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Exam 2 Notes

by: Crysta Meekins

Exam 2 Notes 209

Crysta Meekins

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Everything for the midterm -musculoskeletal system
Prin Human Anatomy
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Crysta Meekins on Tuesday September 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 209 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr.Hatcher in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Prin Human Anatomy in Anatomy at University of Kentucky.


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Date Created: 09/13/16
Musculoskeletal Head The axial skeleton forms the central axis of support for the body and includes the following:  Skull (cranium and facial skeleton)  Hyoid bone  Bones of the rib cage (12 ribs and sternum)  Vertebral column The skull contains several cavities or spaces, including the cranial, nasal, oral, and middle/inner ear cavities, as well as the orbit. The skull has a variety of foramina (opening for a bone) that allow nerves and vasculature to pass through to neighboring regions. The cranium includes the portion of the skull that encases the brain (8 bones total). It consists of the calvaria (skullcap) and the base. Cranial bones include:  Parietal (2)  Frontal  Occipital  Temporal (2)  Ethmoid  Sphenoid Fontanels “little fountain”: an unfused suture in the fetus and infant. These are regions that are connected by fibrous membranes. The calvaria (skullcap) is the top of the skull. The connections between the bones are sutures, which are immobile or slightly mobile joints.  Coronal suture: separates the frontal and parietal bone  Sagittal suture: separates the parietal bone into two parts  Lamboidal suture: separates parietal and occipital bones The cranial fossae are depressions along the base of the cranial cavity that fit the contours of the interior surface of the brain. The occipital bone has a large opening called the foramen magnum. This allows the spinal cord to pass through to the brain where it is continuous with the brainstem. The ethmoid bone forms the medial wall of the orbit, roof and walls of nasal cavity, and nasal septum. The paranasal sinuses are cavities located alongside the nasal cavity. They are named for the bone in which they are located. For example, the maxillary sinuses are paired sinuses located in the maxilla bone. Four paranasal sinuses:  Frontal  Ethmoid  Sphenoid  Maxillary The facial bones are located anterior to the cranium. They provide a framework for the orbit, nasal, and oral cavities and serves as attachment sites for muscles of facial expression. 14 facial bones:  2 maxillary  2 palatine  2 zygomatic  2 lacrimal  2 nasal  2 inferior nasal conchae  1 vomer  1 mandible The hard palate is composed from the palatine processes of the maxillary bones and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones (a total of 4 bones). The mandible houses the lower teeth and is an attachment site for muscles of contraction. Muscles of mastication include the masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid, and lateral pterygoids. These muscles allow us to open and close the jaw as well as produce side-to-side chewing motions during mastication.  Masseter o Elevates the mandible  Temporalis o Elevation and retraction  Medial pterygoid o Elevation  Lateral pterygoid o Protraction ***Cranial nerve V3 (trigeminal) innervates the muscles of mastication The muscles of facial expression originate on the facial skeleton and attach just beneath the skin of the face to produce intricate facial expressions. ***These muscles are innervated by cranial nerve VII, the facial nerve.  Orbicularis oculi  closes the eyes  Orbicularis oris  closes the mouth  Zygomaticus major and minor  elevates the corner of the mouth  Frontalis  raises eyebrows, wrinkles forehead  Levator anguli oris  elevates the corner of the mouth  Depressor anguli oris  depresses the corner of the mouth  Platysma “shaving muscle”  tenses the skin and fascia of neck  Buccinator  keeps food within the oral cavity Neck The hyoid bone is unique in that it is the only bone that does not articulate with another bone. It is the site of attachment for small strap-like muscles in the neck. These muscles are collectively called the suprahyoids and infrahyoids. Muscles of the tongue are innervated by cranial nerve XII, the hypoglossal nerve. Muscles of the throat are called pharyngeal constrictors. These muscles make up the posterior wall of the throat. These muscles are divided into superior, middle, and inferior constrictor muscles. They receive a bolus of food during swallowing and contract to move the food down into the esophagus. Torso The rib cage consists of twelve ribs and the sternum. There are 7 true ribs that connect directly to the sternum via costal cartilage, 3 attach indirectly via the costal cartilage of the seventh rib, and two “floating” ribs. Posteriorly the ribs attach to the vertebrae in the thoracic region of the vertebral column. The sternum, or breastbone consists of the manubrium, body, and xiphoid process. The head of the rib attaches to the body of the thoracic vertebra and the tubercle attaches to the transverse process.  Superior and inferior articular facets attach to the body of the vertebrae  Tubercle attaches to transverse process of vertebrae C7 is very prominent on the back of the neck. Scoliosis *sideways curvature of the spine (lateral) *check for it early in elementary years  All cervical vertebrae have transverse foramina  Lamina and pedicle make up the vertebral arch. The rib attaches to the body of the thoracic vertebra via the head and tubercle. The intercostal muscles are located between each rib and function in respiration. These include the external, internal, and innermost intercostal muscles. The external intercostals are the most superficial of the three groups and have a “hands- in-pocket” orientation. The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. It is innervated by the phrenic nerve formed from C3, C4, C5. There are superficial and deep layers of muscle in the back. The deep muscles of the back include the erector spinae, posterior serratus superior/inferior, and the semispinalis muscles. Upper Limb The appendicular skeleton include the upper and lower limbs and the bones that attach them to the axial skeleton. The pectoral girdle consists of the scapula and clavicle and provides attachment for the head of the humerus at the glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint). The pelvic girdle consists of two coxae, or hip bones, that articulate with the head of the femur at the hip joint. The humerus is the bone of the arm. The head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula to form the glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint). A wide range of motion is enabled at this joint, including flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, medial/lateral rotation, and circumduction. Muscles acting on the scapula Anterior Muscle Action Proximal Distal Attachment Attachment Pectoralis Depresses Coracoid Ribs 3-5 minor process Serratus Protracts anterior Posterior Muscle Action Innervation Proximal Distal Attachment Attachment Rhomboid Retraction Dorsal Medial border Cervical/ major scapular nerve of scapula thoracic spinous processes Rhomboid Retraction Dorsal Medial border Cervical/ minor scapular nerve of scapula thoracic spinous processes Levator elevation Dorsal Medial border Cervical scapulae scapular nerve of scapula transverse processes Trapezius Elevation Cranial nerve Occipital Acromion/spin Protraction XI bone/cervical e of scapula Depression “Accessory & thoracic nerve” spinous processes


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