EXAM 1 Study Guide
EXAM 1 Study Guide EXSC 410 001
Popular in Psychology of Physical Activity
EXSC 410 001
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
80767 - CH 1010 - 001
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by kaylaat on Wednesday September 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EXSC 410 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Xuemei (Mei) Sui in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
Reviews for EXAM 1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/14/16
EXSC 410 – Exam 1 Study Guide Review from Lecture 1: Key Terms: - Physical Activity: any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that increases energy expenditure above basal level o Includes broad range of occupational, leisure-time, and routine daily activities o These activities can be light, moderate, or vigorous effort and can lead to improved health if practiced regularly - Exercise: planned, structured and repetitive movement that is done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness: o Aerobic capacity o Muscular Strength o Muscular Endurance o Flexibility o Body Composition - Exercise Psychology: o Psychology: the mental processes people experience and use in all aspects of their lives o Exercise Science: all aspects of sport, recreation, exercise/fitness, and rehabilitative behavior, so….. Psychology + Exercise Science = Exercise Psychology Exercise Psychology: - What are the two major components? o Motivational factors and barriers to PA Motivational Factors and Barriers to PA/Exercise - Motivation Factors: o Improved health/fitness – I know it’s good for me o Enhanced physical appearance – I want to look good o Improved social relations – I do it to spend time with my friends o Improved psychological/emotional/cognitive health – I do it because it makes me feel good o Some people just love to feel the burn – I like to push myself/compete - Barriers to PA/Exercise: o Convenience/availability o Environmental/ecological factors o Physical limitations o Lack of time o Boredom/lack of enjoyment US federal PA Guidelines - Adults: o Should do at least 150 minutes a week of moderate intensity or 75 min of vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous intensity aerobic activity o Aerobic activity should be preformed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, preferably spread throughout the week o For additional health benefits, adults should increase their aerobic PA to 300 minutes a week of moderate intensity, or 150 minutes of vigorous intensity aerobic activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous intensity activity o Adults should do muscle-strengthening activities that involve all major muscle groups on 2 or more days per week - Older adults: the guidelines for adults also apply to older adults o When older adults cannot do 150 min of moderate intensity aerobic activity because of chronic conditions, they should be as physically active as their abilities and conditions allow o Older adults should do exercises that maintain or improve balance if they are at risk for falling - Children: o Should do 60 minutes or more of PA daily o Aerobic: most of the 60+ minutes a day should be either moderate or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity and should include vigorous-intensity PA at least 3 days a week o Muscle-strengthening: as part o Bone-strengthening: Review for lecture 2: Physical Activity (PA) Epidemiology? - What is it? o PA Epidemiology = the study of the distribution of PA related behavior in a population (newest subdivision of EXSC) Five W’s: Who exercises? Where, when, and why do they do so? What do they do? Four primary goals of PA Epidemiology: Describe the distribution of PA-related behavior (who is active/inactive, when, where) Identify risk factors associated with an increased probability of being active or inactive Investigate the association of PA-related behavior with risk of disease (e.g. CHD, cancer, diabetes) Prevent disease occurrence by modifying PA- related behavior (encourage PA or discourage sedentary behavior or both) Fathers of PA Epi (wasn’t a review question I just added it) o Jeremy “Jerry” Morris (1910 – 2009) Pioneer in studying PA and health o Ralph Paffenbarger (1922 – 2007) An epidemiologist who led an early and long-running health study of Harvard graduates that was influential in promoting PA in preventing heart disease Landmark PA studies o London Busmen Study: (Data collected from 1956 – 1960) o Primary Investigator = Dr. Jerry Morris o One of the first study’s to analyze data on cardiovascular risk and PA o Primary Finding: This landmark Lancet paper reported that bus conductors had fewer heart attacks than sedentary drivers The annual rate of CHD for drivers was 2.7 per 1000 and 1.9 per 1,000 for conductors o Conclusion: the investigators concluded that employees in positions that required high PA had lower rates of coronary heart disease o A subsequent analysis was made on postal workers and telephonists in the British civil service soon after the conclusion of the transport workers study in 1950 - British Civil Servants: o Primary Investigator = Dr. Jerry Morris o Examined occupational PA and cardiovascular risk o Primary Finding: Postmen (more active occupation) had lower risk of ischemic heart disease than telephonists and clerks (less