Exam 1 Study Guide pdf
Exam 1 Study Guide pdf PSYCH 1101
Popular in Intro to General Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chanel on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Jennifer Herrig in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Intro to General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
PSYC 1101 Study Guide: Exam 1 Chapter 1: What is psychology? How is it studied? The scientific study of behavior and mental processes; It is studied by using a scientific approach which allows to clearly see what factors are actually at work in influencing human thought and behavior What are levels of analysis? Be able to recognize examples? What does it mean that Psychology is multiply determined? Influences span from lower biological levels to higher social levels; Using single-variable explanations, common sense and intuition often lead to errors and it also teaches critical thinking What is critical thinking? Why is it useful? What are some potential costs of not thinking critically? Looking deeper into a subject; Useful because it leads to new discoveries and helps you get a better understanding of the big picture; Miss important facts and details Who is credited as being the “father” of psychology? What did he do? What did he contribute? Wilhelm Wundt; Established a psychology lab in Germany in 1879 which marked the birth of psychology as a formal academic discipline; Used introspection which involves looking inward to examine one’s own conscious experience and then reporting that experience What was structuralism? What were the strengths and weaknesses? Consciousness can be broken down to its basic elements such as the pure sensations like sweetness, coldness, bitterness, redness, and these sensations are combined to make up perceptions What was functionalism? Who were the influences on functionalism? What were the contributions of functionalism to the current field of psychology? Concerned with how humans and animals use mental processes in adapting to their environment; William James (stream of consciousness: thoughts are ever changing and cannot be broken down); It broadened the scope of psychology to study behavior as well as mental processes, allowed study of children, animals, and mentally ill, those who are unable to engage in introspection, focused on applied, more practical use of psychology Who are the early notable women in Psychology? Mary Calkins who pioneered early memory research and was supposed to earn a Ph.D from Harvard but was denied the title; Margaret Washburn who earned the first official Ph.D for women and wrote The Animal Mind What are each of the modern schools of thought in psychology? Be able to identify the central characteristics of each (psychoanalytic, behaviorism, humanistic, etc.) Know all relevant terminology and be able to recognize examples. Psychoanalysis: Freud’s theory, focuses on the unconscious aspects of the individual (impulses, wishes, and desires are the root of thoughts, feelings, and behavior but cannot be controlled by the individual); Behaviorism: focuses on observable, measurable behavior and emphasizes the key role of environment as a determinant of behavior (John Watson: humans are a product of their learning experiences; B. F. Skinner: behavior is explained by analyzing the consequences of their behavior); Humanistic Perspective: emphasizes free will, personal growth, and the attempt to find meaning in one’s existence (emphasizes personal responsibility and choice); Cognitive Psychology: concerned with mental functions behind learning, thinking, and remembering (Cognitive Behaviorism: proposes that learning experiences and the environment influence our thoughts and expectations, and in turn, these influence how we behave; Information Processing Approach: equates brain to a computer by in taking information as code, processes, stores, then retrieves; Cognitive Neuroscience: studies neural mechanisms such as the brain, nerve, and tissue functions that underlie mental processes; Evolutionary Psychology: focuses on natural selection to study evolution of behavior and mind (Behavior Genetics: studies influences of genes and environment on behavior); Cross-Cultural and Gender Psychology: enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next; Positive Psychology: focus on “human flourishing”, focus on what leads to a “meaningful life” What are the different subfields of psychology? Be able to recognize examples of each. Neuroscience/Biopsychology: specializes in study of biological mechanisms underlying behavior and mental processes; Cognitive Psychology: study of mental processes, often from an information processing model; Experimental Psychology: basic processes such as learning, sensory systems, perception, and motivational states; Developmental Psychology: studies physical, psychological, and social changes across the lifespan; Personality Psychology: study of human personality and enduring characteristics, look at the influence of genes, circumstances, and cultural content; Social Psychology: thoughts, feelings, and behavior involving others and the social world; Cultural Psychology: influence of societal rules that dictate behavior; Clinical Psychology: study and treatment of mental disorders; Counseling Psychology: work with people facing difficult circumstances rather than mental disorders; School Psychology: work in educational settings and focus on learning problems, disabilities, age-appropriate curriculum, assessment, and achievement; Industrial- Organizational Psychology: examines behavior in the workplace Why do we study psychology from a scientific perspective? What are some common errors in thinking? Be able to recognize examples of each. To avoid common errors in thinking; Confirmation Bias: tendency to seek evidence to support our own beliefs and to deny or dismiss evidence that contradicts them. Belief Perseverance: tendency to hold onto beliefs even in the face of contradictory evidence. Hindsight Bias: tendency to believe, after hearing an outcome, that we knew it all along. Intuition: automatic “gut” feeling (no conscious reasoning). Overconfidence: overestimate our own knowledge and abilities. Perceiving Order in Random Events: generated by our tendency to want to make sense of things What is a scientific theory? What is a hypothesis? Explanation for a large number of finding in the natural world; A testable prediction What are the steps in the scientific process? 