Study guide BIO 330
Study guide BIO 330 Bio 330
University of Phoenix
Popular in Invertebrate Zoology
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Wolfjedi on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 330 at University of Phoenix taught by Ginger Jacobs in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Invertebrate Zoology in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Phoenix.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
BIO 330 Study Guide 1. What roles do water and air play in the lives of invertebrates? Why do some invertebrates live in water and others do not? a. According to Pechenik (2015), the physical properties of salt water, freshwater, and air play major roles in determining the structural, physiological, and behavioral characteristics displayed by animals living in various habitats. Invertebrates that live in water have thin, water permeable body walls, and external respiratory structures, such as gills, which provide "an increased exchange and, if they are especially thin walled, may also increase the efficiency of respiration" (Pechenik, 2015). Invertebrates that live on land can become dehydrated. To help prevent dehydration, some creatures secrete mucus (worms). They also have internal respiratory systems, and water impermeable body walls. Reproduction and zygote development is more likely for aquatic invertebrates than terrestrial invertebrates, due to the complete process being achieved in water, while land invertebrates fertilize their eggs internally (often through a successful mating process). Terrestrial invertebrates also have a more complex respiratory, reproductive, internal organs, and excretory systems. Aquatic invertebrates do not require parental care during development as they are suspended in nutrient rich waters. Because water is dense, aquatic invertebrates do not need rigid skeletal support, are able to move through the water without expending too much energy, and are able to live in suspension. Temperature fluctuations cause a high level of stress to most invertebrates. "Invertebrates living in thermally variable environments require biochemical, physiological, and/or behavioral adaptations not required by organisms living in more stable aquatic habitats" (Pechenik, 2015). Gas exchange is slower for aquatic organisms due to the density of water compared to air. Larger animals have a greater drag compared to smaller animals. Viscosity is increased in water due to temperatures, which causes small animals more frictional resistance when moving. Other factors that influence aquatic life are Reynolds numbers (Re), pollutants, CO2, pH levels, predators, habitat resources, and osmotic balance. b. Pechenik, J. A. (2015). Biology of the invertebrates (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGrawHill 2. What are some environmental problems that affect invertebrates in the water and in the air? a. The fact that water is the socalled universal solvent creates another problem that should be particularly acute for aquatic invertebrates. Many of our industrial and agricultural waste products are water soluble, and we insert fantastic amounts of such pollutants into aquatic ecosystems each year. Aquatic animals must live in particularly intimate contact with these pollutants. Consider, for example, that the gas exchange surfaces of aquatic invertebrates are always in direct contact with the surrounding fluid. Consider also that many aquatic invertebrates are small, so that the surface area across which pollutants can diffuse is high relative to the animal's body volume. Freeliving embryonic and larval stages, so common in aquatic invertebrate life cycles, would seem especially vulnerable to pollutant insult, partly because of their highsurfacearea:volume ratios and partly because they are undergoing such complex and critical developmental processes. Indeed, for any given toxicant, developmental stages typically suffer adverse effects at only one tenth to onehundredth the concentration required to affect adults of the same species to the same degree. b. Pechenik, J. A. (2005). Biology of the invertebrates. Boston: McGrawHill, Higher Education. c. Carbon dioxide, like other gases, is also water soluble. Scientists estimate that the oceans have absorbed about a third of our excess CO2 emissions over the past 50 years or so. Incredibly, this uptake of CO2 has overwhelmed the bicarbonate buffering system of seawaterone of the most remarkable things to have occurred in my lifetimeand lowered ocean pH by about 0.1 pH unit. The pH of seawater is expected to continue declining (by up to 0.4 pH units) for the rest of the century. Rising acidity should eventually interfere with the ability of many marine organisms to calcify. Other consequences of continued acidification will probably be surprising, and could well be devastating: organisms like foraminiferans, corals, sea