active occupation) o These studies (especially London busmen) sparked the modern era of PA in epi - Harvard Alumni Study: o Primary Investigator = Dr. Ralph Paffenbarger o Examined PA and other lifestyle characteristics in almost 17,000 Harvard alumni – subjects are male who matriculated as undergrads 1916 – 1950 Examined stair climbing, walking, and leisure time sports play o Main outcomes of interest: chronic diseases, especially coronary heart disease, when HAHS was initiated o Primary Finding: Men who expended 2000 or more kcals/week fro had a lower risk of fatal, nonfatal, and total CHD events - Aerobic Center Longitudinal Study: o Largest prospective study (N=80,000 since 1970) independent of weight, fitness associated with lower risk of mortality Established in 1970s by Dr. Cooper Subjects are patients who came to Dr. Cooper Clinic, Dallas, Texas for periodic comprehensive preventive medical examinations Thus this is an OPEN COHORT (always has new enrollees/patients) o Main exposure of interest = cardiorespiratory fitness o Main outcomes of interest = mortality and morbidity o Studies of self-reported physical activity and health yield underestimates of the true effects of activity because of misclassification due to crude and imprecise assessment methods o Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an excellent objective indicator of total physical activity in recent months CRF increases by a predictable amount in controlled exercise studies CRF is strongly associated with detailed activity records o Primary finding = higher levels of fitness are associated with a reduced risk of all cause mortality – the biggest benefit comes from moving from inactive to getting some activity Prevalence of PA in the U.S - BRFSS: (self-report PA) o 48% report meeting PA recommendations o 38% are insufficiently active o 14% are inactive o 24% report no leisure time PA - NHANES (accelerometer PA) o 42% of children meet PA recommendations o 8% of adolescents o < 5% of adults - What could explain this difference? o Over-reporting of PA in self report surveys o Accelerometer not accurately capturing all Physical activity - These limitations again highlight a critical methodological limitation in PA prevalence studies PA trends by gender, age, and education - Age: the prevalence of PA does not improve over the life span. Graphs show that as someone ages there level of PA drops - Gender: although the gap in activity levels has lessened, males have historically been more physically active than females o Gender differences exist not only in activity level but also in the type of activity preformed - Education: In the US, PA rates vary tremendously by education level. Lecture 3 Review Questions: - What is a theory? – An explanation about why a behavior or phenomenon occur - Theory Vs. Model o Model – visual representation of a behavior or phenomenon - Social Cognitive Theory o Behavior is influenced by both human cognitions and external stimuli Human cognitions – expectations, intentions, attitudes & beliefs – play a critical role in people’s capacity to construct reality, self regulate, encode information and preform behaviors External stimuli – social pressures & learned experiences Quiz: what is the difference between expectations & expectancies? o Major constructs – 11 total Reciprocal determinism – dynamic interaction of the person, behavior, and the environment in which the behavior is performed Environment – factors physically external to the person Social environment = social support (or lack of) from family, friends, co-workers, etc. Physical environment = sidewalks, bike paths, etc. Situation – person’s perception of the environment One’s perception of their environment can influence PA behavior Ex: sally: “Columbia is not very PA-friendly- the bike lanes just end” Behavioral capability – refers to a person’s actual ability to preform a behavior through essential knowledge and skills Expectations – what a person anticipates will happen if they are physically active – can be positive or negative Expectancies –Value placed on a given outcome Self control – personal regulation of goal-directed behavior Observational learning – people can learn to preform PA behaviors by watching the behavior and outcomes of another person Reinforcements – key element of the stimulus- response theory Pavlov experiments – pairing a bell with delivery of food, dogs start to salivate where they hear the bell, even if no food is present (classical conditioning) Positive reinforcement = money, praise Negative reinforcement = pain, depression Punishment = injury, embarrassment, undesirable sweating during exercise Extinction = rewards taken away, no longer losing weight with continued exercise, etc. Self-efficacy – person’s confidence in preforming a particular activity, including confidence in overcoming barriers to preforming that behavior “I can do this!” Emotional coping response – strategies or tactics used to deal with emotional stimuli o Self Efficacy Theory: What is self efficacy? – the extent to which the individual feels she will be successful in preforming the desired behavior, given the abilities she possesses and the unique situation she finds herself in The primary mediator of all behavioral change is self-efficacy EX: if someone has a high self efficacy for running a ½ marathon, will they also have high