Anthropology and the Human Experience Study Guide EXAM1
Anthropology and the Human Experience Study Guide EXAM1 ANTY 101H - 01
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Paige Hamrock on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTY 101H - 01 at University of Montana taught by Richard A. Sattler (P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Anthro & the Human Experience in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
Anthropology Study Guide: Test 1 What is Anthropology? - Anthropology is the study of human beings in all aspects, all places, and all times. - Anthropology is holistic, refers to an approach that studies many aspects of a multifaceted system, comparative, tries to understand humans by comparative study of people from multiple groups, humans vs nonhumans, and evolutionary, nature and pattern of change in humans, WE ARE APES, change in time. - In their research, anthropologists employ the methods of both science and humanities. - Scientiﬁc: Hypotheses and testing. Hypotheses are scientiﬁc predictions which may be derived from theories. Quantitative(mathematical), mostly used in biological anthropology and archaeology - Humanist: Interpretive, Qualitative(descriptive), concerned with discovery of meaning, most common in cultural and linguistics. - There are two broad divisions of anthropology: Biological/Physical and Cultural Biological - Paleoanthropology: Concerned with evolution, importance of fossils for evolution. Where fossils can be found is called fossil locality. Also focuses on human variation. - Forensic Anthropology, Bioarchaeology, and Osteology: Attempts to identify decomposed remains and learn cause of death, attempts to learn about life style from human remains. Forensic anthropologist usually work at universities, but some work for the police force - Primatology: studies nonhuman primate behavior, attempts to better understand human nature through the study of our closest animal relatives Archaeology - Studies past humans(both historic and prehistoric) by analyzing the patterning of material debris(trash, materials, ect.) they leave behind. - Archaeologists work at sites, which they locate by using techniques such as looking for evidence of rock formations, mounds, soil color, use maps, GIS, LIDAR, and satellite/aerial photography - At archaeological sites archaeologists look for artifacts, which are human made or altered objects, Artifacts are the subject matter of archaeology Archaeological Methods - Survey: In order to ﬁnd sites archaeologists will often walk in transect lines looking for evidence of material culture. Many different ways to survey - Excavation: Once a site is found, archaeologists will often excavate(dig a hole) in order to uncover the artifacts. Archaeology is destructive by nature, therefore it is important to establish a three-dimensional grid over a site to control for the exact location of all materials recovered. Excavate in units(usually 1x1m), going down 10cm layers, keeping detailed records and mapping all strata(layer of rock) Linguistics - Linguistics: studies human language; structure, patterns of change in language over time, relationships among existing and historic languages, relationship to cognition, social uses. Types of Linguistic Studies - Historical Linguistics: how languages change over time - Descriptive(structural): how languages are constructed - Sociolinguistics: Study of cultural and subcultural patterns of speaking in different social contexts. Different ways of talking(how you talk to your parents vs how you talk to your friends) Cultural/Social - Cultural/Social Anthropology is the study of contemporary or historical cultures - Studies the contrast between ethnocentrism and cultural relativism - Ethnocentrism: the belief that ones own cultural beliefs and practices are natural, right and proper, and that all other societies and practices are inferior to the extent that they differ from ones own. - Cultural Relativism: The belief that all cultures are equally valid and that each must be analyzed or studies in its own terms and that value and judgements should be avoided in analyzing other cultures. Cultural Anthropology Methods - Ethnography: most cultural anthropologists do in-depth studies of one particular culture. Produce an ethnography based on participant observation in the ﬁeld, this is primarily descriptive. - Cross-Cultural Comparison: In-depth analysis of a particular cultural belief or practices across several cultures which attempts to explain the development and function of the practice - Ethnohistory: Focus on historical/research Applied Anthropology - Applied Anthropology is a term given to any discipline that seek to apply anthropological methods and insight to practical problems. - Examples: forensic, development, and medical anthropology, also cultural resource management(CRM is big in Montana) Dating Methods - Broadly divided into two categories: relative and absolute. Mainly used in paleoanthropology, forensic, and archaeology. - Relative Method: can determine whether on object is older or younger than another, but not by how much. CANNOT give speciﬁc date. - Absolute Method: also called chronometric, provide “absolute” ages in years before present. Before present being before 1950. Will always have +/- years. Relative Dating - Stratigraphy: Oldest dating method used in archaeology. From the Greek “strata” (layers). Particular sequence of layers. Lower strata are older, further down you dig, the older the date (usually). Sometimes bioturbation, and human activities can disrupt strata. Can help for seriation patterns Absolute Dating - Radiocarbon: All living things absorb carbon 14(radioactive isotope) at relatively constant rate while living from breathing carbon dioxide. After death C-14 decays into Nitrogen-14 at constant rate (1/2 every 5,730 years). Only useful on materials 500-700,000 years old. - Potassium-Argon: After intense heating, radioactive potassium decays into argon at a ﬁxed rate. Half-life of 1.3 billion years. Useful for materials greater than 100,000 years old - Dendrochronology: This is actually the most accurate of all the dating methods. Date by means of annual tree rings in wooden artifacts. Can also give information about climate. However, the dates only apply to when the tree was cut. Only go back a few thousand years, up to 10,000. Genetics and Human Variation - Gene: A DNA sequence