Geography Study Guide Exam 1
Geography Study Guide Exam 1 GEOG 1030-01
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annah Shrader on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 1030-01 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Robert C. Hoff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 195 views. For similar materials see World Geography in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Geography Study Guide Exam 1 Essay Topics: 8 points each Cultural Landscape refers to a state’s distinctive attributes in the area the people reside in. Another way of thinking of this would be the description of the natural landscape, alongside the culture that lives there. This would include the rivers, mountains, soil variation, climate, important landforms along with what the people have built, how they look, what they wear etc. Living in Tennessee is very different than living in Miami. Describing to someone why the two places are so different is explaining the cultural landscape of each. Entire Realms contain many different cultural landscapes within. Is the area rural or urban? Are the people religious? Where do they live? What do they do? What does their government look like? Are they close to mountains or rivers? These are the type of questions that will answer what an areas cultural landscape is. Spatial Interaction: Europe is a small realm containing 40 different states, many of which speak different languages, and have different cultures. None of the countries can stand alone without aid from the other countries. It is a network of nations that must work together to thrive independently. An important method by which this is achieved is called complementarity. This is when one state or region produces a surplus of something that another region or state could use. Someone else needs what you have too much of. An example of this given in the book is Italy’s need for coal produced in western Europe, and western Europe’s need for farm products produced in Italy. All of this is a fancy way of saying trade has been established. Now that there is a need for trade, there must be a way to get the products to each other. This is known as transferability. It is the ease at which the products are transported. Transferability in Europe is typically an easy thing to do due to the small distance between other states and availability of advanced transportation methods. Easy transport plus needed surplus goods equals an interdependent Europe. Russia has had a shrinking population, or population implosion, for over two decades. The entirety of all the regions in Russia are suffering from a decrease in population, but there are some regions worse off than others. The Far Eastern region has lost 17% of its population since 1991, followed by the Caucasus Mountains surrounding area losing around 12%. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 the population of Russia totaled at approximately 149 million people. In 2011 the population dropped to 142 million. People are dying faster than they are giving birth (and they are leaving). People are having less children due to the uncertainty of their homelands, as well as the prevalence of abortions, but the real factor in the population decrease is the amount of those who are prematurely dying. The life expectancy for male Russians has gone from 71 at the Soviet Collapse to 62 in 2010. Females life expectancy has not declined as significantly as the males, but it has still declined. AIDS and Alcoholism are prevalent in Russia, as well as murder, suicide, and smoking. Ghost towns are arising because people are not forced to stay in Russia any longer. A shocking statistic of fewer than half of male teenagers in Russia currently living will make it to 60. European Map : This is worth 40 points of the test. List 20 countries in Europe based off of location. Google “blank Europe map” and print one out or just screenshot it on your phone. Practice and memorization are key for that. Page 40 in the book might work for you, but I would just google a simple map of Europe filled in to find the answers. Multiple Choice Topics: Worth 36 points on the test. There are only 32 key ideas highlighted on this study guide. There will be 36 multiple choice questions. Introduction Chapter: Geography is a spatial discipline. This means that the focus of the subject is on the space on the Earth’s surface, and the organization of that space. This is not only natural space, but also social. An absolute location is found by coordinates of longitude and latitude. A relative location is found in reference to other things or other surrounding regions. Relative location is much more useful to the average human than absolute location. Formal Regions are like cold and sparsely populated Siberia, they are the mostly the same all the way through. It is about homogeneity. This also includes sameness of language. A Functional Region is an urban-centered system/city, surrounded by a periphery. It has a core. The Koppen-Geiger system of generalized climates are from A-E including H. A=Equatorial/Tropical B=Dry C=Temperate (where we live) D=Cold E=Freezing H=Mountainous Culture is the attitudes, customs, knowledge, and habitual behavior of members in a society. The largest population concentration is in South Asia (India, Pakistan). The second is East Asia (China, Japan), and the third is Europe (including western Russia). These three account for 4 billion people out of the 7 billion on the earth. China and India are back and forth as the countries with the highest population individually. Centrifugal Forces are those that divide a nation. This could be religious differences, ethnic variation, political ideology etc. Centripetal Forces are those that bind a nation together. These unifying forces could be having the same language, or the same religion. It is when the people agree. A primate city of a country is typically the capital, but not always. It is the largest most urban city that represents the culture. A shatter belt is a region under constant stress and colliding forces. It tends to be fragmented due to hostile neighbors. They are very unstable politically and economically. Examples would be Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia. Europe Chapter: Mercantilism was a European policy in the 16 -18 centuries to travel to the new found lands and bring back as much gold and silver to maintain a balanced trade in the state. Devolution is when a country (state) has a region inside it that begins challenging the central government and gaining political strength against the state government. This