Study Guide for Exam #1
Study Guide for Exam #1 Bios 1030
Popular in Human Biology I:Basic Principles
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Nichter on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bios 1030 at Ohio University taught by James Van Brocklyn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Human Biology I:Basic Principles in Biology at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Study Guide, Exam 1 Chapter 1 Characteristics of Life o Metabolism: chemical reactions that transform molecules & energy to maintain life o Homeostasis: maintaining a constant internal environment (temp) o 3 domains Bacteria Single cell, no nucleus Archaea Single cell, no nucleus, live in extreme conditons Eukarya Has a nucleus o Protista o Animalia (humans) o Fungi o Plantae Chapter 2 The atom o Atomic number is the number of protons in an atom o An ion is a charged atom Water o Hydrophilic molecules dissolve in water, must have an electric charge o Hydrophobic water doesn’t dissolve These molecules are not charged; lipids pH o Measures acidity, due to the amount of H+ present Lower pH = more acidic Higher pH = more basic Macromolecules o Carbohydrates Used for energy – glucose & other monosaccharides broken down for energy which is stored in muscle & liver. o Lipids Hydrophobic Used for energy storage Fatty acids Phospholipids (jelly fish like shape) make membranes Hydrophobic on inside Hydrophillic part on outside o Proteins Chains of amino acids linked together Transport substances, communication between cells, cell structure, catalyzing chemical reactions Enzymes Catalysts (accelerate chemical reactions) o Nucleic acids Chains of nucleotides DNA Genetic material Double helix RNA Carries out the instructions for DNA Single strand Base pairs A & T C & G ATP o Energy currency, used by all cells to get energy o Food + glycogen -> glucose -> ATP o Energy is stored between the phosphate bonds When energy is needed, the last bond is cut & energy is released Chapter 3 Cells o Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus & organelles, prokaryotic don’t Membranes o Components Phospholipids (see Lipids) Cholesterol Flexibility of membrane Proteins Regulate movement of molecules in & out of the cell Carbohydrates Attached to proteins & lipids o Movement of molecules Passive transport Diffusion – movement from high to low concentration o No energy required Active transport Movement from low to high concentration o Energy form ATP required Exocytosis Vesicle circles around contents inside cell, then joins with memebrane to release it Endocytosis Membrane surrounds solutes outside of cell, then pinches off & releases contents inside o Organelles Nucleus DNA is stored & copied into a RNA copy (mRNA) Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough ER – protein synthesis Smooth ER – lipid synthesis Lysosome Macromolecule destruction & recycling Cytoskeleton Protein fibers o Macrotubules & microfilaments Mitochondria Energy production o Cellular Respiration Break down food molecules for energy in form of ATP 4 stages Glycolysis o In cytoplasm o Glucose split in half IN glucose, 2 ATP OUT pyruvate, 4 ATP, electron carriers Prepatory step o In mitochondria o Pyruvate loses a carbon, energy captured as electron carriers IN pyruvate OUT acetyl –CoA, electron carriers Citric acid cycle o Occurs in mitochondria o Last 2 carbons from original glucose given off as C02; energy used to make electron carriers & ATP Electron Transport Chain o In inner mitochondrial membrane o Electron carriers give electrons to chain, pump H+ into intermembrane space. H20 is made from H+ being added to O2 If no oxygen is available All steps 2-4 are blocked Small amount of ATP is made Pyruvate made into lactic acid
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