1. Identify a question of interest 2. Gather information and form a hypothesis 3. Test the hypothesis by conducting research 4. Analyze data, draw tentative conclusion, and report findings 5. Build a body of knowledge What are variables? How are they defined in research? Why is it important to define them? Any characteristic or factor that can vary; the Operation Definition is that it defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it; Translates the abstract into something observable and measurable What is a case study? Be able to recognize examples. What are some advantages and disadvantages? Descriptive research method in which a single individual or a small number of persons are studied in great depth, usually over an extended period of time; Interviews, observations, and sometimes psychological testing; Advantages: Allows in depth study of rare occurrences called existence proofs, may challenge the validity of a theory or widely held belief, may be a source of new ideas for further study. Disadvantages: cannot determine cause and effect relationship, observer bias is a potential problem, results may not generalize and lead to a misleading conclusion What is naturalistic observation? Be able to recognize examples. Descriptive research method in which researchers observe and record behavior in its natural setting, without attempting to influence or control it; People watching What are the important components to conducting a survey? Know all related terminology and be able to recognize in examples. Survey Research; Survey: descriptive research method in which researchers use interviews and/or questionnaires to gather information about the attitudes, beliefs, experiences, or behaviors of a group of people; Population: the entire group of people the researchers are interested in applying their findings to. Sample: part of the population that is studied to reach conclusions about the entire population. Representative Sample: sample that mirrors the population of interest- includes same proportion of all subgroups as they are seen in the actual population. Biased Sample: does not adequately reflect the population. Random Sample: best method for gathering a representative sample; selection of the sample is done in such a way that every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected What is the correlational method? Be able to determine strength and direction, as well as interpret meaning of a correlation coefficient. Measure of association which describes how strongly 2 variables are related; Perfect Correlation: one variable perfectly predicts changes in the other; Correlations can only predict possible changes, they do not indicate a cause and effect relationship What is the experimental method? What are the essential characteristics? The ONLY research method that can be used to identify cause and effect relationships; Random assignment to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable What are independent and dependent variables? Be able to recognize examples. Independent: the factor that is manipulated or controlled by the experimenter; Dependent: the factor that is measured by the experimenter and that may be influenced by the independent variable What are experimental and control groups? Be able to recognize examples. Experimental: group of participants exposed to the manipulation of the independent variable; Control: group of participants that DOES NOT RECEIVE ANY MANIPULATION, but is identical to the experimental group in all other aspects- typically used when the experimental group is receiving some type of treatment What are some sources of bias in experiments? Be able to recognize examples. How can we control for these biases? Confounding Variables: factors or conditions other than the independent variables that are not equivalent across groups and could cause differences among the groups on measures of the dependent variable; Selection Bias: assignment of participants to groups in a way that results in systematic differences among the groups present at the beginning of the experiment; Random assignment controls for selection bias What are some important ethical considerations when conducting research? Placebo Effect: occurs when a participant’s response to treatment is due to his/her expectations about the treatment and not the treatment itself; Experimenter Bias (Expectancy Effects): occurs when preconceived notions or expectations of the experimenter somehow influence participant behavior and/or the interpretation of results (Double-blind Experiment: neither the experimenter or the participants know who is in the control group and who is in the experimental group) Chapter 2: What is a neuron? What are the parts of a neuron? How do neurons communicate? What are the different types of neurons? Specialized nerve cell that conducts impulses through the nervous system and handles information processing (center of the neuron is called the cell body); Axon carries signals away from the cell body, Dendrite carries signals toward the cell body, Synapses are the gaps between axons and dendrites to allow information