British Lit 2 - Test 1 Study Guide
British Lit 2 - Test 1 Study Guide EH 204
Jacksonville State University
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Burke on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EH 204 at Jacksonville State University taught by Dr. Gray in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Survey of English Literature 2 in English at Jacksonville State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
BritishLit 2– Romantic Era Romantic Poets st o 1 gnderation: Wordsworth, Coleridge, &Blake o 2 generation: Lord Byron, Shelley, Keats o subjective,philosophers Key themes o Nature – treat it likea religion Reallyspecific descriptions ofplaces –feelings inmoments Mostly optimistic/benevolent Sublime –exalted; ex) Niagara vs.streams,new level of thought Nature connects to concepts larger than life Human –Nature (Indians, Noble Savage)& Unnatural/civilized (non- Indians) o Industrial Revolution st England –1 to revolutionize &others followed, world power, expanding Mass production, migration, railroads,ships o Democracy –supported by poets o More prose –chivalry, quest o Escapism–largerthan life,focus on imagination o Innocence –child of childlike o Natural, authentic, closerto nature o How do you experience something? o Where does your imagination take you? Setting – specific places innature Time Period o Novels –gothic novels arepopular o Jane Austen Wordsworth &Coleridge –wrote likereal people talking to real people o Relatabletopics & language,authentic o Seem to idealizerural areas &working people/commoners Wordsworth &Coleridge both Wrote lyrical ballads =lyric +ballad o Ballad–more of a story, make outlandish story believable & relatablethrough story within the story o Lyric –emotional, rhyming Were interested &influenced by philosophers o Coleridge – specificallyinterestedin German philosophers “We Are Seven” – Wordsworth st o lyric poetry – 1 person, short lines,rhyme o dialogue– amusing the girl but the man is clueless o authentic humans – “rustic,” “woodland” o born of nature, return to nature/Heaven’s ideals o poet within the poem CharlotteSmith Sonnet –14 lines,English&Italianforms o 4 44 2 -lines per stanza o Iambic pentameter – 10stressed& unstressedsyllables, Blankverse – unrhymed iambic pentameter Shorter lines – seems less serious,fastertoread o The meaning is built into the form Lyric poems “To Sleep” o Other people sleepwell,annoyed that shecan’t o Sleep is not an easycure for the suffering o Tormented speaker, deeper in her feelings “To Night” o reference to harmful aspects ofnature o good in the bad o complication of life “Written at the CloseofSpring” o looking back on the beauty, never exactlythe same o connects to “The Sea View” o symbolic flowers violets – common o elegyof her happiness WilliamBlake “TheBook of Thel” o allegorical o asks part of nature about life o Thel is invited of a trip to the underworld o Epic poem WilliamWordsworth Known for giving old concepts new meaning Exaggerates,known for being about self Speaker –generally seems guilty,criminal, regrettable about past Discuss local things,specific places,less story Famous for retrospect – finding more in memory Cancapture stages ofconsciousness –areyou being honest with yourself? Sometimes begins his poems with “I” “Iwandered lonely as a cloud” –pg.334-335 o Clouds are detached from the world o De-personifies himself – he’s an observer as a cloud o Personifies daffodil Connects rooted daffodils to the sky o Memories are likegold –valuable o Celestial –Heavens –deeper meaning behind the ordinary “TheSolitary Reaper” –pg.342 o “Reaper” = reaping time of year o sightin nature =young woman o 1 stanza –comes across lone angel singing o 2 stanza - more about poet than woman compares the woman to a bird takes reader to faraway places the poet’s feelings/impressions aremore important than the song o He understands the impression not the language/meaning o The woman is the reaper, but he reaped from the experience o Epitaph intro – makes the girl otherworldly o Stanza 1-3 – present tense; tense shifts to pastin 4 stanza Lucy Poems – pg.305-308 –elegiac o Ambiguous, focus on twilightworld between life&death o Lucy =light o “She dwelt among the untrodden ways” rustic settings;ambiguous –is itcommon or unique? Violet –more common, less notices Star –contradicts the violet, connects to Lucy’s name Capture inwords enigmatic experience o “Strange fits of passionhave Iknown” more of a narrative courting situation, both adults, love story hint of criminality/guilt in speaker he’s riding a horse up a hill – he’s rising & the moon is falling man falling =lightfalling =Lucy dying dreams surprise us extra stanza – they laughtogether but he cries Lucy is personification of nature o “Three years she grew” sounds likeshedied young foes to the placethat reminds him of her o “A slumber did my spirit seal” she“seals” his spiritfromthe world unafraid of future other poems connect Lucyto the heavens &lights laststanza –scientific,despair her as