urchins, snails, clams, and the developmental stages of such creatures as sea urchins, snails, and clamsall of which secrete calcium carbonate supporting or protective structuresshould be especially vulnerable. In addition, recent studies are showing that the ability of other animals to detect food and predators also may be affected, so the impact of reduced pH will not be limited to calcifying organisms. d. Organisms living in freshwater face several difficulties unique to the freshwater environment. For one thing, most bodies of freshwater are ultimately ephemeral, with smaller ponds and lakes being subject to drying up at yearly or even more frequent intervals. Most marine invertebrates are not faced with such a high degree of habitat unreliability. Second, the internal body fluids of freshwater organisms are always higher in osmotic concentration than is the surrounding medium; that is, freshwater organisms are hyperosmotic to their surroundings, and water tends to diffuse inward along the osmotic concentration gradient. Some freshwater animals have reduced surface permeability to water, reducing the magnitude of this inflow. Complete impermeability to water is not possible, however, because respiratory surfaces must remain permeable for gas exchange to occur. Thus, all freshwater animals must be capable of constantly expelling large volumes of incoming freshwater. In contrast, marine invertebrates are approximately in osmotic equilibrium with the medium in which they live; that is, the concentration of solutes in their body fluids matches that of the surrounding seawater. 3. Discuss the reproduction methods of protozoans. Are there species that are asexual? Is there a benefit to this mode of reproduction? Why or why not? a. As singlecelled organisms, protozoans necessarily lack gonads. Although sexual reproduction occurs in most groups, asexual reproduction is also common among all groups of protozoans and is the only form of reproduction reported for many species. Asexual reproduction does not generate new genotypes. Protozoans reproduce asexually through fission, a controlled mitotic replication of chromosomes and splitting of the parent into two or more parts. Asexual reproduction among protozoans has long been exploited by biologists as a general model for studies of mitosis. Binary fission occurs when the protozoan splits into two individuals. In multiple fission, many nuclear divisions precede the rapid differentiation of the cytoplasm into many distinct individuals. In budding, a portion of the parent breaks off and differentiates to form a new, complete individual. In some multinucleate species, the parent simply divides in two in the absence of any mitotic division, the original nuclei being distributed between the two daughter cells. This process is termed plasmotomy. In keeping with the widespread occurrence of asexual reproductive capabilities, many protozoans possess a great capacity for regeneration. One example of this capacity is the phenomenon of encystment and excystment exhibited by many freshwater and parasitic species. During encystment, the organism dedifferentiates substantially. b. Pechenik JA 2005. Biology of the invertebrates. McGrawHill, Higher Education, Boston. 4. Select 1 class of the phylum Cnidaria. What are the characteristics of this class? What are the differences in these organisms structures and functions? Do these cnidarians live in all locations? Why or why not? a. Cubozoa b. The cubozoa, also known as the Box Jellyfish, is one of the most venomous of the cniderians. It has a medusoid body type, which means that it's bell is up top and the tentacles are on the bottom, and it is radially symmetrical (body parts are arranged around a central point). Like most other cniderians, the box jellyfish's body consists of two living cell layers, the epidermis and the gastrodermis, with a mesoglea (gelatinlike substance) in between. It has only one hole into the digestive cavity, and has lots of stinging cells (cnidae) on it's tentacles. One thing the box jellyfish has that is different than other cniderians is it's shape. While most jellyfish have a rounded bell shape, the box jellyfish's body is shaped like a cube. On 4 sides of that cubelike body are clusters of 6 eyes that help it find its prey. Cniderians can live anywhere in the water, whether the temerature is polar, temperate, or tropical, and they can live in shallow or deep waters. Cubozoa tend to live in shallow, temperate waters and are typically found in the indiopacific ocean off the coasts of Papa New Guinea, Vietnam, the Phillipines, and Australia. Shallow waters support cubozoan reproduction, which is spawning. 