GEOL 1302, Exam 1 Study Guide Update
GEOL 1302, Exam 1 Study Guide Update GEOL 1302
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Theresa Nguyen on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 1302 at University of Houston taught by yunsoo choi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Intro To Global Climate Change in Geology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
The 1st exam of GEOL1302: Introduction to Climate Change Note: on the “Please choose incorrect description,” the following sentences were incomplete so the rest written in bold are the correct answers to the correct description out of the book. 1. Please choose incorrect description. (a) Climate is defined as the slowly varying aspects of the atmosphere- hydrosphere-land surface system. (b) Weather is what you get; climate is what you expect. (c) Weather refers to the actual state of the atmosphere at a particular time. (d) Climate is a statistical description of the weather over a period of time, usually a few decades. 2. Please choose incorrect description. (a) Weather is important for making short-term decisions. (b) Climate is more important for long-term decisions. (c) The climate change that is most familiar is the seasonal cycle: the progression of seasons from summer to fall to winter to spring and back to summer. (d) The tropics are conventionally defined as the region from 30 degrees N to 30 degrees S, and this region covers half the surface area of the planet. 3. Please choose incorrect description. (a) Latitude gives the north-south location of an object, but to uniquely identify a spot on the Earth you also need to know the east-west location. (b) Longitude is the angle in the east or west direction, from the prime meridian, a line that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole through Greenwich, England, and is arbitrarily defined to be 0 degrees longitude. (c) Conversion from Fahrenheit can be done with this equation: C = (F – 32) x 5/9. (d) Mid-latitudes cover the region from 30 degrees to 60 degrees latitude; and the polar regions cover from 60 degrees to 90 degrees latitude. 4. Convert the following temperatures from degree Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius: 300, 70, 32◦F. (a) (b) (c) (d) C = (F – 32) x 5/9 C = (32 – 32) x 5/9 C = 0 x 5/9 C = 0/9 C = 0 degrees C 5. Convert the following temperatures from degrees Celsius to degree Fahrenheit: 150, 700, 0◦C. (a) (b) (c) (d) F = C x 9/5 + 32 F = 0 x 9/5 + 32 F = 0 + 32 F = 32 degrees F 6. The temperature increases by 1◦C. How much does it increase in degrees Fahrenheit? (a) (b) (c) (d) C = (F – 32) x 5/9 1 = (F – 32) x 5/9 1 + 160/9 = 9/9 + 160/9 = 169/9 1 = 5/9F – 160/9 169/9 = 5/9F 169/9 x 9/5 = 1521/45 = 169/5 or 33.8 169/5 degrees F = F 7. The temperature increases by 1◦F. How much does it increase in degree Celsius? (a) (b) (c) (d) F = C x 9/5 + 32 -31 x 5/9 = -155/9 or -17.22222222 1 = C x 9/5 + 32 -31 = 9/5C -155/9 degrees C = C 8. What temperature has a numerical value that is the same in degree Celsius as it is in degree Fahrenheit? (a) (b) (c) (d) Degrees F = Degrees C: -40 = -40 C = (F – 32) x 5/9 X = (X – 32) x 5/9 X = 5/9X – 160/9 X – 5/9X = -160/9 X – 5/9X = 9/9X – 5/9X = 4/9X 4/9X = -160/9 -160/9 x 9/4 = -1440/36 = -40 X = -40 F = (C x 9/5) + 32 X = (X x 9/5) + 32 X – (X x 9/5) = 32 X – 9/5X = 32 X – 9/5X = 5/5X – 9/5X = -4/5X -4/5X = 32 32 x -5/4 = 160/4 = -40 X = -40 9. Please choose the incorrect description. (a) Temperature anomalies are defined as the difference between the actual temperature and a reference temperature. (b) The reference temperature is usually an average over a previous multi-decadal period. (c) Absolute temperature can vary sharply over short distances. (d) During El Nino events, the Earth warms the ice. 10. Please choose the incorrect description. (a) Glaciers form in cold regions when snow that falls during the winter does not melt during the subsequent summer. (b) Decreases in precipitation or decreases in cloudiness can also cause glaciers to recede. (c) At the cold temperature found in polar region, seawater freezes to form a layer of ice floating on top of the ocean, typically a few meters thick. (d) Much of the heat trapped by greenhouse gases doesn’t go into heating the ocean, so we can also look to see if the temperatures of the oceans are increasing. 11. Please choose the incorrect description. (a) Sea-level change is connected to climate change in two ways. First, as grounded ice melts, the melt runs into the ocean, increasing the total amount of water in the ocean and therefore the sea level. Second, like most things, water expands when it warms. (b) A single hot summer, for example, even if it were hotter than any other summer of the past 100 years, might occur in a stable climate. (c) Climate data from tree rings are always available for a fraction of the Earth’s surface. (d) The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is an abrupt, brief period of warming that occurred 55 million years ago or so, at the temporal boundary between the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, in response to a massive release of greenhouse gases. 