to pass form neuron to neuron; 1. Afferent: sensory neurons that relay messages from sense organs and receptors to the brain or spinal cord 2. Efferent: motor neurons; convey signals from the central nervous system to the glands and muscles, allowing the body to move 3. Interneurons: carry information between the neurons in the brain and between neurons in the spinal cord What are neurotransmitters? What do they do (in general)? How do they travel? What are receptors? How do they work? Be able to recognize the major neurotransmitters and their functions. Transmits messages between neurons; Electrical impulse travels from the cell body, down the axon, neurotransmitter secreted and travels across the synapse to the dendrites of the next neuron; Can be either excitatory (tell the neuron to fire) or inhibitory (tell the neuron NOT to fire); Receptors are protein molecules on the surfaces of dendrites and cell bodies that receive neurotransmitters What are the divisions of the peripheral nervous system and what do they do? Central Nervous System (CNS): composed of brain and spinal cord; Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): connects CNS to rest of the body and is composed of somatic and autonomic nervous system What are the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system? Sympathetic Nervous System: mobilizes the body’s resources to prepare you for action; Parasympathetic Nervous System: brings heightened bodily functions back to normal What is the difference between the central and peripheral nervous system? The central nervous system is composed of the spinal cord, brain stem, cerebellum, midbrain, thalamus & hypothalamus, amygdala, and the hippocampus; The peripheral nervous system is composed of somatic and autonomic nervous system and connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body What is the function of the spinal cord? It is an extension of the brain that reaches from the base of the brain and extends through the neck and spinal column What is the function of the brainstem and its components? Begins at the point where the spinal cord enlarges as it enters the brain and handles functions which are critical to physical survival; Contains the medulla (controls heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, swallowing, and coughing) and pons (plays a huge role in relaying motor messages between the cerebellum and motor cortex) What is the function of the cerebellum? Critically important to the body’s ability to execute smooth, skilled movements; regulates muscle tone and posture, plays a role in motor learning and memories of motor activities, coordinates series of movements so that they occur automatically such as walking What are the functions of the thalamus and hypothalamus? Thalamus: serves as a relay station for almost all of the information that flows into and out of the forebrain (all sensory information except for smell, production in language, and regulates sleep cycle); Hypothalamus: regulates hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, and emotional behaviors (controls internal body temperature such as shivering and sweating, houses biological clock, plays a role in motivation) Which structures make up the limbic system? What are their functions? How is the cerebrum divided and what connects the divisions? What is the cerebral cortex? It is divided into the left & right hemispheres which are called the cerebral hemispheres; The hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum (band of fibers that transfers information back and forth between hemispheres); Cerebral Cortex is the outer layer of the forebrain which is responsible for sensory processing and higher brain function (3 areas: Sensory input, Motor areas, Association areas) What is the cerebral cortex? What are the 4 lobes? Outer layer of the forebrain, responsible for sensory processing and higher brain function; Frontal Lobe: Motor cortex (voluntary body movements), Broca’s area (speech production), Prefrontal cortex (planning, thinking, motivation, impulse control, emotional responses (Phineas Gage)); Parietal Lobes: reception and processing of touch stimuli (Somatosensory cortex), spatial orientation and sense of direction, perception, parietal association areas (help us remember how objects feel against the skin). Occipital Lobes: reception and interpretation of visual information, Primary visual cortex (registers vision in the cerebral cortex), interpret visual stimuli, hold memories of past visual experiences and help us recognize what we see; Temporal Lobes: reception and interpretation of auditory stimuli, Primary auditory cortex (registers hearing), Wernicke’s area (language area responsible for comprehending spoken word and formulating coherent written and spoken language), Temporal association areas (house memories involved with interpreting auditory information and allows recognition of familiar sounds) What are the subsections of the frontal lobe? What functions are associated with each subsection/the lobe in general? What would happen if there was damage? Be able to recognize examples. Look at question above. What are the subsections of the parietal lobe? What functions are associated with each subsection/the lobe in general? What would happen if there was damage? Be able to recognize examples. Look at question above. What are the subsections of the occipital lobe? What functions are associated with each subsection/the lobe in general? What would happen if there was damage? Be able to recognize examples. Look at question above. What are the subsections of the temporal lobe? What functions are associated with each subsection/the lobe in general? What would happen if there was damage? Be able to recognize examples. Look at question above. What is lateralization? What