self efficacy for running a full marathon? NO Four sources of self efficacy Past performance – most important form of self efficacy o It is based on the individual’s own personal mastery experience o EX: self efficacy for running may come from previous experience jogging, walking, or biking Vicarious experiences – when modeling comes to play o Involves viewing another individual performing a behavior – the more similar the person is the better/more influential o Ex: if kim kardashian gained 50 pounds with her baby and SHE could lose it may I can to, what those celebrity weight loss ads are targeting Social persuasion o Ex: If you tell me that you can only run 10 min, I can say, come on, you can do better than this! I am sure you can run longer than this Physiological/affective states – affects our self efficacy by causing anxiety and stress o Ex: if I ask you too shoot a basketball from 10 feet away, you might immediately get anxious/nervous about the thought that you have to shoot a basketball. If so, you would likely rate yourself low in SE, than somebody who got excited about shooting a basketball o Past performance is the most important. Think about, I can persuade you to think that you are good at shooting a basketball but if you tried it and don’t do well, you are going to lower you SE based on your actual past performance and most likely to disregard that I told you that you can do it Lecture 4 Review Questions: - Theory of Reasoned Action o What 3 primary constructs influence behavior? In this theory, intention is the central determinant of behavior. Intention is a direct determinant of behavior Attitude: what you think and how you feel about exercise Subjective norm: based on perceptions of others expectations for you and how motivated you are to comply with those expectations - Theory of Planned behavior o How is this theory different from TRA and why was an additional construct added? Intention alone may not be a good predictor of behaviors that are continuing or repeatable due to the fact that such behaviors pose significant challenges/barriers Ajzen extended the Theory of Reasoned Action to better predict continuing or repeatable behaviors Adds the construct of perceived behavior control (PBC) PBC accounts for barriers to exercise PBC is very similar to what construct from SCT? Self efficacy TRA only useful for predicting behavior considered to be under volitional control TPB accounts for one’s perception of control The addition of PBC makes TPB better, but the same limitations as TRA – These limitations are: less useful as a model for directing programs or interventions Doesn’t focus on teaching people the behavioral skills needed to make often complicated behavioral change - Self-determination theory o What are the 3 psychosocial needs? 1. Self-determination (Autonomy) – we have a need to perceive that we have autonomy, that is that we have choices and control over our actions similar to PBC 2. Competence (experience mastery)– we are competent, that is we have a need to perceive that we are good at something similar to SE 3. Relatedness (social interactions) – finally it states that we have a need to perceive that we have relatedness that is that we are connected to others through positive relationships o Describe the different types of motivation: Intrinsic: engaging in behavior for reasons of inherent pleasure, satisfaction, or personal challenge Ex: I exercise because its fun Interventions and approaches that facilitate intrinsic motivation are most likely to produce lasting behavior changes Extrinsic: middle of the road 1. Integrated regulation: process of engaging in a behavior in order to confirm one’s sense of self a. Ex: Amy exercises because she has always considered herself an athlete 2. Identified regulation: when behavior is motivated by personal goals a. Ex: Angela exercises because she wants to lose weight 3. Introjected regulation: when a behavior is dictated by a self-imposed source of pressure a. Ex: Craig exercises because he previously had a stroke and needs to keep his blood pressure in check 4. External regulation: engaging in a behavior for the purpose of obtaining an external reward or avoiding an externally supplied punishment a. Ex: Peter is in a physical activity study.. he exercises to get $$ Amotivation: relative absence of motivation or lack of intention to engage in a behavior Ex: David doesn’t exercise…. Ever Lecture 5 Review Questions: - Trans theoretical model – originally developed based on the study and observation of how people quit smoking – behavior change is challenging and not a quick process - The trans theoretical model is a model of intentional change - It is a model that focuses on the decision making of the individual o Stages of change (central organizing construct of the model) – what are they? 1. Precontemplation: no intention to start exercise in the foreseeable future - Cons > pros - Can be very defensive - Stable stage: people tend to stay here a long time if no intervention 2. Contemplation: intentions to start in next 6 months - Cons = pros - Know exercise is good, they should do it, but not ready to commit 3. Preparation: intend to start exercising in immediate future - Literally preparing to be active - KEY – preparation is where the pros first outweigh cons – Pros > cons 4. Action: exercising at recommended levels for < 