12. Please choose the incorrect description. (a) Over the past few million years, the Earth has oscillated between ice ages and warmer interglacial periods. (b) Ice ages are about 5-8 ◦C cooler than the interglacials. (c) The Earth is currently in an interglacial. (d) We have many independent measurements to show that all consistent data confirm the warming seen in the surface thermometer data. 13. A global warming advocate tells you that the Earth is now warmer than it has ever been. Is that correct? (a) Yes (b) No 14. Please choose the incorrect description. (a) Energy is the capacity to do work – such as lifting a weight, turning a wheel, or compressing a spring. (b) Energy often moves from one place to another. (c) One watt is equal to one joule per second – that is, 1 W = 1 J/s – so a 60-W light bulb consumes 60 J of energy every second. (d) A typical human consumes approximately 2,000 food calories (equal to 2,000 kcal) per day. 15. Please choose the incorrect description. (a) The internal energy of an object refers to how fast the atoms and molecules in the object are moving. (b) Temperature is a measure of the internal energy of an object and is frequently expressed by physicists in units of Kelvin. (c) Physicists prefer the Kelvin scale because temperature expressed in Kelvin is equal to the temperature in degrees Celsius plus 273.15 (K = C + 273.15). (d) If the temperature doubles from 300K to 600K, then the internal energy of the object also doubles. 16. Please choose the incorrect description. (a) Energy is transported from the Sun to the Earth by what is known as electromagnetic radiation. (b) Radiation is a stream of photons, small discrete packages of energy. (c) Visible and infrared photons cannot go through walls, but radio- frequency photons can. (d) The human eyes can detect visible photons, but not infrared or microwave photons. 17. Please choose the incorrect description. (a) You are emitting photons, as are the walls of the room you’re sitting in, your desk, your dog, this book. (b) Photons emitted by the room temperature object exclusively have μ wavelengths greater than 4 m or so. (c) The Wien’s displacement law shows that a simple relation between the temperature of an object and the peak of the object’s emission spectrum. (d) Wien’s displacement law tells us that, as an object heats up, the peak of its emission spectrum moves to shorter wavelengths; in other words, λ max becomes smaller. 18. Please choose the incorrect description. (a) One way for a light bulb to produce a higher fraction of visible photons is to run the filament at a higher temperature. (b) To further increase the filament temperature, the nitrogen and argon found in most incandescent bulbs. (c) A better way to obtain high efficiency lightning is to change the technology. (d) If the energy received by an object by absorbing photons exceed by another object, then the object’s internal energy increases – and it warms up. 19. The temperature of an object goes up by 1K. How much did it go up in degrees Fahrenheit and how much in degree Celsius? (a) (b) (c) (d) 1K = 1C, thus it went up 1 degree in Celsius 1K=1.8F, so it went 1.8 degree in Fahrenheit 20. A sphere with a radius of 1m has a temperature of 100◦C. How much power is it radiating? (use this equation, 4πr2T4, 5.67x10-8 W/m2/K4). (a) (b) (c) (d) 4 −8 2 4 P/a = σT σ = 5.67 x 10 (W/ m )/ K 2 a = 4 πr K = C + 273.15 W=σ K 4 x 4 πr 2 K = 100 + 273.15 K = 373.15 K 2 2 4 π(1) =4πm −8 4 5.67 x 10 (373.15) = 1099 W/ m2 m 2 4πm 2 π 1099 W/ x = 4396 W 21. How much total energy (in watts) is the Sun radiating? It is a 6,000 K blackbody with a radius of 700,000km. (a) (b) (c) (d) 4 σ −8 2 4 P/a = σT = 5.67 x 10 (W/ m )/ K 2 a = 4 πr T = 6,000 K = 6 x 10^3 K r = 700,000 km = 7 x 10^5 km = 7 x 10^8 m σT 4 P = a 1km = 1,000m 2 4 P = 4 πr σT 700,000 km x 1,000m/1km = 700,000,000 P = 4 π (7 x 10^8)^2(5.67 x 10^-8)(6 x 10^3)^4 = 7 x 10^8 m π P = 4 (49 x 10^16)(5.67 x 10^-8)(1296 x 10^12) P = (4 x 49 x 1296x5.67) π x 10^20 P = 4.525 x 10^26 Watts 22. As the filament cools, the blackbody spectrum shifts to longer wavelengths – i.e., to the red. Thus, as the bulb dims, it gets a reddish tint to it. (a) (b) The hot wire filament inside an incandescent bulb emits visible light as part of its thermal radiation. While most of the electromagnetic waves that transfer heat between objects are invisible, our eyes are sensitive to a narrow range of waves that we call visible light. Any object that is hotter than about 400 C emits enough visible light for as to see it in a dark room. At higher temperatures, that visible light brightens and shifts in color from red to orange to yellow to white 23. If you run a 60-W light bulb for one week, how many joules of energy have been consumed? (a) (b) (c) (d) 60 W x 60 sec/min x 60 min/her x 24 hrs/day x 7 days/week x 2 weeks = 72,576,000 J 24. The sun as a blackbody: The Sun is a 6,000-K blackbody. At what characteristic wavelength does it radiate? (a) (b) (c) (d) 0.5 μ m 25. Heat capacity is the amount of energy it takes to warm up an object by 1K. The heat capacity of water is 4.18 J/g/K; in other words, if you add 4.18 J to 1 g of water, the water will warm by 1K. Imagine you have a cup containing 200g of water that is absorbing 150W of power. At what rate is water warming? (answer is degrees K per second). (a) (b) (c) (d) ENERGY = MASS X HEAT CAPACITY X TEMPERTURE CHANGE Q = mc ΔT Q = 150 W = 150 J/s 150 J/s = 200g x 4.18 J/g/K x ΔT ΔT = 150 J/s/(200g x 4.18J/g/K) = 0.179 K/s 26. (from question 25) If the cup starts at room temperature, how long would you have to heat it to reach boiling? (a) (b) (c) (d) 4.18 J J = W x s 1 = 200 836 J = 150 J/s x s 200(4.18) = J 836 = 150s 836 J = J s = 5.6 sec
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