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COMM 3450 Intercultural Communication Midterm Exam Notes

by: Isabella DeLain

COMM 3450 Intercultural Communication Midterm Exam Notes COMM 3450

Marketplace > Auburn University > Communication > COMM 3450 > COMM 3450 Intercultural Communication Midterm Exam Notes
Isabella DeLain

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These are notes from the pages in the book that Dr. Walden gave as a study guide for the midterm exam.
Intercultural Communication
Dr. Walden
Study Guide
Intercultural, communication
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Isabella DeLain on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 3450 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Walden in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Intercultural Communication in Communication at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Intercultural Communication Exam 1 9/18/16 10:55 PM Chapter 1: pgs 6, 11, 14, 19-20 • Culture: o Provides divers ways of interpreting the environment and the world. o “Barbarian”- non-greek people; § outlandish, rude, or brutal. § Rude, wild, or uncivilized person o 19 th century definition: § culture was used as a synonym as “western civilization”, which were considered superior o Todays Definition: § Community or population large enough to be self sustaining and large enough to produce new generations without outsiders. § A groups thoughts, experiences, values, patterns, and concepts that guide behavior of evolving. ú Symbols- verbal and nonverbal language ú Rituals- socially essential collective activities w/in a culture ú Values- feelings not open for discussion w/in a culture ú Heroes-real or imaginary models ú Myths- subjects of novels and other literature of the culture • Ethnography- direct observation, reporting, and evaluation of customary behavior culture. Studies the language of the group and understands the group activites. • Cultural studies- development of the ideal personification of the culture. • Ethnographic and cultural approaches are complementary -The term “white” is most commonly used to describe people who are Caucasian, white, European-American. -Most native tribes people consider themselves “American Indian” over Native American or Alaskan Native. -‘sub’culture is considered as a negative- and a secondary culture -Co-Culture- the idea that no culture is superior, they coexist Race and skin color: • Concept of Race o Collier and Thomas Criteria o Race- large body of people characterized by similarity of descent § a persons race is a result of their ancestors mating patterns o race can influence physical traits and genes, as well as skull and dental features, alchohol processing and inherited disease. o Humans are classifies into 4 types: § 1. Africanus § 2. Americanus § 3. Asiaticus § 4. Europeaneus o Race is based on visible physical characteristics (ex: skin and hair color). o Race can also be defined as a sociohistorical concept- explains how races have varied over time and between cultures o Skin color doesn’t define race o Hundred of words for skin color § Parda- mixed ancestry o People may be the same race but of diverse cultures o Also the same culture but of different ancestry o From 1790-1850 the only racial categories were White and Black Chapter 2: pgs 26, 35-26, 41-44, 52 - Intercultural Communication refers to interactions among people of diverse cultures -Peace Corps- created by JFK to increase interest of diverse cultures • Intercultural Communication Competence o Ones skill in facilitating successful intercultural communication outcomes. o The multicultural person is one who respects cultures and has a tolerance for differences o Chen’s four skill areas: personality strength, communication skills, psychological adjustment, and cultural awareness • Personality Strength: o Self-concept- way a person views themselves o Self-disclosure- willingness of individuals to openly reveal info about themselves o Self- monitoring- using social comparison info to control and modify self-presentation o Social Relaxation- ability to reveal little anxiety in communication • Communication skills: o Requires message skills (ability to understand use of language), behavioral flexibility (ability to select appropriate behavior in context), interaction management (handling aspects of a conversation: ex- initiation of conversation) , and social skills (empathy and identity maintenance). § Empathy-ability to think the same thoughts and feel the same emotions as the other person § Identity maintenance- ability to maintain a counterparts identity by communicating understanding of the other person. • Psychological Adjustment o Communicators must be able to handle “culture shock” such as feelings of frustration, stress, alienation, and new environments • Cultural awareness: o Understanding how people think and behave in different cultures