”. Early Church (Apostolic Period) ● Organization ○ The apostles weren’t worried at first, but organized in this order: ■ 1. Bishops ● Passed down each year, going back to the first apostle. ● The ability to raise the family ● Leave a flock to raise a bigger flock ■ 2. Presbyters (elders) ● Appointed by bishops ■ 3. Deacons ● Work for the bishops ● Social justice ○ Paul doesn’t know about the death of Jesus. He helps commits murder, was saw and is now an Apostle. ● Spread ○ It started as Urban in the beginning because the Deacons feed them in Rome. ○ 5 major cities ■ Alexandria, Jerusalem, Antioch, Constantinople, and Rome ■ 5 bishops were in charge of the cities ● Persecution ○ Early on, no one is prosecuted. NO ONE CARES. Doesn’t come in hype until 250 BCE. Desius says Rome is having trouble, need a sacrifice, Christians refuse, Rome is mad. In 257, Valierian orders deacons/bishops to leave the city or be killed. His son comes back and lifts the ban Diocletian. Persecution is taking all Christians to feed to animals. ● Martyrdom ○ Becomes a thing. Christians WANTS to get killed in the coliseum. Bishops says stop, that Jesus did not mean literally to die for their brothers. Canon: Created by the Council ● Constantine ​ (27 February 272 ​ 22 May 337) ​ Reign (306 ​ 337) ​ ○ Converted Rome to Christianity. Is a Rome Emperor. Sees Chi Rho (symbol) in a dream and appears in a battle of Milvian Bridge. 4 emperors in total. He wins under the symbol (312). In 313, Milan legalizes Christianity. Once legal, Constantine like it and gives his mom tons of resources to go and collect artifacts, bones (relics) and build churches. ○ Was not a Christian but his mom (Helena) is. ● Roman Legalization ○ In 325, organize a Council of Nicaea. ○ Agree on 27 books in the New Testament. In 367, written by Athanasius, writes a letter te shows that it's the same bible we know now. In 397, carthage (stamp of approval) is a synagogue, not a council. In 331, orders Eusebius to deliver 50 handwritten bibles to Athanasius. In 380, Thessalonica, EVERYONE converts to Christianity. ○ “Father, son, and holy spirit” ● Roman Standardization ○ Rome is not the first to convert to Christianity (Authentic) ■ Armenia (301) ● Bartholomew and Thaddeus ■ Georgia (326) ● Apostle St. Andrew ■ Ethiopia Medieval Period ● Byzantium ○ Headquarter is in constantinople (power house). Is an empire. ● Merovingians ○ Unite under the king. Made up of the rich people that survived spared by Franks. ● Carolingians ○ Named this because there are so many Charles. Took control of Merovingians. ● Holy Roman Empire - Christmas Day 800 ○ Charles Martel's grandson, Charlemagne, becomes Emperor in the West at the same time, Irene was made an empress in the East. ○ Irene was a mistress of Leo the IV. Irene had her son arrested and cut his eyes out. Irene allied with the Lombard. ○ Bishops of Rome wants to side with Charlemagne, and not Irene. ● Great (East​ & West) Schism ​(1054) ○ Happens 2 centuries later. ○ Hagia Sophia is a Christian church in Istanbul (East), built in 527 BCE. ○ Iconoclasm: Destroying of all the images. Charlemagne gained land and paid them to work for land. Vikings started invading. Split occurs. ○ Atonement: Believes that Jesus died in blood and sacrifice himself. (Western) ○ Incarnation Theory: Jesus didn’t come to die, he came and taught, salvation of sins. (Eastern Orthodox) ○ East (Eastern Orthodoxy) believes that God are in connection with Holy Spirit and Jesus, but Jesus and Holy Spirit doesn’t. ○ West (Roman Catholic) believes that God, Holy Spirit, and Jesus all connect with one another. Crusades and Inquisitions ● First Crusade ​ (1095 ​1099) -​ Council of Clermont * SUCCESSFUL ○ Muslim invaders. Pope Urban the II recruits help in Aiken. East asks West for help. West agrees. Seljuk empire lost the 1st Crusades. Not trade between East and West for 100 years. They take over Jerusalem. ● 2nd (1147-​1149) ○ King of Crusades still own the Holy Land. France moves from the Kingdom of Jerusalem and headed East. Lose Jerusalem to Saladin. Saladin champion for the East. ● 3rd (1189​-1192) ● 4th (1202​-1204) ○ Cathars VS. Gnostics ○ Suppose to go to Jerusalem. ○ Gnostics had conflict with the Constantinople Rulers ○ Cathars are a type of Christians. Where the first Inquisition was set up to right the heretics. Their beliefs were shunned because of Gnosticism. ● 5th (1217​-1221) ​ ○ Honorius III leads an army to Egypt by sea and win. Loses at Cairo. ● 6th (1228​-1229) ○ Frederick II goes and take Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Nazareth. ● 7th (1248​-1254) ○ Louis the 9th rushes in Cairo and loses. ● 8th (1270) ​ ● 9th (1271​-1272) ○ Prince Edward of England. His dad got sick and died. Didn’t win the battle and couldn’t make his father proud. ● Inquisition​ begins in