New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

EXam 1 study guide

by: Lyric Jamerson

EXam 1 study guide CHEM 113

Lyric Jamerson

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

It is a bunch of things you should possibly know for the exam. it has information not necessarily regarding how to solve for things but mostly what things are.
General Chemistry II
Carlos Olivo-Delgado
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in General Chemistry II

Popular in Chemistry

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lyric Jamerson on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 113 at Colorado State University taught by Carlos Olivo-Delgado in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at Colorado State University.

Similar to CHEM 113 at CSU

Popular in Chemistry


Reviews for EXam 1 study guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/13/16
EXAM 1 Study Guide Monday, September 12, 2016 9:29 PM 1. Chemical Spontaneity a. refers to the measure of whether a reaction it will go naturally on its own or will require an energy input; determined by the calculation of the change in the Gibbs free energy ΔG of the reaction. b. Driving forces that contribute to spontaneity: i. The system experiences and increase in entropy: ΔS rxn> 0 ii. The process is exothermic: ΔH rxn< 0 a. energy (G) relates enthalpy, entropy, and temperature for a process: i. G =oH- TS or ΔG =oΔH- TΔS o ii. ΔG rxn ∑n prod. react. f.react. 2. Four laws of Thermodynamics a. Zeroth law of thermodynamics – If two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. b. First law of thermodynamics – Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It can only change forms. In any process, the total energy of the universe remains the same. For a thermodynamic cycle the net heat supplied to the system equals the net work done by the system. c. Second law of thermodynamics – The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium. d. Third law of thermodynamics – As temperature approaches absolute zero, the entropy of a system approaches a constant minimum. 3. Macro and Microstates a. The more particles, the more possibilities of microstates b. The macro states tells where the particles can be while the microstates tell which particles could possibly be in which part of the container c. The more spread out they are, the more entropy d. The less spread out the particles are or the more close together in one or two microstates, the more order it has and less entropy. d. Entropy physical and chemical processes a. If a system has less order, it has more entropy and it is the opposite with more order b. In a chemical process, if entropy is negative, it has more entropy and if it is positive it has less entropy c. If a process has more entropy, it can have more microstates and a molecule that has more atoms can have a bigger molecular structure and also more entropy d. The less uniform, the more entropy e. third law of thermodynamics = a law which states that the entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero is exactly equal to zero 6. Predict the relative entropies of substances based on their molecular structures a. The more atoms a molecule has, it has a greater molecular structure and a greater entropy b. The more complex a molecular structure the more entropy 2. Identify the system, surroundings, and universe for a chemical reaction or physical change a. The system is the part of the chemical process we want to examine b. The surroundings is what is the other components of the system c. And the universe is the system plus the surroundings as the energy in the universe is constant 8. Relate the change in enthalpy of a reaction to the change in entropy of the surroundings a. The change in entropy of the surroundings is effected by the energy leaving the system and going into the surroundings b. As the energy leaves the system, causing it to become more ordered, the enthalpy increases c. The reverse is exactly opposite 2. Calculate entropy changes in chemical reactions using standard molar entropies a. Standard molar entropies are the entropies at standard conditions b. If the temperature is different or we use a different value of Gibbs free energy, it can affect the entropy of the system or surroundings. 10. Determine the spontaneity of a reaction from the sign of the Gibbs energy a. If gives free energy is negative, the reaction is spontaneous if Delta G is positive, the reaction is nonspontaneous 11. Calculate free-energy changes in chemical reactions from the changes in enthalpy and entropy for the reactions a. If entropy is negative and enthalpy is negative than Gibbs will most likely be negative and be spontaneous b. Of entropy is positive and enthalpy is negative, gibbs could be spontaneous or nonspontaneous c. If the problem is at equilibrium, then gibbs free energy is zero 2. Calculate standard free-energy changes in chemical reactions using the appropriate standard free energy of formation values a. Sometimes you have to use the free energy given or the energy that is in the charts. It is good to know which and when to use them. 13. Predict the spontaneity of a chemical reaction as a function of temperature a. For chemical reactions where the free energy of the reactants is much greater than the free energy of the products (DG ' < 0), the reaction proceeds spontaneously and the net result is a oarge ratio of product to reactant (large Keq. For reactions where G ' > 0, very little of the reactant may be converted to product without the input of additional energy into the system. 2. Calculate the net change in free energy of coupled spontaneous and nonspontaneous reactions In thermodynamics, free energy coupling refers to the rule that the free energy changes of coupled reactions are additive. Specifically, given a set of reactions, i through k, typically occurring under isothermal-isobaric (biological) conditions, the total Gibbs free energy change, for the mixture of reactions will be the summation of the free energies of the component reactions: G = U + PV – TS In other words, the energy released from one reaction(spontaneous ones) will, in effect, drive other reactions which are not energetically favored (non-spontaneous ones). 15. Define Gibbs energy and explain its relationship to work a. The Gibbs free energy is the maximum amount of non-expansion work that can be extracted from a closed system. b. When a system changes from a well-defined initial state to a well-defined final state, the Gibbs free energy, ΔG, equals the work done/exchanged by the system with its surroundings, minus the work of the pressure forces. 16. Predict the spontaneity of a chemical reaction from the signs of the changes of enthalpy and entropy ∆  S positiv∆, H  Spontaneous at all temperatures negative Spontaneous at high temperatures  ∆  S positiv∆,H  positive (importance of exothermic process) ∆  S negative∆  H  Spontaneous at low temperatures  (dominance of exothermic process) negative ∆  S negative∆  H  Process not spontaneous at any  positive temperature (reverse process is  spontaneous at all temperatures) 17. Relate change in Gibbs energy to equilibrium a. When a process is at equilibrium, Gibbs free energy is zero 2. Calculate the temperature at which a non-spontaneous becomes spontaneous (or vice versa) a. Some reactions will need higher heat to be spontaneous while other reactions will stop being spontaneous when they are at a low temperature b. The same is true for the opposite 2. Determine the rate of a reaction from the change in concentration of a reactant or product over time a. The rate of the reaction will always be positive b. If you use the reactions, then you start with the negative in front of the change c. If you use the products, you use no negative sign d. Also, put the coefficients in a fraction 2. Use the stoichiometry of a balanced reaction to relate the relative rates at which the concentrations of reactants and products changes as the reaction proceeds a. As the reaction goes on, the reactants decrease b. While the rate of the products increase 2. Use the relative rates at which concentrations of products and reactants change to determine rates of the appearance of products or disappearance of reactants a. As the reactants disappear, the products appear b. So as the reactants are decreasing, the products are increasing 2. Understand why the overall rate of a reaction is positive, but the change in concentration of a reactant has a negative value while change in product concentration has a positive value a. The reactions has a negative value because it is disappearing while the product has a positive value as it is appearing b. the overall rate has a positive because the negative converts into a positive 23. Understand the difference between average and instantaneous reaction rates a. Average is using all the data and finding the overall rate b. However, the instantaneous rate is data taken from a moment in time during the reaction 24. Understand why the instantaneous rate generally decreases over the course of a reaction a. The instantaneous generally decreases because even as product is appearing an increasing, the reactants are disappearing and decreasing b. Reaction rates are usually expressed as the concentration of reactant consumed or the concentration of product formed per unit time. 2. Calculate the average rate of a reaction over a specific time period, given concentration data a. To calculate the average rate at a specific time period


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.