part of the earth –comforting or bleak doesn’t mention her name – disappears into the normal o accepted her death o “Nutting” – pg.308 verse form: blank verse, elevated sound woman in poem = Lucy, symbol for nature nutting =the actof harvesting nuts found a place with lots of HAZEL nuts & thinks they’re all his retrospective story, boyhood memory, beginning of Summer “disguise” –kindof living a double life freedom –he can do whatever he wants essentiallystealing nuts fromsomeone hints ataddiction, rape the environment back when he was young, he thought he could take what he wanted violets – mentioned in other Lucy poems makes the placelook like it’s unvisited feels likehe owns the place,unlimited possibilities being critical ofhis young selfbut valuing the memory of simplicity Nature is passive&can’tfighthim taking the nuts Lines 48-53 –feels he remembered ita different way Maybe he justfeels likehe should have feltguilty atthe time Shades =ghosts,memories, past items not living Lines 54-56 –ambiguous – however he interprets the event, nature will be fine Memory can be false;stages ofconsciousness Speaker seemed to plot the ‘crime’ in his ‘disguise’&feltfine about it at the time –learn from mistakes Crime – likein Christabel &Mariner (prodigal son, more mistakes, but more open to learning from mistakes) “Michael” –pg.320-330 o pastoral –shepherd; nuclear family; rural location o speaker is 1 personin beginning, closeto where he lives o poet within the poem – baby Luke is a poet o tells the story of a common hero o shepherd – Michael is too generous, tries to help his nephew &loses ½ his land o Biblical names:Michael (80 years old), Luke (20 years old), Isabel (60 years old) o Michael didn’t expect to be a father, sohe cherishes it; likes Lukebest o Setting – good placeto shepherd o Symbols: Their home is calledevening star The way of lifethey liveis disappearing Luke goes off to the city & Michael hopes he can come home The stone Michael & Luke lay Symbol of promise for Luke’s return Clipping tree o Isabel doesn’t want Luke to leavebut wants himto make money & be famous Stereotyped by greed, Honest with herself Tells Luketo stay for Michael Pg.325-326 – RichardBateman –greed to want Luke to be likeRichard o Characters are archetypes –appreciate the simplicity o Luke is tempted by wealth &greed – too ashamed to come home o Luke’s upbringing – moments of memory Michael becomes reallyfond of Luke when he canhelp shepherd o Luke learns from his mistakes & develops into shepherd vocation o Pg.329 – foreshadows the worst We don’t get too attached to Luke b/c we know he leaves “Lines”/“Tintern Abbey” – pg.288-292 o different personas,shows what he’s learned 3 Wordsworths –1793, 1798, &on sisterDorothy now &in the future o Abbey = Cathedral; Tintern Abbey = in ruins o Poem written on July 13, 1798 BastilleDayis July14, 1793 (5years earlier) Daybefore things changedon Independence Day 5 years later- more open to revolution being a good thing poem discusses howhe’s changed since1793 W0 – 1793; W1 –1798; W3 –future How did he gethere? Who is he? Where will he go? o The Abbey has changed,but the placehe sits nearthe Abbey is the same o Blankverse – unrhymed iambic pentameter Serious verse, no rhyme, lyric poem o 1 verseparagraph –describes what itlooked likewhen he was younger Likenature has taken over the Abbey, but you find God innature The spot he’s at nearby is justas significantas theAbbey nd o 2 verse paragraph – how the nature has changed himeven when he was away influenced him to do good to other people – influenced by memory moral –God is everywhere, being in touch with that makes you a better person changes from “I” to “we” o 3 verse paragraph – it’s real in its subjectiveeffect that nature can changea person &that nature &its effects are God o 4 verse paragraph – when he was young nature was fun &pure, now it requires more effort but is deeper line73 &100-101 – like“Nutting” line106 – half-create: your mind +objective =reality memories of nature work for advancement th o 5 verse paragraph – his sister&friend Dorothy (D1 =1798; D2= future) Wordsworth watches her experience, learn from one another, in future shecan connect to past& present Morality through meditation SamuelColeridge Lyrical ballads –lyric + ballad His works fit his lifestyle –examining potential but never realizing it Includes morals inhis stories – wanted a simple moral, conflicted that a work of literature wouldn’t normally have a simplemoral Always writes a preface “Christabel” Part 1 o Aware ofthe verseform, did not invent them o Christ+ Abel – victim that can win inthe end o Not completed – only 2 parts finished o Medieval setting rd o 3 person –various points of view omniscient – in multiple characters’ heads o Preface –literary critic in Coleridgehad to prove he didn’t plagiarizethe story o Medieval notion of hospitality & trust – Geraldine violates that o Characters – Christabel & Geraldine Geraldine – vampire-like, has to be invited inthe house, can’t cross running