functions are lateralized in the brain? Specialization of one of the cerebral hemispheres to handle a specific function Chapter 3: What is consciousness? What are some characteristics of consciousness? Our awareness of ourselves and our environment; Selective Attention: at any moment our awareness focuses on only a limited aspect of all that we experience- switches from one aspect to another; Inattentional Blindness: failing to see visible objects when attention is directed elsewhere What is selective attention and how might it affect what we perceive? What is inattentional blindness? What is the pop-out effect? Be able to recognize examples. Pop-out Effect: when a strongly distinct stimulus suddenly gets our attention, we do not choose to attend to these stimuli, they demand our attention What is dual processing? What are the two processes at work? What is parallel processing? Be able to recognize examples. Dual Processing: mind is processing the world in two different ways simultaneously; the Conscious and the Unconscious processing; Parallel Processing: brain does not process information one step at a time, rather it processes several aspects of a situation such as color, depth, form and movement simultaneously What is circadian rhythm? What is the suprachiasmatic nuclei? What does it do? How does it work? How our bodies synchronize with the 24-hour cycle of day and night (somewhat linked to age); Superchiasmatic Nuclei: part of the hypothalamus that regulates circadian rhythms (link to the pineal gland and secretes melatonin which is a hormone that relaxes the body to prepare for sleep; connected to the eyes and light increases the activity of SCN while dark decreases activity) What are the different stages of sleep? How many are there? How long is a typical sleep cycle? Be able to recognize examples. Stage NREM 1 (hypnogogic state: the period of drifting from wakefulness into sleep), Stage NREM 2 (somewhat deeper level of sleep and lasts about 20 minutes, Stage NREM 3 (beginning of slow-wave sleep; deep sleep), REM Sleep (deepest sleep) What is REM sleep, why do we need it and how much of our sleep does it make up? Occurs after about 60-90 minutes of sleep and makes up about 20% of the entire sleep cycle; Deepest stage of our sleep; Brain waves are as active as they are when we are awake; Not easily awakened and stage at which most dreams occur What are the effects of sleep deprivation? What is REM rebound? Be able to recognize examples. Creates a sleep debt, lost sleep changes behavior and mood; REM Rebound: increases REM sleep after deprivation What are the different reasons why we sleep? Be able to recognize examples. Protection (circadian theory of sleep), Restore & Repair (restorative theory of sleep), Memory, Creativity & Learning, and Growth What are the different types of sleep disorders? Be able to recognize examples. Insomnia (sleeping less than one wishes to), Sleep Apnea (sudden, temporary interruption of breathing during sleep), Narcolepsy (rare sleep disorder where a person suddenly and unexpectedly falls asleep), REM-Sleep Behavior Disorder (no sleep paralysis during REM sleep), Parasomnias (sleep disturbances including sleep walking, sleep taking, nightmares, and night terrors) What are parasomnias? What is the difference between nightmares and night terrors? Be able to recognize examples. Sleep disturbances such as sleep walking, sleep talking nightmares, and night terrors; Nightmares: terrifying dreams that occur during REM sleep and wakes the dreamer, also typically occur in early-morning hours; Night Terrors: less common than nightmares and awakens the dreamer in a state of panic with poor memory of the dream content, occur during non-REM sleep, typically occur early in the night What are the different types of dreams? What are the different theories that explain dreams? Be able to recognize examples. Daydreams (Everyday consciousness and dreams combined), Lucid Dreams (aware that they are dreaming and may be able to control the content), REM Dreams (vivid dreams), Non-REM Dreams (NREM sleep; less frequent and less memorable than REM dreams) Know the terminology associated with drug use. Be able to recognize examples. Some drugs are able to pass through the blood-brain barrier (keeps harmful blood away from the brain); Agonist: increases the activity of a neurotransmitter; Antagonist: inhibits or decreases the activity of a neurotransmitter; Tolerance, Withdrawal, Physical Dependence, Psychological Dependence, and Addiction What are the different classifications of drugs, the drugs that belong in each classification, and their effects? Be able to recognize examples. Psychoactive Drugs (Depressants, Opiates, Stimulants, Hallucinogens); Depressants: Alcohol (increase GABA which lead to calming, reduces activity of Glutamate, increases dopamine activity and other neurotransmitters, slows sympathetic nervous activity, lowers inhibition, disrupts the processing of recent experiences into memories, focuses attention on the immediate rather than the future consequences called alcohol myopia), Barbiturates & Benzodiazepines (increase GABA activity, depress nervous system activity, may be prescribed to induce sleep and/or reduce anxiety); Opiates: morphine and heroin, increase dopamine activity, easily become physically dependent, mimic endorphins; Stimulants: temporarily excite neural activity and arouse body functions, increase blood pressure, breathing, heart rate, and alertness; Hallucinogens: distort perceptions and evoke sensory images; Marijuana: most active ingredient is THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), increase dopamine, binds to cannabinoid receptors already in the brain, may increase GABA with chronic use
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