o “the ability to negotiate cultural meanings and to execute appropriately effective communication behaviors the recognize the interactants’ multiple identities in a specific environment.” –Chen and Starosta’s model o Chen and Starosta’s 3 perspectives: § 1. Affective or intercultural sensitivity- to acknowledge and respect cultural differences § 2. Cognitive or intercultural awareness- self awareness of ones own personal cultural identity and understanding how cultures vary § 3. Behavioral or intentional adroitness- message skills, knowledge of appropriate self disclosure, behavior flexibility, interaction management, and social skills. • honorific- form of direct address, shows respect Western Perspectives on Communication • Communication has been studied for over 2,500 years, starting in Greece with Aristotle o Process of communication involves a speaker, the speech act, an audience, and a purpose. Twentieth-Century Theory • Communication is conceptualized as one-way, top-down, and suited for the transmission media of print, telephones, radio, and television. Components of Communication • 1. Source: the person with an idea they want to communicate. Ex: CBS, your instructor, etc. • 2. Encoding: process of putting an idea into a symbol. Encode thoughts into words, and non spoken symbols. • 3. Message: the encoded thought, the result of encoding. • 4. Channel: how the encoded message is transmitted. Ex: print, media, electronic, face-to-face • 5. Noise: anything that interrupts the message. o Internal-thoughts and feelings that interfer o External-sights, sounds, and other things that draw your attention away o sematic noise-alternative meanings of sources message symbols. • 6. Receiver: person who attends the message • 7. Decoding: receiver assigning meanings to the symbols received • 8. Receiver response: anything the receive does after attending and decoding the message. • 9. Feedback: portion of receivers response of which the source has knowledge and to which the source attends and assigns meanings. • 10. Context: the environment in which the communication takes place and helps define the communication. The Special case of Prejudice and racism: • Prejudice and racism are commonly viewed as being rooted in a child’s early communication. • Hate speech- threats or verbal slurs directed against a specific group of people o Considered a violation of the first amendment. CHAPTER 3: pg 60, 62-64, 70, 72-73 Phenomenological theory principles: • Knowledge is found directly in conscious experience. • How you relate to an experience determines its meaning for you • Language is the vehicle of meaning Sensing: • Sensation is the neurological process by which we become aware of our environment. • Human senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch- also pain, temperature and pressure. Perceiving: • Three step process: selection, organization, and interpretation 1. Selection: i. What you select to see, hear and sense. 2. Organization: i. The categorization of what you sense and perceive ii. Your language provides the symbol to group perceptions iii. Group like objects together 3. Interpretation High context: Cultures in which less has to be said or written because more of the meaning is in the physical environment of already shared by people. • Info is in the physical context • Decrease the perception of self as separate from the group Low Context: cultures in which little meaning is determined by the context because the message is encoded in the explicit code. • Verbal messages are elaborate and specific • Detailed and redundant Concept of Face: • Something that represents the confidence of society in the integrity of egos moral character • Low context cultures such as US use direct face negotiation • Communication in high-context cultures such as China is more indirect or implicit and more likely to use intermediaries. Case Study of Perception and Food: • Cultures use food to reinforce and express identities • Counterbalance of Confucianism and Taoism creates the basis of Chinese cuisine as art, using balance and harmony. • Tao is a life in perfect accord with nature • “The Way” a simple, spontaneous life close to nature • Yin and Yang- belief in a balance that governs all of life and nature o Yin- shady side of a hill; dark, cool aspects of the cosmos, seen mostly in females § Water plants, crustaceans, and beans o Yang- sunny side of the hill; bright, dry, and warm aspect, seen mostly in males § Oily and fried foods, hot flavored foods o When yin and yang foods are not balanced, there are problems in health CHAPTER 4: pgs. 83, 85, 87 Ethnocentrism • Negatively judging aspects of another culture by one’s cultural standards • To believe in the superiority of your own culture and be consistent in that culture • Cultural nearsightedness- less extreme ethnocentrisim: taking a culture for granted and neglecting other cultures. o Results in making