water; carried in by Christabel Christabel – spellbound by a witch (Geraldine) Becomes the outcast individual o Geraldine claims to be kidnapped & raped by 5guys – sexual element from the start o Christabel’s mother died inchildbirth She senses her mother’s ghost inGeraldine o Nakedness is surprising for the time – erotic even Geraldine is seducing Christabel o Conclusion –Geraldine is intrusive “TheRime of the Ancient Mariner” o more famous, mentioned by other authors o epigraph – invisibleworld you might not be awareof be aware but don’t getdistracted o begins with supernatural & tries to bring it to earth opposite of Wordsworth o shorter lines make it incantatory/sing song o Coleridgewrote the italicizedmargin notes – tells you what you should understand insome stanzas o Mariner tells the story, audience is the wedding guest has ghost quality killedthe Albatross/bird for no reason outcast b/c he kills thebird the crew (crowd of ordinary people) –change for the situation o happy until he kills the bird unmotivated sin– everyone is imperfect &sinful redemption comes from heavenly suffering – for the Mariner does the right thing bless the snakes without understanding why o Supernatural Part 3 – vampire appearance/ghost ship Becareful what you wishfor Vampire woman on the ship Her & the grimreaper are trying to take the crew’s lives The whole crew (minus the Mariner) drop dead Mariner is more full of sinthan the crew Crew members become the literal walking dead & gethim back to shore o Part 4 – quotations remind you it’s a narration o Part 6 – most obscure Spirits talking Shifts you away from the story Mariner seems likeLazarus –he has to tell his story “Kubla Khan” o another fragment o incantatory poem o He is theone being isolated o Damsel in stanza 3 = singer o Seems to be talking about himself as a poet “This LimeTree Bower My Prison” – pg.441 o very ‘Wordsworthian’ – the men do the sametype of thing atthe sametime & collaborate o Bower =secluded spot shaded by trees, natural o Testing nature –calling natural placea prison o Compared to “Nutting” Type of Bower –placewhere no one has been for 5 years Stripping the nuts made it less bower-like Good mood changes to regret o Coleridgecouldn’t go on a hike b/c his wifespiltboiling milk on his foot o Early inthe poem =pity party o Begins the poem with “well” – weird b/c it’s not a commonly accepted way to begin writing o very particular location – Bower & hiking spot o vicarious experience through friends o stanza 2 – tells Charles tolook atnature & be healed by it subjective& objective – remembers the experience & is living through Charles begins moving out of earlier depression friend –important philosophically &mentally o Pantheism – God in& through everything –communicates through setting Similar in “Rimeof the Ancient Mariner” o Realizes there is nature to look at in his bower that make him as happy as the hike would have –take from the here &now He candraw resources from somewhere he considered a prison o Batvs. swallow–could be bad o Rook above him – he blesses therook & imagines itflying over Charles Triangleof connection with the rook in common o Poem - conversational, down to earth o Nature brings him out of depression Connection to his friend Lord Byron Real name: George Gordon Lord –inherited title, involved ingovernment Badboy – not welcomed by the government In exilea lot (along with Percy Shelley) Involved in controversy with his half-sister–they met as adults Hero/celebrity/noble in Greece – died of a fever there Constantly pursued by women Byronic Hero – bad boy, dark, antihero, tortured o See headnote pg.613 o Examples:Captain Ahab, Heathcliffe(Wuthering Heights),Dracula,Dr. Frankenstein o 1 Byronic Hero by Byron –Childe Harold Manfred – pg.639 o Dramatic poem meant to be read not acted o Blankverse at times o Manfred came from the 1 Gothic novel –Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto In the novel, Manfred’s son is to be married but is hit with a helmet & killed.So, Manfred married his son’s bride, even though he has a wife, becausehe wants an heir. o Milton’s ParadiseLost is a favorite among Romantics – prefer Satan over God o Manfred demands the presence of spirits,demons, &witches o Manfred says no to everyone, makes his own choice –seems to havereasons Refuses toknuckle under anyone no matter how exalted o Everyone he loves is tortured by who he is o Shakespearean - Hamlet themes, tortured soliloquies Manfred is a Hamlet character –wants to die to end the torment Wants to be free on his own terms o Act 1 7 elements spirits all deny himwhat he wants line144 – wants oblivion Scene 2 –on top of the mountain where only Chamois hunters go Hunter stops himfrom jumping Manfred is a gentleman, so he’s niceto the hunter even though he’s mad he was stopped Line75 o Act 2 Scene 1, line25 & Scene 2,line 105 –Manfred’s lover is his sister Scene 2, line157 – witch Demands 1 lastconversation with Astarte &is tormented by the briefness o Act 3 Scene 1, line35 – mountain heights