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Study Guide for Exam #1

by: Emma Nichter

Study Guide for Exam #1 Bios 1030

Marketplace > Ohio University > Biology > Bios 1030 > Study Guide for Exam 1
Emma Nichter
GPA 3.7

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This what will be covered on the first Exam
Human Biology I:Basic Principles
James Van Brocklyn
Study Guide
Human, Biology
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Nichter on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bios 1030 at Ohio University taught by James Van Brocklyn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Human Biology I:Basic Principles in Biology at Ohio University.

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Date Created: 09/13/16
Study Guide, Exam 1 Chapter 1  Characteristics of Life o Metabolism: chemical reactions that transform molecules & energy to maintain life o Homeostasis: maintaining a constant internal environment (temp) o 3 domains  Bacteria  Single cell, no nucleus  Archaea  Single cell, no nucleus, live in extreme conditons  Eukarya  Has a nucleus o Protista o Animalia (humans) o Fungi o Plantae Chapter 2  The atom o Atomic number is the number of protons in an atom o An ion is a charged atom  Water o Hydrophilic molecules dissolve in water, must have an electric charge o Hydrophobic water doesn’t dissolve  These molecules are not charged; lipids  pH o Measures acidity, due to the amount of H+ present  Lower pH = more acidic  Higher pH = more basic  Macromolecules o Carbohydrates  Used for energy – glucose & other monosaccharides broken down for energy which is stored in muscle & liver. o Lipids  Hydrophobic  Used for energy storage  Fatty acids  Phospholipids (jelly fish like shape) make membranes  Hydrophobic on inside  Hydrophillic part on outside o Proteins  Chains of amino acids linked together  Transport substances, communication between cells, cell structure, catalyzing chemical reactions  Enzymes  Catalysts (accelerate chemical reactions) o Nucleic acids  Chains of nucleotides  DNA  Genetic material  Double helix  RNA  Carries out the instructions for DNA  Single strand  Base pairs  A & T  C & G  ATP o Energy currency, used by all cells to get energy o Food + glycogen -> glucose -> ATP o Energy is stored between the phosphate bonds  When energy is needed, the last bond is cut & energy is released Chapter 3  Cells o Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus & organelles, prokaryotic don’t  Membranes o Components  Phospholipids (see Lipids)  Cholesterol  Flexibility of membrane  Proteins  Regulate movement of molecules in & out of the cell  Carbohydrates  Attached to proteins & lipids o Movement of molecules  Passive transport  Diffusion – movement from high to low concentration o No energy required  Active transport  Movement from low to high concentration o Energy form ATP required  Exocytosis  Vesicle circles around contents inside cell, then joins with memebrane to release it  Endocytosis  Membrane surrounds solutes outside of cell, then pinches off & releases contents inside o Organelles  Nucleus  DNA is stored & copied into a RNA copy (mRNA)  Endoplasmic Reticulum  Rough ER – protein synthesis  Smooth ER – lipid synthesis  Lysosome  Macromolecule destruction & recycling  Cytoskeleton  Protein fibers o Macrotubules & microfilaments  Mitochondria  Energy production o Cellular Respiration  Break down food molecules for energy in form of ATP  4 stages  Glycolysis o In cytoplasm o Glucose split in half  IN glucose, 2 ATP  OUT pyruvate, 4 ATP, electron carriers  Prepatory step o In mitochondria o Pyruvate loses a carbon, energy captured as electron carriers  IN pyruvate  OUT acetyl –CoA, electron carriers  Citric acid cycle o Occurs in mitochondria o Last 2 carbons from original glucose given off as C02; energy used to make electron carriers & ATP  Electron Transport Chain o In inner mitochondrial membrane o Electron carriers give electrons to chain, pump H+ into intermembrane space. H20 is made from H+ being added to O2  If no oxygen is available  All steps 2-4 are blocked  Small amount of ATP is made  Pyruvate made into lactic acid


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