assumptions that simple things are the same everywhere • Eurocentric ethnocentrism: ex- recognizing only western holidays in schools and only focusing on western history, music and art. Ethnocentrisms Negative effects on Communication • Leads to rejection of the richness and knowledge of other cultures. • Blocks exchange of ideas and skills Stereotypes and Prejudice: • Stereotype- used to refer to negative or positive judgments about individuals based on any observable or believed group membership. o Profiling- practice of scrutinizing certain individuals based on characteristics. • Prejudice- irrational suspicion or hatred of a particular group, race, religion, of sexual orientation. • Both make judgments based on group membership CHAPTER 5: pgs. 108, 112, 114-115, 124, 126, 128 - Three major approaches to the study of nonverbal behavior o 1. Nurture approach- nonverbal communication is learned o 2. Nature approach- nonverbal behavior is innate and genetically determined o 3. Functional approach- types of nonverbal behaviors and how they are formed. - the smile is the near-universal gesture of friendliness o Southeast Asia- sign of masked embarrassment o Latin cultures use it as a signal of excuse me or please - regulating interaction: directing who will speak next in a conversation; a symbol of communication Nonverbal Message Codes: • Proxemics: study of personal space o Intimate: private situations, emotionally close, uses a whisper, within touching distance o Personal: handshake distance, distance most couples stand, soft voice, o Casual: distance between salespeople and customers, and coworkers, use of full voice, distance of 4-12 feet o Public: teaching in a classroom or giving a speech, using loud voice. - Queuing- how you form a line while waiting • Kinesics: gestures, body movements, facial expressions, and eye contact o Communication depends on our actions, postures, movements and expressions of bodies. • Haptics: the use of touch to communicate o The US has one of the lowest rates of touch in the world • Clothing and Apperance: o Ghutrah- white or red and white check cloth covering the head o Iqual/ agal- double ring of black rope or cord used to hold the ghutrah o Burka- covers entire face o Niqab- does not cover eyes, worn with a headscarf o Clothing can reflect subculture and subgroup identity § Ex: medical groups, uniforms, etc. • Territoriality: how a space can be used to communicate messages o Pnyx- open air theater o Agora- town square used for many activities o Feng shui- art of manipulating the physical environment to establish harmony • Olfactics: study of communication via smell o Used by advertisers- fragrance strips in magazines. o Smell can refer to body odor. Some cultures are sensitive to body odor. § Body odor can be affected by the food you eat. Meat eaters have a distinct body odor. - wai- nonverbal gesture used to communicate greeting, bidding farewell, respect, and appreciation. • Palms together, vertically, under chin CHAPTER 6: 135-136, 138, 140-141, 142-144, 146-147 Study of Language origins: • Syntax: how words are arranged to convey meaning • English has a SVO (subject, verb, object) word order. • Social constructionism- symbolic interaction between social groups o Idea that reality is objective Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: accounts for differences in languages across cultures • Bilingual Speakers: o Coordinate bilingual: people who learn a second language later in life, and use the second language in limited contexts o Compound bilingual: learned second language early in life and use in multiple contexts • Linguistic Relativity o Culture is controlled by and controls language o Language provides the conceptual categories that influence how the speakers’ perceptions are encoded and stored. • Vocabulary o If a language has a rich vocab for a particular thing, you can guess the activity is important in that culture. Grammar and Syntax: • Grammar is thought to have a greater influence than vocabulary • English places an emphasis on an action taker • Japanese does not require the specification of a subject -Arabic Language: • spoken in some form by 200 million people • strongly connected with Islam • Koran- the ultimate standard for Arabic style and grammar • Arabic divides rhetoric into three parts: o 1. Al ma’ani: deals with grammatical forms and kinds of sentences o 2. Al-bayan: refers to modes for achieving lucid style and clarity of expression o 3. Al-badi “science of metaphors”: refers to beatification or style and the embellishment of speech • The arab is swayed more by words than by ideas and more by ideas than by facts Translation Problems: 5 barriers • 1. Vocabulary Equivalence: o a meaning can be explained in one word in English, but many words in other countries. o Different languages lack words that are directly translatable. • 2. Idiomatic Equivalence o English is particularly