FOWS 5270 Exam 1 Study Guide
FOWS 5270 Exam 1 Study Guide FOWS 5270
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hanna Fowler on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FOWS 5270 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shepard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Natural Resource Policy in Forestry and Wildlife Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/13/16
FOWS Exam 1 Study Guide Tragedy of the Commons Paper in response to overpopulation boom from 1875-1960 Minimum essential elements o Demand > supply o Open to everyone o Free of charge o Each person is incentivized to maximize their use of the commons without regard to the conditions of the commons 1968: world population growth rate highest in human history o Growth: trend in number of individuals in world o Rate of growth has been declining since 1970 when we passed the point of inflection Point of inflection: when a curve begins to increase at a decreasing rate. The rate of growth begins to shrink. Reproductive rates are declining due to: o Education of women, contraceptives, and economic development o 2.1 births per woman maintains stable population Public Trust Doctrine States that “certain natural resources cannot be subject to private ownership and must be held in trust for the people of a State (or US state) by the government. Governments must manage trust resources for the exclusive benefit of their citizens, both current and future, and if they fail to do so, citizens can seek remedy in the courts.” Sustainable use of common-pool resources Basis for environmental policy in many countries Ecological expansion of the PTD: o Public lands: both federal and state o Pollution laws o Sky Trust: use all revenues generated from air travel/use and create a trust from which all citizens receive dividends. o Federal statutes National environmental policy act Clean water act CERCLA: superfund trust Ecological evolution of PTD: o State regulation of hunting and fishing o Land can be privately owned, but can’t own the fish and wildlife within the land o Operations concerning high fences cannot be reconciled with PTD Breach of the PTD: o Corruption in federal deepwater oil rigs Applied to public Waters o Who owns the water? o Varies state to state o Water use is regulated with mixture of common law and statutory law o Riparian Doctrine: Used by eastern states Whomever owns the land adjacent to a water body has right to use the water, including withdrawals o Doctrine of Prior Appropriation: Used by western states Designates prioritized use among users st Given to 1 person to settle land Rights can be bought and sold o U.S. Territorial Zone: 12 miles o Exclusive economic zone: 200nm from territorial o Contiguous zone: 12-24nm Policy Creation Policy: sets out goals and outlines future activities. Only an idea. Not enforceable. Laws: legally enforceable. Designed to achieve policy goals. Synonymous with statute. Regulations: derived from laws and are more detailed Anderson’s Model of the Policy Process 1. Problem formulation: issue perceived and demand made for action. 2. Placed on Agenda: difficult to achieve 3. Policy formulation: acceptable course of action developed to deal with issue 4. Policy Adoption: policy selected to address problem 5. Policy Implementation: implemented by appropriate person or group 6. Policy Evaluation: formal or informal determination of effectiveness The Gatekeeper: decides/deems issues important enough to proceed to next step in policy process. Types of Issue Creation o Initiated by those who feel that some aspect of current policy is unfavorably biased against their interests Ex: private landowners and endangered species act Bag or catch limits for game and fish o Initiated by those seeking to exploit the issue for their own gain Subsidies for agricultural crops Financial regulations to benefit wall street firms Creation of issue to justify agency existence and budget increase Private groups can actually write legislation o Issues may be triggered by unanticipated events o May be initiated by those who do not stand to benefit directly, but believe they are acting in the public interest Ex: environmental advocacy groups Issue Expansion o Define the issue in way that makes it clear individuals/groups are threatened o Involve popular people as spokesperson o Involve allied groups o E-messages Can be good or bad Large numbers Can influence business decisions But government policy makers tend to ignore o Money assures your access to policy makers No limit to how much you can give Public Choice Theory Applies theories and methods of economics to the analysis of political behavior Treats voters, politicians, bureaucrats as rational and applies economic thinking to explain their behavior o Politicians: seek to get elected, maximize benefit, and satisfy constituents o Bureaucrats: seek to maximize budgets, not efficiency o Citizens: seek to maximize benefit for tax dollar Cost-benefit analysis o Determines whether or not you will vote o P*B+D-C > 0 o P: probability your vote will affect outcome of election o B: benefit you receive from your preferred candidate compared to the other o D: personal satisfaction of participation in election o C: cost of voting Voter alienation: may occur because of positive or negative apathy Median Voter Theorem: o Voter preferences fall on continuum between far left and right about an issue and are distributed in a bell curve o Political parties have incentive to fall towards middle because that is where majority of voter preference lies o Candidates with extreme positions may never win o Implications: Little difference between political parties Shows superiority of two-party system for providing continuity in politics
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