6 months Pros > cons Unstable stage – its challenging to maintain a new routine 5. Maintenance: meeting guidelines for 6+ months Pros > cons Less tempted to relapse, more confident they can keep up with their exercise o Processes of change – experiential & behavioral Experimental (cognitive) processes: increase awareness of the benefits of PA Changing individuals feelings and thoughts about themselves and their exercise behavior Five Experimental Processes: o Consciousness raising: increase knowledge about the benefits of PA by posting info around campus o Self-reevaluation: have people consider how they feel about themselves as a “couch potatos” – do they want to maintain that identity? o Environmental reevaluation: look at how YOUR inactivity affects the physical and social environment. If you are concerned about the environment – take your bike instead of a car for short trips o Dramatic relief: being aware of the short and long-term risks of inactivity. The idea is to move people emotionally – personal testimony re. how exercise changed someone’s life o Social liberation: make students aware of opportunities in their daily life on campus Behavioral Processes: behaviors that change aspects of the environment to increase physical activity Five Behavioral Processes o Self-liberation: make you exercise plan known to others; post on FB o Counter conditioning: sub in active activities for inactive ones (walk for tv time) o Stimulus control: hide the TV remote, leaving the running shoes out; put art or music in stairwells to encourage more stair usage o Reinforcement: reward yourself for reaching goals (evidence suggests rewards are more effective then punishment) o Helping relationships: have someone check in on your progress and support you; buddy system o Decisional balance (pros vs. cons) – reflects how people perceive the pros and cons of changing their behavior. We can tell if people are moving through the stages by looking for differences in the number of pros versus cons that they list for exercise o Self efficacy : according to TTM, self efficacy increases as people move through the five stages. Thus can tell whether people are moving through the stages by looking for an increase in their self-efficacy o Strengths/limitations Limitations = most people do not exhibit a stable progression through the stages. Many skip stages or even regress backward through the stages. TTM cannot predict or explain this phenomenon. Human functioning is too complex to be categorized into just a few distinct stages Social ecological models o SCM, TTM emphasize that the individual largely determines PA participation. In contrast, SEM takes the approach that these individual level factors are only one of multiple levels of influence on behavior o SEM recognizes that individuals bear responsibility for enganging in healthful behaviors, but the models also recognize other levels of influence on health behavior, including…. Social ecological rather than social cognitive Bronfrenbrenner’s ecosystems – each person is significantly affected by interactions among a number of overlapping ecosystems o Individual: center of model o Microsystem: immediate systems in which people interact o Mesosystem: interactions between microsystems Parents (home microsystem) and PE teachers (school microsystem) coordinate efforts to increase a child’s PA o Exosystem: all external systems that influence microsystems School board influences what physical activity takes place in the microsystem of a PE classroom o Macrosystem: describes culture in which people live o Chronosystem: environmental events and transitions, includes sociohistorical events Divorce are one transition, sociohistorical event = living through the civil rights movement Major difference from other models? Strengths/limitations o Strengths = recognize multiple levels of influence on PA Looks at big picture, can be applied to multiple views o Limitations = feasibility? Cost Long time, bug $$$ Lecture 6 Review Questions: - Potential Mechanisms between Social Support and Mortality/Morbidity o Behavioral Processes: social relationships linked to better health practices o Psychological processes: social relationships associated with lower states of stress and depression o Biological Processes: improved CV function, improved immune function, improved neuroendocrine function - Measuring Social Support o Size of social network = the number of social relationships one has Major limitation = does not account for quality or type of support provided o Amount and types of social support Instrumental support: providing tangible, practical assistance that will help a person achieve exercise goals Ex: baby-sit so a friend can exercise Emotional support: expression of encouragement, caring, empathy, and concern toward a person Ex: praising a friend for her exercise efforts Informational support: giving directions, advice, or suggestions about how to exercise and providing feedback regarding the exerciser’s progress Companionship support: the availability of people with whom one can exercise, such as a friend, family member, or exercise group Validation support: comparing oneself with others in order to gauge progress and to confirm that one’s thought, feelings, problems, and experiences are “normal” - Sources of social support
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'