Languedoc, France​ 1184 ○ Pope III decided that he is going to start the Inquisition. ● Successive Inquisitions Reformation ● Martin Luther ○ “Father of the Reformation”. Augustine priest, student and teacher. Having a hard time with indulgence. Purgatory means between heaven and hell. Moving up the ladder. Nails 95 theses to the church. Forces people to listen to him. Force into Christianity or die. Priest gets kick out, married to a nun and elope. Teaches against indulgences. VERY Catholic. Lutheran church. ● The Ninety​ Five Theses ○ Are a list of propositions for an academic disputation ● Gutenberg ○ Printing press (1440). Takes time but the Bible is being printed, affordable, more accessible. Being rise to a 2nd Reformation. ● John Calvin ○ “Father of the Geneva” or “Master”. Exiled from Switzerland. Believe in scripture and faith alone. Says that God has already decided whether you are going to heaven and hell before you are even born. Anyone who disagrees were exiled or burned at the stake (witch trial). Presbyterian Church. ● John Wycliffe ○ Wrote the first Bible in English. There were bibles in every language. ● Henry VIII ○ He wanted a son so he killed all his wives who couldn’t. Married to Katherine who is from Spain (Catholic Country). He was against Protestant. Homewrecker wants to marry jim. Decides to divorce because of the war. Names himself the Pope of England and the Angular church. Confiscated churches, sells land/everything, and uses money to create a military campaign to go against France. ● Counter​ Reformation ○ No longer allegiance to the Pope. Sit down and decide whether or not to change. Approval of how the culture and language is. ● Council of Trent ○ In big trouble because of period of Enlightenment. ○ The bible was “finalized”. Must be in Latin. They are going to stay the same. Either with or against them. America & The Modern Church ● Eastern Orthodox ​(300 million - 12.5%) ● Roman Catholic ​(1.2 billion ​- 50% ​- Vatican II) ● Protestant (800 million - 33%) ○ Lutheran ○ Anabaptist ■ “Another Baptist” one point everyone was Catholic. Baptize as an adult. One when child, one when adult (2 times in total). Also called Amish. ○ Calvinist​ Reformed ■ Scripture and Faith ○ Unitarian ■ 16th century. Evolved a lot from the beginning. Singular. Renounced the trinity. Say Jesus is NOT God, could be the SON of God. ○ Anglican ​- Church of England ■ Forming under Henry the 8th. The monarchs and the Bishops of Canterbury. ○ Quaker ■ 17th century, Abolitionists. Shake with the spirits. Society of friends. Anti-hierarchy. There is a meeting house. Wait for spirit to move someone to start the service. Huge to the American colony. Simple, plain, no drinking/partying lifestyle. Hufg players of the underground railroad. Goes to Washington to create and pass BILLS to remove slavery. Evangelical ● Methodist ○ Go to Asian. Going out and teaching. Is a top down religion. Very wealthy. Passed down from generation. Scripture and faith alone. Looks like Catholic practices. ● Modern -​ nondenominational ○ Revival. John Wesley beings work. When the baptist start to grow rapidly. Fundamental ● Baptist ● Southern Baptist ○ Slave Owners Other ● Pentecostal ○ Very conservative. Speak in tongue. 7 languages. Blessing of the Holy SPirit. Protected by God. Birth of the Church. ● Mormon Sacraments & Holidays ● Baptism ○ John the Baptist. Living in the Judean wilderness by the Jordan River. Forgiveness of sins. Heavens open up, Holy Spirit comes in a form of a dove. “This is my son” way to enter the church and in the community. ● Eucharist ○ The Last Supper. Jesus breaks bread and wine in Jerusalem for Passover. Has a meal with the apostles. Breaks and Wine means blood and body. Do this in memory of Jesus. Spiritual presence/symbolic. ● Christmas ○ Birth of Jesus. Celebrating the season of giving, social justice, wise men giving presents to Jesus. Replaces the Winter Solstice. ● Ash Wednesday ○ First day of Lent. Tradition of penance, mourning, would wear your worst rags (BE RATCHET) while seeking for forgiveness. Put oil on head. ● Lent ○ 40 days in the desert for repentance. Tempted by the Devil. Gathers his apostles and starts his mission. ● Palm Sunday ○ Last week of Lent. Represents when Jesus arrives to the Jerusalem on a donkey, fulfilling a prophecy “Coming to Jerusalem” ● Last Supper ○ Night before passover day. EUCHARIST. ● Good Friday ○ Day Jesus was crucified to death. Forgiveness of SIns and humanity. ● Easter ○ Jesus resurrects from the tomb. Mary Magdalene was there. She is the apostles of the apostles. ● Pentecost ○ 50 Day Period. First 40 days, Jesus is teaching and goes to James, shows himself to Saul (Paul), Steven is the first martyr and is a champion, killed in Rome with Peter.


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