can lead to secession from the union. Supernationalism is a voluntary association between three or more nations to benefit the lot. An example of such a cooperation is the European Union. The Relative location of Europe lies on the western part of the Eurasian landmass. It is connected to the Atlantic on the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the South. The eastern boundary is in continuous fluctuation due to wars and territory claims. Europe is a relatively small realm, which makes distances to other places easier to travel to. There are seas and oceans throughout. It has a very advantageous location. Europe has four physical landscapes. The Western Uplands, the North European lowland (aka Great European Plain), the Central uplands (at the core) has hills and plateaus, and the Alpine System (southern Alps mountains). The Appalachian Mountains is the major mountain chain of Europe. The European Renaissance began after the millennium of Dark Ages around the fifteenth century. Europe’s population increased due to the agrarian revolution. This is when farmers began growing more food than their families needed. This surplus of food allowed people to move to urban areas and live off of the surpluses while focusing on other matters of trade. New tools were invented, the industrial and political revolutions took place. Europe grew into a leading world power. The Political Revolution of Europe refers to the time when beginning around the 1600s when the royal courts began centralizing power into larger national territories. Boundaries were beginning to be recognized. But the Royal Courts did not last, the greatest example being the French Revolution in the 18 century. Ending the reign of monarchs did not succeed in all of Europe’s 40 states, but it was the beginning of many. This is when ideas such as socialism, and nationalism arose. People were proud of their nations. The Industrial Revolution of Europe took the realm by storm. Before the 1800s, there were already textiles and advanced farm equipment in use, but a few things occurred that quickened the spread of influence. Coal was found to be a much better alternative than charcoal which moved the iron smelters out of the forest and into coalfields. The Steam Engine was invented in 1780 that allowed for the factories to be relocated to urban areas instead of resting next to rivers. This also advanced engines to be used for transportation, and quicker methods of manufacturing. The Revolution was centered in Britain, and expanded out. BENELUX stands for Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. There are 28 million people in this tiny area. These countries played a large role in the EU and Belgium is headquarters of the EU. They are highly economically productive and advanced. The British Isles contain The United Kingdom and Ireland. These are two major islands off of the coast of Western Europe. The UK is separated into 4 parts: North Ireland, England, Wales, and Scotland. Ireland is just the Republic of Ireland. . Russia Chapter: The Russian Population is just over 140 million. The concentration of that number are located in the west and southwest. The rest is mainly along the southern part of Russia. Very few live in the northeast. Russia is the largest landmass. It is twice as large as the second largest landmass, Canada. The climate is predominantly dry and very cold. The northern half of the realm is plagued by permafrost (the soil remains frozen all year). Its location is influenced by the Arctic ocean currents, and unfortunately does not feel the ocean currents from the Atlantic or Pacific. The Trans-Siberian Rail Road is the means of connecting the two sides of Europe from the far northwest to the southeast city of Vladivostok. Its construction began in 1892, and in attempt to create a shortcut to Vladivostok the Russians decided to go through the Chinese territory of Manchuria. The Chinese were not okay with this, but were politically unstable and could not protect their territory. The Japanese was the Asian world power at the time and declared war on Russia. Russia suffered an ugly defeat. Ivan the Terrible was a czar who ruled during the 16th century. He was a major military power and he expanded Moscow's empire by conquering Estonia and Latvia near the Baltic Sea. Peter the Great was a czar who ruled from 1682-1725. He worked as a shipbuilder in Holland before he became the Russian czar. He moved the capital of Russia from Moscow to port city of St. Petersburg and he brought with him a passion to open up Russia to European influence. He wanted to create a nation of sea commerce, high in global trade. Catherine the Great was a female czarina who ruled from 1760-1796. She expanded the empire of Russia into the area now known as Transcaucasia and wanted Russia to become a major colonial power. The Russian Core is located in the West of the realm. It stretches from the northwest Barents Sea down to just above Transcaucasia in the South. It ends at the far boundary of the Ural Mountains to the East (including the mountains). This is where the majority of the population resides, as well as the largest cities and leading industries. It contains Moscow and St. Petersburg and the Volga River (compared to the Mississippi river of the USA). The Ural Mountains are historically significant, rich in resources, but not a threat to cross. This entire area is also known as the Russian Plain where there is limited, but at least some success in agriculture in the southern/central regions. While Moscow and St. Petersburg area is the heart, the Volga River area is the main artery. Siberia is the largest region of Russia, but the least populated. There are only 15 million people in this vast stretch. The climate is D (cold) and E (frigid) with the upper areas being nothing but Tundra. There are Taiga forests clustered throughout containing coniferous trees. It is also called Russia’s freezer. There a few options for survival in these regions and it is mostly uninhabited. The area has oil and gas natural resources found in it, and there might be more if searched. The Caucasus Mountains are a continuation of European’s Alps. They are located in between the Black Sea and the Captain Sea. Unlike the Ural Mountains, they are very difficult to penetrate/cross. The area surrounding it is ethnically and culturally diverse. There are centrifugal forces throughout, especially concerning religious differences. The Mountains separate the three independent states from the rest of Russia. It is an area within the shatter belt.
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