replete with idioms o Figures of speech can be translated differently in other languages and cultures • 3. Grammatical- Syntactical Equivalence o Languages don’t necessarily have the same grammar. • 4. Experiential Equivalence: o If an object or experience does not exist in your culture, its difficult to translate words to describe it. • 5. Conceptual Equivalence: o abstract ideas that may not exist in the same fashion in different languages. § Ex: “freedom” does not have a universally shared meaning o Back translation: first translation into the second language, then translating it back, and comparing result. Pidgins, creoles, and universal language Pidgins: • The mixture of two or more languages to form a new language, originally used for restricted purposes such as trade • A contact language between diverse language groups, widespread use in west Africa. • Melanesian Pidgin English is a pidgin language based on English • Pidgin English became widespread once colonial European plantations were established. • Papua New Guinea constitution recognizes 3 “national” languages: English, Hiri Motu, and Tok Pisin o English is the major education and written communication language. o Hiri Motu is the language of the southern providences o Tok Pisin is used in speeches and reports of national parliament • It is still common in other tribes to switch to other pidgins Creoles: • A new language developed from prolonged contact of two of more languages • Acquired by children as their first language • Product of the colonial era • Typically Incorporate the vocabulary of the dominant language with the grammar and some words from subordinate groups • Most well known creoles are Jamaican Patois- a mix of English and west African languages Esperanto: • The only moderately successful attempt at creating one universal language o Created in 1887 by Lazarus Zamenhof • It’s a simplified language with latin-type grammer and European vocab. • Universal languages are not successful because of the characteristics of languages o They are artificial and have no relationship to a culture CHAPTER 7: 170-171, 180, 182, 186, 188 Dimensions of culture • Masakazu defines modern individualism as “ a view of humanity that justifies inner beliefs and unilateral self assertion, as well as competition based on these.” • in a collectivist culture, the interest of the group is over the interest of the individual. o Tightly integrated o Stress interdependent activities o In the work place, work relationships are based on social link • In individualist cultures, (such as the US) you define people by what they’ve done and their accomplishments o Loosely integrated o In the work place, employer-employee relationships are established by a contract o The US is ranked #1 in individualism countries - Japan is one of the worlds most wired countries Masculinity vs. Femininity: Masculinity: • Cultures that value masculine traits stress assertiveness, competition, and material success • Managers are decisive and assertive • In masculine cultures, the man determines the number of children, in a family Femininity: • Cultures that value feminine traits overlap social roles • In the workplace, managers use intuition and strive for consensus • Feminine cultures are more likely in colder climates • In feminine cultures, women has a stronger say in the number of children in a family Power Distance • The way a culture deals with inequalities. • “the extent to which less powerful members of organizations in a country except and accept that a power is distributed equally” – Hofstede • High power distant cultures: o Children are expected to be obedient towards parents o People show respect to those of higher status • Mitigated speech- describes the deferential or indirect speech in communication between individuals of perceived high power distance Hofstedes 4 associations with power distance: • Geographic Latitude- higher latitudes are associated with lower power distance • Population- large populations are associated with higher power distance • Wealth- National wealth is associated with lower power distance • History- countries with a romance language score medium to high. o Germanic languages score low Uncertainty avoidance: • Extent to which people in a culture feel threatened by uncertain situations • Expressed through nervous stress, a need for predictability and rules • Cultures with strong uncertainty are active, aggressive, emotional, compulsive, and intolerant • Weak cultures in uncertainty are contemplative, less aggressive, unemotional, relaxed Long term vs short term orientation: Long- term • Also known as “Confucian work dynamic” • Dedicated, motivated, responsible, and educated individuals with commitment • Encourages thrift, savings, perseverance Short-term: • Less savings, quick results and concern with face 9/18/16 10:55 PM 9/18/16 10:55 PM


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