Scene 4 – Coliseumis a placeof battles &is still standing whileCaesar’s Palaceis inruins Abbot wants him to repent – refuses He falls over& dies Abbot doesn’t believeManfred will goto Heaven FeliciaDorotheaHemans “A Spirit’s Return” – pg.895 o epigraph is form Manfred o couplets, alternating rhyme, Iambic pentameter o female speakeraddresses dead man (could be nature) gives the reader her lifestory o when shewas young, sheexistedin nature &let lifepass by nature is her family b/c shehad none o found love too late – world wouldn’t letthem be together line65-70 – found the man sheloved &he died o wants to defy nature to have 1lastconversation with her lover granted that wish o line68 – church –prays to nature/invisible spirits o line175 – ghost appears o nature seems to be beckoning her to die o happier ending than Manfred o awaits death Percy Shelley left England,kind of exiled at Oxford in 1810 (18 years old) – he &his friend made a pamphlet about the Necessity of Atheism & sentit to church people – kicked out of Oxford born after the Revolution –still a revolutionary, trouble maker thought Wordsworth was too conservative & a sell out Mary was always pregnant, Percy was hard to livewith, losta lot of kids Met Mary when he went to talk to her father WilliamGodwin Died before 30 – drowned Lord Byron got on the reader’s level,Shelley did not “To Wordsworth” pg.752 o I feel the sameas you about nature o We both know what we’re talking about, but I’m the one who deplores what you do o Wordsworth was their guiding star,but he lostit o You’re safeina castlerather than down here fighting o You used to have the right ideas &now you’re irrelevant o Wordsworth is now a sellout/a slave o Anti-Wordsworth worse than someone had ideas &lost it – Lord Byron agrees “Ozymandias” pg.776 o doesn’t follow the sonnet rhyme scheme & has a narrative quality that’s different –broke the sonnet form, revised/reshaped o empires are not permanent o most of the poem is a long quotation o people fascinatedwith travel literatures o got information from someone who was there – credibility –but do you believe the poem within speaker o themes - fragmentation, reading/interpreting o passions surviveb/c the sculptor put them on the statue “mock” = imitation &poking fun o Ozymandias was a pharaoh o No one is as mighty as me – irony b/c the statue is broken & kingdom is long gone o Only name mentioned is the king – the work by the sculptor &the name of king are all that survived Who gets the final word? “Outlived the hand that mocked” o All things are temporary “Odeto the West Wind” pg.791-793 o structure: 5numbered sections eachstanza is insonnet form with Dante’s rhyme scheme (Italian) 5 sonnets linked together o WestWind –Autumnal (word associatedwith Shelley) Dying of the year, Spring to follow o Setting – Florence o LikeWordsworth daffodil poem o Wind = invisibleforce (Coleridge),you canonly seethe effects Unseen force, Nature, ghost-like o Inspire &respire –renew the soul likeSpring o Apostrophe to the WestWind o Leaves –departure, on the trees, ina book Shelley wanted to scatter leaves as a poet o Underwater forest – awake slumbering ocean Everyone needs things turned over o Stanza 4 – talks about himself/youth (likeWordsworth) Revolutionary, breaks old forms o Moves from Nature to himself Nature reflects him, more abstract –more egothat Wordsworth o Stanza 5 – prayer to be the bestpoet o Line54 – linemocked by others o Wants to changethe world, casta spell on the sleeping people “A DefenseofPoetry” pg.849 –lastline o poets are unacknowledged but get there first &figure things out, other people agreewith them later but do not appreciate the poet “To a Skylark” pg.834-836 o skylark =bird that flies high& sings its song onlyin flight,invisiblefrom earth so you canonly hear it likethe Rook in “LimeTree Bower” selfishpoem o beginning is about the bird o lastlineof eachstanza is longerthan the others o exaggerates (likeWordsworth) o high symbolic level –bird o after line30 – lot of similes bird is likehim – no one sees himbut he tells them what they need to know strives to find full meaning o lastsection– Shelley tries to make himselfinto a version of the bird bird has never been full of love, never been tired, we pine for what we can’t have even ifhumans were perfect, we couldn’t ride to the bird o idea that ifI could be ½ as good as the ideal,the world would love me o wants to make the world better (Wordsworth justwanted to getpaid) Romantic poet commonality – exaggeration “TheSolitary Reaper” –filledthe hollow “Iwandered lonely as a cloud” –10,000 daffodils “This LimeTree Bower My Prison” “To a Skylark” Friends Coleridge“Lime Tree” o “To a Skylark” Wordsworth “Tintern Abbey” Identity Romantic poets address modern concern with identity – very philosophical “To a Skylark” Flowers Daffodils o “Iwandered lonely as a cloud” o “Odeto the West Wind” Violets o “Written as the closeofSpring” o “She dwelt among untrodden ways” o “Nutting”
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