which codes for a particular protein which provides a particular physical trait. Responsible for heredity. - Allele: One of several versions of the same gene. - Chromosomes: Paired rod-shaped structures within a cell nucleus containing the genes that transmit traits from one generation to the next - Genotype vs Phenotype - Genotype: Your actual complete genetic inheritance. All of your genes. Everyone receives two genes for every trait, one from your mother, one from your father. Homozygous: Receive two identical alleles for locus. Heterozygous: Receive two different alleles for locus. Genotype includes all of these genes. - Phenotype: Your genetic inheritance. Those genes whose effects are observable. Populations and Selection - A population is a group of normally interbreeding individuals of the same species - Different levels of population: Local Breeding Population: is the smallest normally interbreeding group. The species is the largest potentially interbreeding group. - Evolution operates on populations. - Selection operates on individuals. - Hardy-Weinberg Principle states that evolution will not occur if: Mutation is not occurring, natural selection is not occurring, the population is inﬁnitely large, all mating is totally random, everyone produces the same number of offspring, and there is no migration in or out of the population. - Hardy-Weinberg Equation: Mathematical formula which can measure change and identify the nature of change in a population. Formula to measure evolution(CHANGE) p^2+2pq+q^2=1. p=the frequency of the dominant allele. q=the frequency of the recessive allele for a trait controlled by a pair of alleles. Genetic Change in Populations - Genetic change in the population occurs from mutation, selection, genetic drift, and gene ﬂow. - Mutation: random changes in the genetic sequence. Can be good bad or neutral. - Selection: Non-random changes in gene frequencies reﬂecting operation of environmental constraints. - Genetic Drift: Random shifts in the gene frequency reﬂecting demographic accidents. - Gene Flow: Exchange of genes between discrete populations. Mutation and Variation - Mutations: errors in genetic reproduction. Most are random copying errors. Environmental factors can also produce mutations. Some can be lethal, however most are neutral. Ultimately the primary source of genetic variability Selection - Selection is a process by which some genetic varieties survive better and have more offspring than others in a given set of environmental conditions. - There are three forms of selection: natural, sexual, and artiﬁcial selection. - Natural Selection: reﬂects general environmental effects on population. Includes climate physical setting, other plants and animals, etc. - Adaptation is when genetic changes allow an organism to survive and reproduce in a speciﬁc environment. - Sexual Selection: reﬂects effects of selective mate choice. Female choice in most species. - Artiﬁcial Selection: reﬂects effects of human intervention and manipulation. Genetic Drift - Genetic Drift is the result of random shifts in the frequency of different alleles in the gene pool. - Results from demographic chance - The smaller the population, the larger and more common the effects - In its most extreme form, it is called “founders effect” - Represents profound changes in gene frequencies because of small founding population. Gene Flow - Gene ﬂow results from interbreeding between discrete populations - Introduction of new alleles and changes in frequencies of old alleles. - Normally occurs anytime two(or more) populations come in contact. - Decreases differences between populations. Explaining Variation - “Race”: In biology, it is geographically distinct subspecies. Characterized by a suite of distinctive traits. Requires discontinuous distribution of distinctive traits. Reﬂects reproductive isolation. - Human Races: In the past, scientists attempted to classify humans into a limited number of large geographic races. These were all based on a limited number of visible traits(hair, skin, eye color, ect.). Anthropologists today realize that humans are all one race, therefore, racial classiﬁcations have no biological bias. Variations in Humans - Total degree of genetic variation in the human species is well below the threshold for subspecies in biology - However, some anthropologists and geneticists have attempted to measure actual degree of genetic similarity and difference among human populations using mathematical models. - Used cladistics models to show relationship among populations, the found insufﬁcient differences to distinguish races, greatest variability wishing Africa and between Africa and rest of the world. Evolution and the Primates - Evolutionary evidence: fetal development, comparative anatomy, genetic comparisons, fossil record. Genetic Similarities - We are genetically more similar to some animals than others: we share about 98% of our genes with chimpanzees. We are most closely related to chimps and bonobos. Taxonomic Place of Humans - Based on both morphological and genetic similarities, humans are classiﬁed as animals, mammals, and primates. - Primates have distinguishing traits: grasping hands(opposable thumbs), ﬁngernails, forward facing eyes, and a weak sense of smell. Primate Characteristics - Larger brains, particularly cerebral hemispheres (ability to think) - Cranium: eyes fully surrounded, with bone between temple. Foramen magnum shifts forward and under. Muzzle reduction. - Upper body: clavicle and scapula for increased mobility and strength of arms. Shoulder joint full rotation. - Culture: all exhibit some degree of “culture” shared, learned behaviors. Prosimians and Anthropoids - The oder primates is traditionally divided into two suborders:prosimians and anthropoids - Prosimians: Literally means “pre-monkeys” includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers. - Anthropoids: Includes New World and Old World Monkeys, less and great apes, and humans. Old World and New World Monkeys - Old World Monkeys: Orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. These are also the great apes. Typically more terrestrial, or ground dwelling. - New World Monkeys: Appear in South America about 24 million years ago (clearly of African origin). Mostly arboreal, or tree dwelling. Long prehensile tails allow for brachiating between tree limbs.
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