5. Molluscs have been used as environmental indicators to determine changes in particular ecosystems. How are molluscs used in this way? Why is this an important tool for biologists? a. According to McDonough, Jaffe, Watzin, & McGinley (2012), An indicator species is an organism whose presence, absence or abundance reflects a specific environmental condition. Indicator species signal changes of biological conditions of certain ecosystems, which provides health conditions of ecosystems. More than one indicator is required to get reliable data. Indicator species contribute as: Management tools, delineation of an ecoregion, indicate status of an environmental condition, find disease outbreaks, monitor pollution, and monitoring climate change (McDonough et al., 2012). Molluscs (snails and bivalves) are often used as bioindicators of organic and inorganic contaminants. "Two important advantages of snails and bivalves over most other freshwater organisms for biomonitoring research are their large size and limited mobility...they are abundant in many types of freshwater environments and are relatively easy to collect and identify" (Elder & Collins, n.d.). Biomonitoring studies have shown that bioaccumulation and toxicity are dependent on situations, meaning that it is hard to estimate or conclude results from one study to other situations. This is due to individual characteristics that would have different responses to certain contaminants that could have many controlling factors (Elder & Collins, n.d.). Using molluscs is still useful in the management of ecosystems due to their uptake and depuration, though adults will have less sensitivity to metal effects than juvenile or larva. b. Elder, J. F. & Collins, J. J. (n.d.). Freshwater molluscs as indicators of bioavailability and toxicity of metals in surfacewater systems. PubMed. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1771274 c. McDonough, C., Jaffe, D., Watzin, M., & McGinley, M. (2012). Indicator species. Encylopedia of Earth (EOL). Retrieved from http://eol.org/info/465 6. It is believed that these organisms have been around for many, many years and have carried with them to modern day many evolutionary trends. Can you comment on any of the characteristics that have changed or stayed the same for the Ctenophores? a. According to Weisberger (2015), fossils resembling jellyfishlike creatures suggest the existence of gelatinous animals had protective hard, spiny skeletons and no tentacles (looking more like Christmas ornaments). Six fossils of comb jellies from 520 mya (Cambrian Period) were discovered in southwestern China. The fossils had distinctive comb jelly features, including hair like cilia. They also had plated girdles, that were supported by spokes and protected by "robust" spines.Just as the skeletons were surprising, so was the fact that there were no tentacles, though not all Ctenophores have tentacles today lobate ctenophores. This suggests that the ancient Ctenophores consumed their food by surrounding their prey with fleshy lobes and eventually crowding the prey to the Ctenophores mouth (Weisberger, 2015). b. Weisberger, M. (2015). Ancient jellies had spiny skeletons, no tentacles. Live Science. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/51515ancientcombjellieshad skeletons.html 7. If mesozoans are possible flatworm relatives, why are they classified in a separate group? a. The mesozoans are classified in a separate group than platyhelminthes (flatworms) because it is not clear if they are basal metazoans or not. At one time they were classified as a phylum, but then were considered to be polyphyletic (consisting of two groups that were not related). The mesozoan classification is an informal taxon, though it is believed that some mesozoans are protistans instead of animals. "Mesozoa were once thought to be evolutionary intermediate forms between Protozoans and Metazoans, but now they are thought to be degenerate or simplified metazoan" (Revolvy, n.d.), It is also believed by others that mesozoa is related to a group that includes annelids, planarians, and nemerteans. "Most biologists are in agreement that these minuscule animals are primitive or simplified Plathyelminthes, although some biologists consider that mesozoans are a phase in the course of the evolution from protozoan to metazoan. Some zoologists claim that mesozoans are descendants of ciliated protozoan" (Nahle, 2004). b. Nahle, N. (2004). Mesozoa. Biology Cabinet. Retrieved from http://www.biocab.org/Mesozoa.html c. Revolvy. (n.d.). Mesozoa. Retrieved from http://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php? s=Mesozoa&item_type=topic&overlay=1 8. What characteristics do Mesozoans have in common with flatworms? What are the distinguishing characteristics that set them apart? a. Similarly to some classes of flatworms, mesozoans parasite other animals and contain ciliation on the outside of their body at some stages of life. Like cestodes, they lack a digestive tract, mouth, circulatory, nervous and sensory systems. However they differ in reproduction, mesozoans reproduce intracellularly, meaning they develop within other cells. b. Pechenik, J. A. (2015). Biology of the invertebrates (7th ed.). New York: McGrawHill, Higher Education 9. What are the risks of eating undercooked beef, pork, or fish? Provide specific examples and the mechanism for certain organisms. a. Some of the risks for eating undercooked meat is the possible food poisoning a person can experience due to the consumption of internal parasites that are hidden in the undercooked meat. Several internal parasites such as e.coli, and Trichinella can be hidden in uncooked meat products such as beef, pork and poultry. If a person consumes these parasites they can be very sick due the biology of these internal parasites. The worms such as Trichinella are often hidden in the meat in a hard cyst and when the stomach acid of person breaks down the meat, the cyst can pop and can release worms into the persons digestive tract. The worms can pass into the small intestine, reproduce and then the eggs can be spread throughout the body through means of the circulatory system. Typically young worms will end up in different muscles of the body causing disruptions in normal bodily functions. 10. Determine one symbiotic relationship among the groups Crustacea, Insecta, and Arachnida. What is the lifestyle of these organisms like? a. One symbiotic relationship among the arthropods is that "many species serve as carriers of bacterial and viral diseases, as intermediate hosts for protozoan and helminth parasites, and as parasites themselves" (Encyclopedia, 2002). Insect carry diseases (malaria, typhus, and plague) with mosquitoes the worst for carrying disease and parasites. While mosquitoes suck blood from their hosts to feed their young, they pass on infected saliva directly into the bloodstream. "Among these diseases are malaria, yellow fever, filariasis, elephantiasis, and heartworm" (Encyclopedia, 2002). Flies also transmit diseases while biting to get blood from humans and animals. These include black flies (Onchocerciasis disease), sand flies (leishmaniasis and kalaazar), tsetse flies (trypanosomes and sleeping sickness), and parasitic flies such as, botflies and warbles that feed upon the skin, throats, nasal passages, and stomachs of horses and cows. Fleas and lice are parasitic insects for humans and livestock. Lice live in the hair areas and feed on blood. Some are carriers of typhus fever. Fleas feed on animals but can feed on humans. Fleas carry plague. Arachnids are also parasitic. Mites infest both plants and animals. Chiggers live in grass and grab onto passing animals as larvae, they attach to the skin, causing rashes and bites. Scabies (mites) cause mange after burrowing into the skin, where it produces scabs, lesions and hair loss. Ticks live in grass and short shrubs. Adult females attach to a host for blood where they can transfer diseases (Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colorado tick fever, and Lyme disease). b. Encyclopedia. (2002). Parasites. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Parasites.aspx 11. What is chemical communication among arthropods? Discuss the significance of this adaptation and the mechanism in which this occurs. a. According to North Carolina State University [NCSU] (2006), insects rely on chemical signals (semiochemicals or infochemicals) more than any other type of communication. Semiochemicals contain two groups based on the sender and the receiver: Pheromones carry information between the same species (sex attractants, trail making compounds, alarm substances, and other intraspecific messages). Allelochemicals travel between different species (repellents, compounds for location of suitable host plants, and other substances for regulating interspecific behaviors (NCSU, 2006). Allelochemicals are also split into three groups based on benefiters: Allomones benefit senders (repellent and defensive compounds), Kairomones benefit receivers (host finding odors), and Synomones benefit both (plants attracting pollinators)."Insects use their sense of taste or smell to detect the presence of semiochemicals" (NCSU, 2006). Special receptors are usually on the feet, antennae, palps, and ovipositor. The sense of smell detects airborne semiochemicals. The sense of taste detects contact chemoreception.Advantages of chemical communication is that it is not limited by environmental barriers, effective over distances and around corners, effective either day or night, longer lasting than visual or auditory signals, metabolically inexpensive because only small quantities are needed (NCSU, 2006).Disadvantages of chemical communications is low information content (presence and absence), and not effective in an upwind direction (NCSU, 2006). b. North Carolina State University. (2006). Chemical communication. General Entomology. Retrieved from https://projects.ncsu.edu/cals/course/ent425/tutorial/Communication/chemcom m.html
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